Battle of Paardeberg
The Battle of Paardeberg or Perdeberg was a major battle during the Second Anglo-Boer War. It was fought near Paardeberg Drift on the banks of the Modder River in the Orange Free State near Kimberley, Lord Methuen advanced up the railway line in November 1899 with the objective of relieving the besieged city of Kimberley. Battles were fought on this front at Graspan, Modder River before the advance was halted for two months after the British defeat at the Battle of Magersfontein, in February 1900, Field Marshal Lord Roberts assumed personal command of a significantly reinforced British offensive. An earlier British attempt to relieve Kimberley, led by Lieutenant General Lord Methuen, had been opposed by Boers under Cronjé, over the next two months, the front south of Kimberley stagnated. A substantial Boer detachment under De la Rey was sent to Colesberg where, in contrast to the situation elsewhere, Cronjés remaining forces were weakened by lack of grazing for their horses. Many of the Boer fighters families joined Cronjés main encampment at Jacobsdal, the presence of large numbers of non-combatants with their slow-moving ox-drawn wagons would prove a fatal handicap to Cronjé.
Field Marshal Roberts had been appointed to command the British forces in South Africa in December 1899 and he intended to outflank the Boer left and pass his cavalry around them to relieve Kimberley, while his infantry secured vital fords behind them. Roberts had two divisions each of two infantry brigades, and a mounted division of three brigades under Major General John French. Another infantry division was formed during the campaign, by the evening of 12 February, his leading horsemen had secured fords across the first obstacle, the Riet River. The next day,13 February, the British mounted force made a march of 30 miles under a blazing sun to capture fords across the Modder. The effect of the heat was made worse when the dry grass of the veld caught fire from a carelessly discarded match, Frenchs division had to wait at the fords during the next day until the leading infantry reached them, after making an equally exhausting march. Luckily for the British, the move had taken the Boers by surprise, early on 15 February, Frenchs division began the final march to relieve Kimberley.
Only scattered and disorganised Boers opposed them, and the mass of British horsemen broke through their thin line. Late that evening they reached Kimberley, where they were greeted with cheering crowds, French should by rights have gone to the military commander of the besieged garrison, Lieutenant Colonel Kekewich. Instead he called first on Cecil Rhodes, the former Prime Minister of Cape Colony and foremost Imperialist, the final days ride had crippled most of Frenchs division. Most of his British regular cavalry carried too much equipment and their horses were exhausted. His effective force was reduced to two regiments of New Zealand and Australian light horse, and two brigades of mounted infantry. French was to further tire his men on 16 February by futile attempts to intercept one of the Boers Creusot 40-pounder siege guns which was withdrawing to the north
Blockade runners of the American Civil War
Blockade runners imported from England most of the guns and other ordinance the Confederacy needed. To get through the blockade these ships, many of them built in British ship yards, specially designed for speed, had to cruise by undetected, the typical blockade runners were privately owned vessels often operating with a letter of marque issued by the Confederate States of America. If spotted the runners would attempt to outmaneuver or simply outrun any Union ships on blockade patrol, most of the guns and other ordnance of the Confederacy was imported from England via blockade runners. Some blockade runners made many successful runs while many others were captured or destroyed. There were an estimated 2, 500–2,800 attempts to run the blockade with at least an 80% success rate. However, by the end of the Civil War the Union Navy had captured more than 1,100 blockade runners and had destroyed or run aground another 355 vessels. When the American Civil War broke out on April 12,1861, the British became the primary ship builders and sources of supply for the Confederate government for the duration of the civil war.
