CSS Selma (1856)
CSS Selma was a steamship in the Confederate States Navy during the American Civil War. Selma was a coastwise packet built at Mobile, Alabama for the Mobile Mail Line in 1856, little doubt now remains that she was originally named Florida. Her upper deck was plated at this time with ⅜ inch iron, partially protecting her boilers, of the low pressure type preferred for fuel economy and greater safety in battle. CSS Florida is cited on November 12,1861 as already in commission and serving Commodore G. N. Rollins New Orleans defense flotilla under command of Lieutenant Charles W. Hays and she carries a jib forward and, we suppose, some steering sail aft, when requisite. Although much of Floridas time was spent blockaded in Mobile, she made forays into Mississippi Sound. On October 19, Florida convoyed a merchantman outside, luck returning, she tried out her guns on USS Massachusetts, a large three-masted propeller she mistook for the faster R. R. Cuyler. Being of shallower draft and greater speed, she successfully dodged Massachusetts in shoal water off Ship Island,12 pieces of the fragments have been collected and weigh 58 pounds.
The first sortie by Florida caused consternation, captain L. M. Commander T. Shaw saved Montgomery and lost his command for fleeing from the enemy. Commodore McKean promptly sent Lieutenant James Edward Jouett to relieve him and forwarded Shaws action report to United States Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles, noting, It needs no comment. That gun which scared the Massachusetts so badly, and had proved fatal to her, is evidently a better piece or must be better handled than any which the enemy have. With the advent of cruiser CSS Florida, she was renamed Selma in July 1862, pumped out hastily, she was back in service February 13. Pat Murphey, particularly annoyed Rear Admiral David Farragut, USN by a steady, after passing the forts, Farragut ordered gunboat USS Metacomet cast loose from Hartford to pursue Selma. After an hour-long running fight, unable to escape to shallows out of reach, had to surrender to faster, more heavily armed Metacomet, captained by James Jouett, Selma lost 7 killed and 8 wounded, including Murphey, who suffered an injured arm.
The Selma was last Confederate ship to surrender at the Battle of Mobile Bay and that evening, Admiral Farragut commissioned the prize gunboat as USS Selma and placed her under the command of Arthur R. Yates, USN. Five days later, Selma joined in the Union Navys bombardment of Fort Morgan, on August 16, she participated in a reconnaissance expedition up the Dog River. In January 1865, Selma was transferred to New Orleans where she served until decommissioned on July 16,1865. Sold at auction the day to G. A. Hall, Selma was redocumented for merchant service on August 17,1865 and foundered on June 24,1868 south of Galveston, Texas. Union Navy Union Blockade United States Navy List of United States Navy ships This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, the entries can be found Confederate service here and Union service here
CSS Florida (blockade runner)
For other ships named Florida, see CSS Florida. The Confederate blockade runner CSS Florida, built at Greenpoint, New York in 1859, was considered for a gunboat before she became one. The colorful Lieutenant Beverly Kennon, CSN, had sought Floridas command but had to be content with CSS Governor Moore and he nostalgically described Florida to a court of inquiry as a very fast and a very handsome vessel indeed. A direct-acting screw of about 100 horsepower …about the same size in all respects as the U. S. steam sloop Pocahontas. Of the several ships of the name, she apparently is the Florida who arrived at Havana. Surprised at 4 oclock Sunday morning, Floridas crew were unable to fire their ship and it appeared that the pilot, chief mate and second engineers were Union sympathizers. A ships boat was ambushed with four casualties, one dead, I have not the means to strengthen her sufficiently, or I should retain and convert her into a gunboat. Despite this rejection, the U. S. Navy bought Florida from the Philadelphia prize court on September 20,1862, changed her name to USS Hendrick Hudson and placed 4, 5, guns on board.
Hendrick Hudson served in the East Gulf Blockading Squadron for the remainder of the war, two members of her crew received the Medal of Honor for their actions at the Battle of Natural Bridge. She was sold into service in 1865, and sunk near Havana. Blockade runners of the American Civil War Captured ships of the American Civil War Confederate Navy Union Navy Wilkinson, url1 Url2 Ellis, John E. CONFEDERATE STATES NAVY, MUSEUM, LIBRARY & RESEARCH INSTITUTE. Confederate States Navy Research Library, Mobile and this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships
Confederate States Navy
The Navy of the Confederate States was the naval branch of the Confederate States Armed Forces, established by an act of the Confederate Congress on February 21,1861. It was responsible for Confederate naval operations during the American Civil War, the Confederate navy could never achieve numerical equality with the U. S. Navy, so it used technological innovation, such as ironclads, torpedo boats, and naval mines to gain advantage. In February 1861 the Confederate Navy had 30 vessels, only 14 of which were seaworthy, the Union Navy had 90 vessels. The C. S. Navy eventually grew to 101 ships to meet the rise in naval threats and conflicts, on April 20,1861 the U. S. was forced to quickly abandon the important Gosport Navy Yard at Norfolk, Virginia. In their haste they failed to burn the facility with its large depots of arms and other supplies. As a result, the Confederacy captured much needed war materials, including cannon, shot. Of most importance to the Confederacy was the dry docks. The Confederacys only substantial navy yard with at time was in Pensacola, Florida.
