Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Bera Bera RT
Bera Bera Rugby Taldea is a Spanish rugby union club. The club was established in 1983 and competes in the División de Honor B de Rugby competition, the second-level of Spanish club rugby; the club are based in Donostia-San Sebastian. Bera Bera play in orange. Copa del Rey: 1 Champions: 2003–04 Supercopa de España: 0 Runners-up: 2004 12 seasons in División de Honor Pedro J Dávila Iker Lopategi David Hernández Oskar Astarloa Igor Mirones Gorka Bueno Pablo Feijoo Javier Arbelaiz plays the Challenge Cup with Olympus Madrid James Foster signs from Tasman Daniel Larrechea sings from Aviron Bayonnais, former player from Sale Sharks, international France A. Tama Makamaka international All-Blacks U20 Bruno Hiriart signs from US Dax Official website Spanish Rugby website
Andalusia is an autonomous community in southern Spain. It is the most populous, the second largest autonomous community in the country; the Andalusian autonomous community is recognised as a "historical nationality". The territory is divided into eight provinces: Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga and Seville, its capital is the city of Seville. Andalusia is located in the south of the Iberian peninsula, in south-western Europe south of the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha. Andalusia is the only European region with both Atlantic coastlines; the small British overseas territory of Gibraltar shares a three-quarter-mile land border with the Andalusian province of Cádiz at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena and the Baetic System, consisting of the Subbaetic and Penibaetic Mountains, separated by the Intrabaetic Basin. In the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spain's Meseta Central.
To the south the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia lies within the Baetic System, while Lower Andalusia is in the Baetic Depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir. The name "Andalusia" is derived from the Arabic word Al-Andalus; the toponym al-Andalus is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted in 716 by the new Muslim government of Iberia. These coins, called dinars, were inscribed in both Arabic; the etymology of the name "al-Andalus" has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals. Halm in 1989 derived the name from a Gothic term, *landahlauts, in 2002, Bossong suggested its derivation from a pre-Roman substrate; the region's history and culture have been influenced by the native Iberians, Carthaginians, Romans, Visigoths, Jews, Muslim Moors and the Castilian and other Christian North Iberian nationalities who reconquered and settled the area in the latter phases of the Reconquista. Andalusia has been a agricultural region, compared to the rest of Spain and the rest of Europe.
However, the growth of the community in the sectors of industry and services was above average in Spain and higher than many communities in the Eurozone. The region has a strong identity. Many cultural phenomena that are seen internationally as distinctively Spanish are or Andalusian in origin; these include flamenco and, to a lesser extent and Hispano-Moorish architectural styles, both of which are prevalent in other regions of Spain. Andalusia's hinterland is the hottest area of Europe, with cities like Córdoba and Seville averaging above 36 °C in summer high temperatures. Late evening temperatures can sometimes stay around 35 °C until close to midnight, with daytime highs of over 40 °C common. Seville has the highest average annual temperature in mainland Spain and mainland Europe followed by Almería, its present form is derived from the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia, "Al-Andalus". However, the etymology of the name "Al-Andalus" is disputed, the extent of Iberian territory encompassed by the name has changed over the centuries.
The Spanish place name Andalucía was introduced into the Spanish languages in the 13th century under the form el Andalucía. The name was adopted to refer to those territories still under Moorish rule, south of Castilla Nueva and Valencia, corresponding with the former Roman province hitherto called Baetica in Latin sources; this was a Castilianization of Al-Andalusiya, the adjectival form of the Arabic language al-Andalus, the name given by the Arabs to all of the Iberian territories under Muslim rule from 711 to 1492. The etymology of al-Andalus is itself somewhat debated, but in fact it entered the Arabic language before this area came under Muslim rule. Like the Arabic term al-Andalus, in historical contexts the Spanish term Andalucía or the English term Andalusia do not refer to the exact territory designated by these terms today; the term referred to territories under Muslim control. In the Estoria de España of Alfonso X of Castile, written in the second half of the 13th century, the term Andalucía is used with three different meanings: As a literal translation of the Arabic al-Ándalus when Arabic texts are quoted.
