England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
ITV (TV network)
ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London, it was launched in 1955 as Independent Television under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to BBC Television, established in 1932. ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC 1, BBC 2 and Channel 4. In part, the number 3 was assigned because television sets would be tuned so that the regional ITV station would be on the third button, with the other stations being allocated to the number within their name. ITV is a network of television channels that operate regional television services as well as sharing programmes between each other to be displayed on the entire network. In recent years, several of these companies have merged, so the fifteen franchises are in the hands of two companies; the ITV network is to be distinguished from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the merger of Granada plc and Carlton Communications in 2004 and which holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences in England, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland.
With the exception of Northern Ireland, the ITV brand is the brand used by ITV plc for the Channel 3 service in these areas. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc uses the brand name UTV. STV Group plc uses the STV brand for its two franchises of northern Scotland; the origins of ITV lie in the passing of the Television Act 1954, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the BBC Television Service. The act created the Independent Television Authority to regulate the industry and to award franchises; the first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands and the North of England, with separate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. The first ITV network to launch was London's Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole country was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962; the network has been modified several times through franchise reviews that have taken place in 1963, 1967, 1974, 1980 and 1991, during which broadcast regions have changed and service operators have been replaced.
Only one service operator has been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. Separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 and over the years more services were added; the Broadcasting Act 1990 changed the nature of ITV. This criticised part of the review saw four operators replaced, the operators facing different annual payments to the Treasury: Central Television, for example, paid only £2000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the same size and status, owing to heavy competition. Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two and Granada had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, the Scottish borders and the Isle of Man.
That same year, the two merged to form ITV plc with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of Channel Television, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011. and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015. The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while broadcasting programmes across the network. Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc; the network is regulated by the media regulator Ofcom, responsible for awarding the broadcast licences. The last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators' licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its licence holders, Ofcom announced that it would split the Wales and West licence from 1 January 2014, creating a national licence for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new licence for the enlarged South West of England region.
All companies holding a licence were part of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled network programming, with compliance handled by ITV plc and Channel Television. However, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited, it has been replaced by an affiliation system. Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, with STV and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. All licensees have the right to opt out of network programming (except fo
Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex
Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex is a Japanese anime television series produced by Production I. G and based on Masamune Shirow's manga Ghost in the Shell, it was written and directed by Kenji Kamiyama, with original character design by Hajime Shimomura and a soundtrack by Yoko Kanno. The first season was positively received by critics. A second season, titled Ghost in the Shell: S. A. C. 2nd GIG, aired from January 2004 to January 2005. A third season titled Ghost in the Shell: SAC_2045 was formally announced in December 2018 and will be airing on Netflix in 2020; the series centers on the members of an elite law enforcement unit known as Public Security Section 9 as they investigate cybercrime and terrorism cases. A series of associated short comic animations, titled Tachikomatic Days, aired after each episode; these shorts star the Tachikoma "think-tanks" from the main series, they relate directly to the story of the preceding Stand Alone Complex episode. The first season was adapted into a feature-length OVA titled The Laughing Man, released in 2005.
The series had received video game spin-offs for the PlayStation 2, PlayStation Portable, mobile phones. 2nd GIG was later adapted into a feature-length OVA entitled Individual Eleven, released in 2006. Solid State Society, a TV-film sequel to the Stand Alone Complex series, was released in that year; the series takes place in the year 2030, where many people have become cyborgs with prosthetic bodies. Set in the fictional Japanese city of Niihama, Niihama Prefecture, the series follows the members of Public Security Section 9, a special-operations task-force made up of former military officers and police detectives. While the group investigates various crimes, both seasons feature ongoing investigations into two incidents that embroil the group in corruption within other branches of the Japanese government; the first season of Stand Alone Complex focuses on the Laughing Man incident, wherein a hacktivist reveals to the Major that he had discovered that several micromachine manufacturing corporations, in association with the Japanese government, suppressed information on an inexpensive cure to a debilitating cyberization disease in order to profit from the more expensive micromachine treatment.