The most significant warship left at the Yard was the screw frigate USS Merrimack, the U. S. Navy had torched Merrimacks superstructure and upper deck, scuttled the vessel, it would have been immediately useful as a warship to their enemy. Little of the structure remained other than the hull, which was holed by the scuttling charge. Confederate Navy Secretary Stephen Mallory had the idea to raise Merrimack, when the hull was raised, it had not been submerged long enough to have been rendered unusable, the steam engines and essential machinery were salvageable. The decks were rebuilt using thick oak and pine planking, the newly rebuilt superstructure was unusual, above the waterline the sides sloped inward and were covered with two layers of heavy iron-plate armor. The vessel was a new kind of warship, an all-steam powered iron-clad, in the centuries-old tradition of reusing captured ships, the new ship was christened CSS Virginia. She fought the Unions new ironclad USS Monitor, on the second day of the Battle of Hampton Roads, the two ships met and each scored numerous hits on the other.
After four hours both ships were taking in water through split seams and breaches by enemy shot, the engines of both were becoming dangerously overtaxed, and their crews were near exhaustion. The two ships turned and steamed away, never to meet again, the last Confederate surrender took place in Liverpool, United Kingdom on November 6,1865 aboard the commerce raider CSS Shenandoah when her flag was lowered for the final time. This surrender brought about the end of the Confederate navy, the Shenandoah had circumnavigated the globe, the only Confederate ship to do so. The act of the Confederate Congress that created the Confederate Navy on February 21,1861 appointed Stephen Mallory as Secretary of the Department of the Navy
CSS Florida (cruiser)
For other ships named Florida, see CSS Florida. CSS Florida was a sloop-of-war in the Confederate States Navy, Florida was built by the British firm of William C. Miller & Sons of Toxteth and purchased by the Confederacy from Fawcett, Preston & Co. of Liverpool, who engined her. Known in the shipyard as the Oreto and initially called CSS Manassas by the Confederates, the Union Navys records long continued to refer to her as Oreto or to confuse her with CSS Alabama although, fitted with two funnels, she was readily distinguishable from single-stacked Alabama. Florida departed England on March 22,1862 for Nassau, Bahamas, to coal and contrived to fill her bunkers and she was the subject of much diplomatic correspondence. The governor of Nassau drew the line, however, at a rendezvous with her tender in Nassau harbor, so she transferred stores. Florida on August 17, with veteran Lieutenant John Newland Maffitt, during her outfit, yellow fever raged among her crew, in 5 days reducing her effective force to one fireman and four deckhands.
In desperate plight, she ran across to the Spanish island colony of Cuba, there in Cárdenas, Maffitt too was stricken with the dreaded disease. In this condition, against all probability, the intrepid Maffitt sailed her from Cárdenas to Mobile, Florida had been unable to fight back not only because of sickness but because rammers, beds and quoins had, not been loaded in the Bahamas. Having taken stores and gun accessories she lacked, along with added crew members, Florida sailed 27 July from Bermuda for Brest, France where she lay in the French naval dock from August 23,1863 to February 12,1864. There, broken in health, Maffitt relinquished command to Lieutenant Charles Manigault Morris, departing for the West Indies, Florida bunkered at Barbados, although the three months specified by British law had not elapsed since last coaling at a British Empire port. She skirted the U. S. coast, sailed east across the Atlantic Ocean to Tenerife in the Canaries and thence back southwest to Bahia, arriving October 4,1864.
Towed to sea, she was sent to the United States as a prize despite the Empire of Brazils protests at this violation of their sovereignty. At Newport News, Virginia on November 28,1864, Florida reached the end of her career when she sank under dubious circumstances after a collision with the USAT Alliance. The sinking was most likely done at Admiral David Dixon Porters encouragement, the Florida could therefore not be delivered to Brazil in satisfaction of the final court order, and could not rejoin the ranks of the Confederate States Navy. Florida captured 37 prizes during her career, her prizes which were absorbed into the C. S. Navy as CSS Tacony. Today, many of the artifacts from CSS Florida are at the Hampton Roads Naval Museum, the first of the Confederate privateering vessels. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships
Florida /ˈflɒrᵻdə/ is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States, the Miami metropolitan area is Floridas most populous urban area. The city of Tallahassee is the state capital, much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south, the American alligator, American crocodile, Florida panther, and manatee can be found in the Everglades National Park. It was a location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, the states economy relies mainly on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, the Kennedy Space Center, Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for golf, auto racing, by the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee, the Timucua, the Ais, the Tocobaga, the Calusa and the Tequesta. Florida was the first part of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans, the earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2,1513 and he named the region La Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is a myth, in May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land. He described seeing a wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet.
Very soon, many smokes appeared along the whole coast, billowing against the sky, the Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Spanish language, and more to Florida. Both the Spanish and French established settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success, in 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561. Spain maintained tenuous control over the region by converting the tribes to Christianity. The area of Spanish Florida diminished with the establishment of English settlements to the north, the English attacked St. Augustine, burning the city and its cathedral to the ground several times. Florida attracted numerous Africans and African-Americans from adjacent British colonies who sought freedom from slavery, in 1738, Governor Manuel de Montiano established Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose near St