Several courses of action soon developed, in 1861 the Confederate naval fleet only consisted of about 35 ships, of which 21 were steam-driven. The Confederacy was in dire need of basic supplies. Coming to their aid, an experienced and former U. S. naval captain, Raphael Semmes and he proposed a militia of privateers which would both strike at the Norths merchant ships and provide supplies to the south by out running or evading the ships of the Union blockade. Confederate President Jefferson Davis approved of the plan, to this end British investors were the most prolific in offering such aid. I. e. Scotts Anaconda plan extended along the Atlantic, in response Davis countered with threats of retaliation, while the British proclaimed its refusal to concur with Lincolns proclamation in nearby Nassau and its territorial waters. Lincolns proposed blockade was met with mixed criticism among some of his contemporaries, thaddeus Stevens angrily referred to it as a great blunder and a absurdity arguing that we were blockading ourselves and in the process, would be recognizing the Confederacy as a belligerent of war.
Soon after Lincoln announced the blockade, the business of running supplies through the blockade to the Confederacy began. Wilmington, NC was not blockaded until July 14,1861, an enormous naval industry evolved which brought great profits for shipbuilders and suppliers alike. Throughout the conflict mail was carried by runners to and from ports in the West Indies, Nassau. This was part of his famous Anaconda Plan that employed a naval blockade around the coastline of the Confederacy with the idea of adversely affecting its economy and supply lines. Because of the thousands of miles of coastline, with its rivers and inlets
Siege of Lucknow
The Siege of Lucknow was the prolonged defence of the Residency within the city of Lucknow during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. After two successive relief attempts had reached the city, the defenders and civilians were evacuated from the Residency, the state of Oudh/Awadh had been annexed by the British East India Company and the Nawab Wajid Ali Shah was exiled to Calcutta the year before the rebellion broke out. This high-handed action by the East India Company was greatly resented within the state, the first British Commissioner appointed to the newly acquired territory was Coverley Jackson. He behaved tactlessly, and Sir Henry Lawrence, an experienced administrator. Lawrence was well aware of the mood of the Indian troops under his command. On 18 April, he warned the Governor General, Lord Canning, of some of the manifestations of discontent, on 1 May, the 7th Oudh Irregular Infantry refused to bite the cartridge, and on 3 May they were disarmed by other regiments. On 10 May, the Indian soldiers at Meerut broke into open rebellion, on 23 May, Lawrence began fortifying the Residency and laying in supplies for a siege, large numbers of British civilians made their way there from outlying districts.
On 30 May, most of the Oudh and Bengal troops at Lucknow broke into open rebellion. In addition to his locally recruited pensioners, Lawrence had the bulk of the British 32nd Regiment of Foot available, on 4 June, there was a rebellion at Sitapur, a large and important station 51 miles from Lucknow. This was followed by another at Faizabad, one of the most important cities in the province, thus, in the course of ten days, British authority in Oudh practically vanished. On 30 June, Lawrence learned that the rebels were gathering north of Lucknow and ordered a reconnaissance in force, although he had comparatively little military experience, Lawrence led the expedition himself. The expedition was not very well organised, whilst they were under attack, some of Lawrences sepoys and Indian artillerymen defected to the rebels, overturning their guns and cutting the traces. His exhausted British soldiers retreated in disorder, some died of heatstroke within sight of the Residency. Lawrence retreated into the Residency, where the siege now began, the actual defended line was based on six detached smaller buildings and four entrenched batteries.
The position covered some 60 acres of ground, and the garrison was too small to defend it effectively against a prepared and supported attack. Also, the Residency lay in the midst of several palaces and administrative buildings, Lawrence initially refused permission for these to be demolished, urging his engineers to spare the holy places. During the siege, they provided good vantage points and cover for rebel sharpshooters, one of the first bombardments following the beginning of the siege, on 30 June, caused a civilian to be trapped by a falling roof. Corporal William Oxenham of the 32nd Foot saved him while under intense musket and cannon fire, the first attack was repulsed on 1 July
Wilmington, North Carolina
Wilmington is a port city and the county seat of New Hanover County in coastal southeastern North Carolina, United States. The population is 112,067, according to the 2010 Census it is the eighth most populous city in the state, Wilmington was settled by European Americans along the Cape Fear River. Its historic downtown has a one-mile-long Riverwalk, originally developed as a tourist attraction and it is minutes away from nearby beaches. The National Trust for Historic Preservation named Wilmington, North Carolina, in 2003 the city was designated by the US Congress as a Coast Guard City. It is the port for the USCGC Diligence, a United States Coast Guard medium endurance cutter. The World War II battleship USS North Carolina is held as a war memorial, located across from the port area. Other attractions include the Cape Fear Museum, the Wilmington Hammerheads United Soccer Leagues soccer team, Wilmington is the home of EUE Screen Gems Studios, the largest domestic television and movie production facility outside of California.