To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley and in the Kingdoms of Granada and Murcia. In a document from 1253, Alfonso X styled himself León y de toda Andalucía. To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley but not the Kingdom of Granada; this was the most common significance in Early modern period. From an administrative point of view, Granada remained separate for many years after the completion of the Reconquista due, above all, to its emblematic character as the last territory regained, as the seat of the important Real Chancillería de Granada, a court of last resort. Stil
Valladolid Rugby Asociación Club is a Spanish rugby union club. The club was established in 1986 and competes in the División de Honor de Rugby competition, the highest level of Spanish club rugby; the club are based in Valladolid in central Spain. VRAC play in white colours; the team have in the past won both the Copa del Rey de Rugby. They play at Estadio Pepe Rojo. División de Honor: 8 Champions: 1998–99, 2000–01, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14, 2014–15, 2016–17, 2017–18 Copa del Rey: 5 Champions: 1997–98, 2009–10, 2013–14, 2014–15, 2017–18 Runners-up: 2012–13 Supercopa de España: 7 Champions: 2010, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Copa Ibérica de Rugby: 3 Champions: 2014, 2017,2018 Valladolid RAC's first foray into Europe was in the 2001–02 European Challenge Cup. Playing in a pool with London Irish, Dax and L'Aquila, they lost all six games; the 2003/4 season saw a change in format in the European Challenge Cup. Teams played in a knockout format, over two legs, in each round. First round losing teams played in a new, third tier, Shield competition.
Having lost home and away to England's Newcastle Falcons in Round 1 of the 2003–04 European Challenge Cup, they dropped into the European Shield. Here their performance against Italy's Overmach Parma was better, but they again lost home and away; the 2004/5 season was a close repeat of 2003/4: heavy losses home and away to Italy's Viadana in the Challenge Cup was followed by heavier defeats at the hands of England's Leeds in the Shield. As the winners of the 2011–12 División de Honor de Rugby and the championship playoff, Valladolid RAC qualified to play in the 2012–13 European Challenge Cup but turned down the opportunity due to economic factors. Gernika RT represented Spain; as the winners of the 2013/14 División de Honor championship, VRAC qualified to play the Iberian Rugby Cup against CDUL of Lisbon, winning the game and the title. In 2015/16 season, Valladolid RAC as the champion of the 2014/15 División de Honor championship, represented Spain at the Qualifying Competition of the European Rugby Challenge Cup.
In this competition VRAC won two games, against Royal Kituro Rugby Club and Mogliano Rugby but lost against Grupo Desportivo Direito and Timișoara Saracens. Note: Flags indicate national union as has been defined under WR eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-WR nationality. Víctor Acevedo Fernando de la Calle Aníbal Fernando Bonan Benjamín Pardo Nacho Müller Glen Rolls Gareth Griffiths Sargent Adam Newton Gareth Griffiths Mike Davis Glen Lewis Rolls 25 seasons in División de Honor Rugby union in Spain VRAC Official website Spanish Rugby website
El Puerto de Santa María
El Puerto de Santa María, locally known as El Puerto, is a municipality located on the banks of the Guadalete River in the province of Cádiz, Andalusia. As of 2016, the city has a population of c. 88,184, of which some 50,000 live in the urban center, the remainder in the surrounding areas. The town of El Puerto de Santa María is 10 kilometres north east of Cádiz across the bay of Cádiz. According to the legend told in the Odyssey of Homer, after the Trojan War a Greek official named Menestheus escaped with his troops through the Straits of Gibraltar and reached the Guadalete River, they called that port Menestheus's port or Menesthei Portus. In its neighbourhood was the oracle of Menestheus, to whom the inhabitants of Gades offered sacrifices. In 711, Arab from the North of Africa conquered southern Spain, they renamed the place Alcante or Alcanatif which means Port of Salt, due to the old salt industry of Phoenicians and Romans. In 1260, Alfonso X of Castile conquered the city from the Moors and renamed it Santa María del Puerto.
He conceded a charter under the Crown of Castile. Having received a royal charter the city was allowed to use the title "El" prior to the name of the city itself; this is a distinguishing property and though Madrid is the capital of Spain it has not earned this distinction. In his Cantigas de Santa Maria CSM 367, Alfonso sings that he was miraculously healed of swollen legs after visiting his church of Santa Maríado Porto. Christopher Columbus's second expedition to the Americas set sail from El Puerto de Santa María, his pilot, Juan de la Cosa drew his world map in El Puerto in 1500. Columbus received encouragement for his travel plans, he met Juan de la Cosa who issued the first world map in 1500. El Puerto was the residence of several wealthy cargadores, merchants who operated Spain's trade with the Americas. During the 16th and 17th centuries, it was the winter port of the royal galleys. In the nineteenth century the city became the General Headquarters for the French Army during the Peninsular War under the reign of Joseph Bonaparte.