Following this, he abducted one of the owners of the company and attempted to force him to reveal the truth on live television, resulting in the hacker live-hacking everyone's vision and cameras at the event to cover his face with the stylized laughing face logo that became synonymous with his image. His popularity spawned several genuine imitators, resulting in the series' titular Stand Alone Complex. After an investigation by the authorities causes him to resurface in the present, Section 9 discovers these companies and several Japanese politicians used the Laughing Man's image to garner public support and profit, they begin a campaign, spearheaded by Togusa and the Major, to disseminate the truth; this leads to the Cabinet labeling them as domestic terrorists and forcibly disbanding them, resulting in the capture of several members and the apparent death of Motoko Kusanagi. However, it is all a ruse to deceive the government, the alive and well members of Section 9 regroup to bring the micromachine corporations and corrupt politicians to justice, resulting in the dissolution of the current Japanese government.
The second season, 2nd GIG, set two years after the events of the first season, explores the political and social ramifications of the two world wars that took place prior to the events of the series. At the time of the Third and the Fourth World Wars, about three million Asians became refugees and were invited into Japan as a source of cheap labor; these "invited refugees", based on the reclaimed island of Dejima, soon became unemployed in the post-war period, their social unrest borders on outright war. Section 9's involvement in the refugee issue begins after they stop a hostage crisis caused by a terrorist group known as the Individual Eleven, after which newly elected Prime Minister Yoko Kayabuki reinstates the organization; the group seems to be modeling themselves after the May 15 Incident, where a group of naval officers assassinated the Prime Minister and gained the support of the public, hope to stir up the refugees' spirits by fighting for them against the Japanese government. The group comes into contact with Kazundo Goda, head of the Cabinet Intelligence Service, who gets assistance from the group in defusing several instances between the refugees as well as assisting him in transporting plutonium through Dejima, result in several failures and refugee deaths, further straining relations.
Section 9 discovers that Goda has been manipulating both events behind the scenes, leaking the social virus that creates the Individual Eleven ideology and creating a new Stand Alone Complex, as well as the intentional failures with the refugees. However, he cannot account for the charismatic Hideo Kuze who genuinely believes in the best for the refugees and helps rally for their independence from Japan. Throughout the investigation, Kusanagi discovers. Goda is found guilty of his part in the refugee incidents and killed before he can defect to the American Empire, but not before his ministrations result in the death of Kuze. In the film Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex - Solid State Society, taking place two years following the resolution of the Individual Eleven incident, the Major has left Section 9, Togusa
Cowboy Bebop is a Japanese animated science-fiction television series animated by Sunrise featuring a production team led by director Shinichirō Watanabe, screenwriter Keiko Nobumoto, character designer Toshihiro Kawamoto, mechanical designer Kimitoshi Yamane, composer Yoko Kanno. The twenty-six episodes of the series are set in the year 2071, follow the lives of a bounty hunter crew traveling in their spaceship called the Bebop. Although it covers a wide range of genres throughout its run, Cowboy Bebop draws most from science fiction and noir films, its most recurring thematic focal points include adult existential ennui and the difficulties of trying to escape one's past; the series premiered in Japan on TV Tokyo from April 3 until June 26, 1998, broadcasting only twelve episodes and a special due to its controversial adult-themed content. The entire twenty-six episodes of the series were broadcast on WOWOW from October 24 until April 24, 1999; the anime was adapted into two manga series which were serialized in Kadokawa Shoten's Asuka Fantasy DX.
A film was released to theaters worldwide. The anime series was dubbed in the English language by Animaze and ZRO Limit Productions, was licensed by Bandai Entertainment in North America and is now licensed by Funimation. In Britain, it was licensed by Beez Entertainment and is licensed by Anime Limited. Madman Entertainment has licensed it for releases in New Zealand. In 2001, Cowboy Bebop became the first anime title to be broadcast on Adult Swim in the United States. Cowboy Bebop became a critical and commercial success both in Japanese and international markets, garnered several major anime and science fiction awards upon its release, received wide acclaim for its style, story, voice acting and soundtrack. In the years since its release, critics have hailed Cowboy Bebop as a masterpiece and cite it as one of the greatest anime titles of all time. Credited with helping to introduce anime to a new wave of Western viewers in the early 2000s, Cowboy Bebop has been labelled a gateway series for the medium as a whole.
In 2071 fifty years after an accident with a hyperspace gateway made the Earth uninhabitable, humanity has colonized most of the rocky planets and moons of the Solar System. Amid a rising crime rate, the Inter Solar System Police set up a legalized contract system, in which registered bounty hunters chase criminals and bring them in alive in return for a reward; the series' protagonists are bounty hunters working from the spaceship Bebop. The original crew are Spike Spiegel, an exiled former hitman of the criminal Red Dragon Syndicate, his partner Jet Black, a former ISSP officer, they are joined by Faye Valentine, an amnesiac con artist. Over the course of the series, the team get involved in disastrous mishaps leaving them without money, while confronting faces and events from their past: these include Jet's reasons for leaving the ISSP, Faye's past as a young woman from Earth injured in an accident and cryogenically frozen to save her life; the main story arc focuses on Spike and his deadly rivalry with Vicious, an ambitious criminal affiliated with the Red Dragon Syndicate.
Spike and Vicious were once partners and friends, but when Spike began an affair with Vicious's girlfriend Julia and resolved to leave the Syndicate with her, Vicious sought to eliminate Spike by blackmailing Julia into killing him. Julia goes into hiding to protect herself and Spike fakes his death to escape the Syndicate. In the present, Julia comes out of hiding and reunites with Spike. Vicious, having staged a coup taken over the Syndicate, sends hitmen after the pair. Julia is killed, his heartbreak feeds his desire to kill Vicious once and for all. Spike leaves the Bebop after saying a final goodbye to Jet. Upon infiltrating the syndicate, he finds Vicious on the top floor of the building and confronts him after dispatching the remaining Red Dragon members; the final battle ends with Spike killing Vicious, only to be mortally wounded himself in the ensuing confrontation. The series concludes, he falls to the ground. Watanabe created a special tagline for the series to promote it during its original presentation, calling it "a new genre unto itself".
The line was inserted after commercial breaks during its Japanese and US broadcasts. Watanabe called the phrase an "exaggeration"; the show is a hybrid including the Western and pulp fiction. One reviewer described it as "space opera meets noir, meets comedy, meets cyberpunk", it has been called a "genre-bursting space western."The musical style was emphasized in many of the episode titles. Multiple philosophical themes are explored using the characters, including existentialism, existential ennui and the effect of the past on the protagonists; the series makes specific references to or pastiches multiple films, including the works of John Woo and Bruce Lee, Midnight Run, 2001: A Space Odyssey, Alien. The series includes extensive references and elements from science fiction, bearing strong similarities to the cyberpunk fiction of William Gibson. Several planets and space stations in the series are made in Earth's image; the streets of celestial objects such as Ganymede resemble a modern port city, while Mars features shopping malls, theme parks and cities.
Anime Central was a British television channel owned by CSC Media Group. The channel launched on 13 September 2007, it was first announced on 5 August 2007, though its license first appeared on the Ofcom website in January. The channel ran from 9pm to 6am, free-to-air on Sky's Digital TV Platform, channel 199. Anime was only broadcast between 6 am; the channel timeshared with Pop Girl but more bandwidth was made available removing the need for the channel to timeshare. The extra broadcast capacity was filled with the channel ident or teleshopping; the channel was shut down on 27 August 2008 being replaced with Showcase TV but Anime Central continued to be shown as a programming block on Showcase TV every night between 4am and 6am. Showcase TV was renumbered to channel 188 in September 2008. On August 3, 2009, Showcase TV became True Entertainment and the Anime Central programming block was removed completely; the regular schedule comprised six series, with a different episode broadcast every day.
These made a three-hour block, repeated twice through to 6:00am. Each series was repeated once before a major schedule change was made, unless the series was much longer than the standard length of 26 episodes. On 1 March 2008, the schedule changed, first to three double-bills to two triple-bills; the reasons for the change were unknown and reactions to this change on the channel's forum were negative. The channel did not broadcast in anamorphic widescreen. Programmes made in 16:9 format were screened in letterbox format. In 2008, a few late-season episodes of Ghost In the Shell: Stand Alone Complex: 2nd Gig were screened in 16:9 anamorphic. Bleach Cowboy Bebop Fullmetal Alchemist Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero Gundam SEED.hack//SIGN Planetes s-CRY-ed Transformers: The Headmasters Transformers: Super-God Masterforce Transformers: Victory Vision of Escaflowne Witch Hunter Robin Wolf's Rain Over the 2007 Christmas season, from 21 December 2007 until 4 January 2008, the regular schedule was replaced by marathons of these 3 popular anime shows: Cowboy Bebop Fullmetal Alchemist Bleach Nine consecutive episodes of a series were shown each day to form a 4½ hour block, except on the final day of each series' marathon which had fewer episodes.