The town is steeped in history and monuments. It is within easy reach of the historical cities of Seville and Cádiz. El Puerto de Santa María is located on the Atlantic coast of the Bay of Cádiz, near the municipalities of Jerez de la Frontera, Puerto Real, Cádiz, it is popular for its beaches, which are the town's principal tourist attraction. Well known beaches include Vistahermosa, La Puntilla. Like many other southern cities, there are many. There is a major port, known as Puerto Sherry. A large amount of land has been devoted to the Bay of Cádiz Nature Reserve; the most important economic activity is tourism because of the beaches, as well as the bullfights held at the arena during the summer. The town hosts large groups of motorcyclists during the Jerez Motorcycle Grand Prix. There is commercial development in the center and periphery, a developed wine industry. Listed are a few of the main fiestas in the area: Spring Carnival: Cádiz is the home of Carnival with fancy dress and parades in the streets ending on the Tuesday 47 days before Easter.
Semana Santa: Holy Week the week that leads up to Easter Sunday is a wonderful time to enjoy the area with its street parades and long lines of penitents and big crowds. In El Puerto de Santa María, there are daily parades from Palm Sunday to Easter Sunday. Campeonato de España: A weekend fiesta of music and dance in April World Championships of Motorcycling. Feria del Vino Fino: El Puerto de Santa María's local week of fiesta, dancing sherry drinking and sevillana dancing this is in the middle of May; this is the principal festival is the Feria de Primavera, held between the fifth and sixth week after Holy Week. In recent years, it has coincided with May 1. Romería del Rocio: Festive pilgrimage of up to one million people to the village of Rocio in Almonte, Huelva around the third week of May. Hogueras de San Juan: Midsummer bonfires and fireworks on the beaches in most areas of Cádiz on 23 June. Dia de la Virgen del Carmen: One of the most popular Saint of El Puerto de Santa María and all fishermen is the Virgen Del Carmen, on the 16th of July, her image is taken from the local Church, carried into the sea on board a fishing boat, paraded around the town.
A general day of festivities. Virgen de los Milagros: The saint of the city is La Virgen de los Milagros; the festivity is on September the 8th. Her image is taken from the principal church and carried to the street, paraded around the town over a carpet of flowers, it is a local day of festivities. Bullring of El Puerto, which dates back to 1880 with space for 15,000 spectators. Iglesia Mayor Prioral, known from 1486 Castle of San Marcos, a fortified church built over the remains of a 10th-century Islamic mosque, it was built by order of Alfonso X of Castile from 1364 using parts of an ancient Roman edifice nearby. Monastery of the Victory, built by the Dukes of Medinaceli Hermitage of Santa Clara Convent of the Holy Spirit Church of San Francisco Church of San Joaquín Convent of Santo Domingo Hospital of San Juan de Dios Convent of Esclavas del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús Convent of La Concepción Chapel of Aurora Monastery of San Miguel Ho
Ciencias Sevilla CR
Ciencias Club de Rugby is a Spanish rugby team based in Seville, Spain. Spanish championship Champions: 1992 and 1994 Spanish King's cup Champions: 1994, 1995 and 1996 Runners-up: 1997 Copa Ibérica Champions: 1995 Runners-up: 1993 27 seasons in División de Honor 5 seasons in División de Honor B Note: Flags indicate national union as has been defined under WR eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-WR nationality. Javier de Juan Corey Smith Kurt Morath Oscar Durán Leonardo de Oliveira Juan Francisco Galindo Sebastián Hattori José María Bohórquez Leandro Fernández Jesús Recuerda Rafael Camacho Alejandro Ortega Carlos Arenas Jeremías Palumbo Manuel Mazo Jorge Prieto Andrea Bresolin Former player from Petrarca Padova in italien Super10 Official site
Rugby union in Spain
Rugby union is a growing team sport in Spain. As of 2014, there were 51,123 registered rugby union players in Spain, playing for 221 clubs in various divisions; the sport's governing body in Spain, the Spanish Rugby Federation, was founded in 1923. It joined the International Rugby Board in 1988, is a member of FIRA. There are traditionally four main rugby playing regions in Spain: the capital Madrid, the city of Valladolid in the Old Castile region, the entire regions of Basque Country, Catalonia in the north and around Barcelona; the Spanish national team plays in the European Nations Cup, a competition for second tier European rugby nations such as Portugal and Russia. Spain is ranked 21st in the world, played at the 1999 Rugby World Cup; the national sevens team is now one of the 15 "core teams" that participate in each event of the annual IRB Sevens World Series, having earned that status at the 2012 Hong Kong Sevens. Rugby was first introduced into Spain before World War I. However, subsequent events such as the Spanish Civil War, violent in the sport's Basque and Catalan heartlands, hindered its development.