Each block was repeated until 6:00am. Although all series were broadcast in English, a popular topic of discussion on the Anime Central forums were member's preferences for Anime dubbed into English or in Japanese with English subtitles; as a result of the high demand for both, during late 2007, the last repeat of the night of Cowboy Bebop and.hack//SIGN were broadcast in Japanese with English subtitles. Throughout the channel's life, it had a consistent red-on-black theme. All the channel's the "bumpers", the ident cards and the website used this same theme. In response to a request from the channel's brand manager, there was some discussion on the Anime Central Forums about changing the red-on-black theme. However, none of the suggestions were taken up by the channel. On 3 June 2008, an updated list of UK TV licenses from OFCOM no longer listed Anime Central as a licensed channel, reinforcing the long-standing speculation on the Anime Central forums that the channel would soon close. However, the same OFCOM data indicated that CSC Media Group is set to start a new cartoon channel called True Entertainment, prompting further speculation on the Anime Central Forums that some of the channel's programming could move to the new channel.
By 14 June, confirmation that the channels's license to operate was being replaced in favour of True Entertainment, had appeared on OFCOM's monthly updates page for May 2008. Despite a fleeting suggestion on Sky's Electronic Programme Guide that a new schedule, combining content from Pop Girl, True Movies 2 and Anime Central, might start on 20 August, Sky's EPG reverted to the previous schedule of triple bills and teleshopping. On 26 August 2008, True Entertainment's OFCOM Licence was renamed to Showcase TV and Showcase TV launched the following day. Anime Central survived as a 3-hour block of programming from midnight to 3am, using the channel's original idents, DOG and continuity announcements. At the beginning of the new schedule the block carried the same triple bills of Cowboy Bebop and Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex that were seen in rotation on the full-time channel, after 7 October 2008, Anime Central's slot was further reduced to two hours, showing double bills of Cowboy Bebop and Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex.
On August 3, 2009, the last double bills of Cowboy Bebop and Ghost In The Shell were shown and Showcase TV was replaced by True Entertainment. True Entertainment shows no signs of airing any anime and it's not known if CSC Media longer owns the rights to any anime shows. In 2014, Sony Pictures Television bought CSC Media Group. On March 5, 2015, CSC's Scuzz launched Animax Movie Nights, a weekly block that aired anime movies on Thursday nights for the next month; as of 2017, animecentral.com redirects to animaxtv.co.uk, launched on 24 October 2013 prior to Sony's acquisition of CSC. Though the channel no longer exists as a separate channel, discussion on the channel's internet forum continued with a low level of activity. However, the forum stopped accepting new members in
The Vault (TV channel)
The Vault is a British music channel owned and operated by TRACE Group. It launched as a late night service called Video Vault on 12 March 2003, it was renamed The Vault on 16 July 2003 and increased hours to 8 pm to 6 am expanded to 24 hours a day on 17 September 2003. The channel plays nostalgic music and classic pop from the 1960s onwards to the early 2010s featuring music videos and concert footage from as early as at least the 1950s, it features a few classic entertainment shows from the 90s. The Vault logo is on screen in the top left-hand corner during music videos and the song information fades in and out, at the bottom of the screen, at the start and near the end of each music video; the Vault is available 24 hours a day on Sky channel 365 and is part of a bouquet of channels owned by TRACE Group. It launched on Freeview in November 2017, replacing Chart Show TV, but was removed on 7 November 2018 and its slot being replaced by its former sister channel True Movies +1; the Vault rebranded with a new logo and graphics presentation on 29 April 2010 along with newly themed content and a much more diverse mix of classic pop, classic dance, classic rock, classic RnB, love songs and chill out music throughout the last 25 years.
A further rebrand took place in 2014 with an additional focus on pop music. Another rebrand happened in 2016 with some entertainment shows from the 90s being added. 80s Ballads - The best power ballads from the 1980s. Back to... - All the biggest songs from a certain year. Battle of the... - Music from artists or bands based on different themes. Best of the 1980s - Hit music videos from the 1980s. Best of the 1990s - The best music from the 1990s. Cuddie up with Vault - Relaxing chill-out music. Feel Good Anthems Greatest Number 2s - The best songs to reach number two from different years. Hits from Flix - The best music from top films. Hunkz and Honeyz - Classic videos featuring the best artists. Infinite Classics - All-time classic songs. Karaoke Klassics - A collection of classic karaoke songs. Motown Classics - Classic motown music videos. Number 1s at One - The best chart topping songs from previous years. Number 1s of... - Number one songs from a chosen year. Number 2s at Two - Classic songs from previous years that made it to number two in the charts.
Original vs Cover - A collection of original songs and their cover versions. Rise and Shine - Classic music videos. Same but Different - Different songs with shared titles. Saturday Nite Party - Classic party anthems. Thank Classic it's Friday! - The best feel good music. The Greatest No. 1s of the 80s - The best number one songs from the 1980s. The Greatest No. 1s of the Noughties - Big hit number one songs. The Very Best of... - The biggest songs from a chosen year. Thru the Years - A look back at the life and music of a particular artist or band. Top 5 at 5... - The best five songs from an artist. Top 10 Hits - A countdown of the top 10 songs from different years. Top 20 80s Ballads - A countdown of the 1980s top 20 power ballads. Vault Classics - Non-stop classic music videos. Vault Hits - The best music from the last five years. Vault Loves... Non-stop music from a certain artist or band. Vault's Pub Jukebox - The best classic songs. Vault's Top 10 - The top 10 classic videos from a particular year. Vault @ Nite - Non-stop classic music videos.
Vault's Best Selection - A collection of the best classic songs. Videos from The Vault - Hit songs from previous years. Weekend Wake up - Classic music videos. What was Big in...? - The biggest news in showbiz from a certain year. Where are They Now?... - Best songs from that particular artist. Kenan & Kel Sabrina the Teenage Witch Saved by the Bell Sister, Sister Sweet Valley High USA High The Vault on MySpace
Oxford is a university city in south central England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With a population of 155,000, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, with one of the fastest growing populations in the UK, it remains the most ethnically diverse area in Oxfordshire county; the city is 51 miles from London, 61 miles from Bristol, 59 miles from Southampton, 57 miles from Birmingham and 24 miles from Reading. The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world. Buildings in Oxford demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford is known as a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold. Oxford has a broad economic base, its industries include motor manufacturing, publishing and a large number of information technology and science-based businesses, some being academic offshoots. Oxford was first settled in Anglo-Saxon times and was known as "Oxenaforda", meaning "ford of the oxen".
It began with the establishment of a river crossing for oxen around AD 900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes. In 1002, many Danes were killed in Oxford during the England-wide St. Brice's Day massacre, a killing of Danes ordered by King Æthelred the Unready; the skeletons of more than 30 suspected victims were unearthed in 2008 during the course of building work at St John's College. The ‘massacre’ was a contributing factor to King Sweyn I of Denmark’s invasion of England in 1003 and the sacking of Oxford by the Danes in 1004. Oxford was damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066. Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert D'Oyly, who ordered the construction of Oxford Castle to confirm Norman authority over the area; the castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day. D'Oyly set up a monastic community in the castle consisting of a chapel and living quarters for monks.
The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britain's oldest places of formal education. It was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends. Additionally, there is evidence of Jews living in the city as early as 1141, during the 12th century the Jewish community is estimated to have numbered about 80–100; the city was besieged during The Anarchy in 1142. In 1191, a city charter stated in Latin, "Be it known to all those present and future that we, the citizens of Oxford of the Commune of the City and of the Merchant Guild have given, by this, our present charter, confirm the donation of the island of Midney with all those things pertaining to it, to the Church of St. Mary at Oseney and to the canons serving God in that place. Since, every year, at Michaelmas the said canons render half a mark of silver for their tenure at the time when we have ordered it as witnesses the legal deed of our ancestors which they made concerning the gift of this same island.
We have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this confirmation. Oxford's prestige was enhanced by its charter granted by King Henry II, granting its citizens the same privileges and exemptions as those enjoyed by the capital of the kingdom. Oxford's status as a liberty obtained from this period until the 19th century. A grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order. Parliaments were held in the city during the 13th century; the Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort. Richard I of England and John, King of England the sons of Henry II of England, were both born at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in Beaumont Street commemorates these events; the University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th-century records. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, only St Edmund Hall remains.
What put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxford's earliest colleges were University College and Merton; these colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology, inspiring scientific discoveries and advancements in the arts, as society began to see itself in a new way; these colleges at Oxf