The earliest recorded game in Spain was in 1901, when an Englishman, Stuart Nicholson, resident in Bilbao, "turned to Racing Club, when he wanted eye catching opposition for a three team tournament involving British and French exiles in Barcelona."However, rugby lay dormant in the country until after the end of World War I, when rugby was reintroduced into Spain from the south of France Provence and the French Basque Country. In 1921, Baudilio Aleu Torres, a Catalan, studying veterinary medicine in Toulouse, returned to his native Barcelona, founded the Santboiana Club there. Santboiana's pitch was cleared by the players themselves, according to Huw Richards, "a tree was tolerated and used as a coat hanger, until it was uprooted after a few games." The Spanish Rugby Federation, the governing body for rugby union in Spain, was founded in 1923. The first game in Madrid was in the 1920s as well, when Biarritz and Tarbes played an exhibition match in front of 12,000 spectators; the score upset some of the fans onto the pitch.
A Spanish XV played France, including Yves du Manoir, in 1927, but it was organised by a rebel governing body, so is not recognised as a proper international game. Spain's first recognised international was in 1929, against Italy, in Barcelona, at Montjuïc Stadium, as part of the 1929 Expo; the Spanish Royal Family attended and all of the players were Catalan. Spain won 9-0. In 1960, a French priest, Father George Bernés, introduced the game in Valladolid, Castile and León, leading to the creation of two of that region's clubs: Cetransa El Salvador and Valladolid RAC. Spain's international record includes wins over Italy in 1977 and Romania in 1992 and 1994. With the thawing of relations between the UK and Spain over the Gibraltar question, rugby union in Gibraltar has become more linked with its Spanish neighbours; when the border between Spain and Gibraltar reopened, after having been closed between 1968 and 1985, a number of games were played against sides from Seville and Madrid. Campo Gibraltar RFC now play in the Andalucian second division.
In 1989, the Spanish women's team played their first match, against France, losing 0-28. In 2000, they joined the Women's Six Nations, but in 2007, the tournament was altered so that Italy replaced Spain, in order to mirror the men's tournament. In more recent times, thanks to the influx of expatriates, a fifth "region" has opened up along the beach resorts on the Mediterranean coast, the Canary Islands and Balearics. In these areas, local people participate, the exception being the Marbella Rugby club on the Costa Del Sol, whose members are an equal mix of expatriates from the UK, South America and locals; the success of this policy is displayed by the progress of their junior teams reaching the final of the national club championships in 2010, thus giving them the title of second best side in the country in 2010 and going on to win the club championship in May 2011, to become the best U16 club side in Spain. The Marbella players make up the majority of the regional Andalucian team which participate at national level.
A number of juniors from this region have been selected for regional as well as national teams. The Torrevieja rugby club on the Costa Blanca has a similar composition of players. Beach rugby has become popular in many areas. There are several rugby sevens tournaments including the Benidorm Sevens. In recent years, Estadio Anoeta in the Basque Country has been used for occasional Heineken Cup rugby union fixtures by nearby French-Basque club Biarritz Olympique. In the 2009–10 Top 14 season, both Biarritz and fellow Basque club Bayonne will take one home match to the Anoeta. On 21 August, Bayonne will host Stade Français at the Anoeta, followed on 12 September by the Northern Basque derby between Biarritz and Bayonne, with BO as the home team; the stadium, which holds 32,076, was inaugurated in 1993. Spain continues to be popular with touring sides from Britain and France, due to its climate and good transport links. In playing standard, Spain occupies the second tier in Europe, along with Georgia.
There are over 51,123 registered rugby union players in Spain, with more than 221 clubs across the country. Participation rates for rugby union jumped by 20% in the Madrid area during the two years following the national team's participation in their first Rugby World Cup in 1999. In addition, funding from the Spanish sports council has been on the rise. Rugby union gets low media coverage, however