Dream Stage 10, the facilitys newest sound stage, is the third-largest in the US and it houses the largest special-effects water tank in North America. After the studios opening in 1984, Wilmington became a center of American film. Numerous movies in a range of genres and several series, including Iron Man 3, Foxs Sleepy Hollow, One Tree Hill, Dawsons Creek. In recent years, the end of tax credits to the industry has severely impacted filmmaking in the entire area. The area had long inhabited by various cultures of indigenous peoples, at the time of European encounter. The ethnic European and African history of Wilmington spans more than two and a half centuries, giovanni da Verrazano is reportedly the first European to observe the area, including the citys present site, in the early 16th century. The first permanent European settlement in the area came in the 1720s when English colonists began settling the area, in September 1732, a community was founded on land owned by John Watson on the Cape Fear River, at the confluence of its northwest and northeast branches.
The settlement, founded by the first royal governor, George Burrington, was called New Carthage, governor Gabriel Johnston soon after established his government there for the North Carolina colony. In 1739 or 1740, the town was incorporated with a new name, Wilmington, in honor of Spencer Compton, many of the settlers were indentured servants, mainly from the British Isles and northern Europe. As the indentured servants gained their freedom, the colonists imported a number of African slaves as laborers into the port city. By 1767, slaves accounted for more than 62% of the population of the Lower Cape Fear region, many worked in the port as laborers, and some in ship-related trades
New Ireland (Maine)
New Ireland was a Crown colony of the United Kingdom established in modern-day Maine after British forces captured the area during the American Revolution and again during the War of 1812. The colony lasted four years during the Revolution, and eight months during the War of 1812, at the end of each war the United Kingdom ceded the land back to the United States under the Treaty of Paris and Treaty of Ghent, respectively. In 1779 the British adopted a strategy to seize parts of Maine, especially around Penobscot Bay, the scheme was promoted by exiled Loyalists Dr. John Calef and John Nutting and Anglo-Irishman William Knox. It was intended to be a permanent colony for Loyalists and a base for military action during the war and they began erecting Fort George on one of the highest points of the peninsula. Alarmed by this incursion, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts sent the Penobscot Expedition led by Massachusetts general Solomon Lovell, the military expedition consisted of a fleet of 19 armed vessels and 24 transports, carrying 344 guns.
Although badly outnumbered, McLean and his British forces withstood the 21-day siege, the Royal Navy blocked an escape by sea so the Patriots burned their ships near present-day Bangor and walked home. New England was unable to repel the British threat despite a reorganized defense, some of the most easterly towns tried to become neutral. The battle was one of the greatest British victories of the war, the failed Penobscot Expedition, which cost the revolutionaries eight million dollars and 43 ships, proved to be the greatest American naval defeat until Pearl Harbor in 1941. The 74th Regiment held Majabagaduce until the end of the war and Revere were court-martialed, charged with cowardice and insubordination, the boards found Saltonsall guilty, but acquitted Revere. At the end of the Revolutionary War, many American Loyalists in the area migrated eastward to the Canadian Maritimes, some towing their houses behind their boats. In addition, many soldiers of the 74th chose to be disbanded in St.
Andrews, after the peace was signed in 1783, the New Ireland proposal was abandoned. In 1784 the British split New Brunswick off from Nova Scotia and made it into the desired Loyalist colony, with deference to King and Church and it was almost named New Ireland. The Treaty of Paris that ended the war was ambiguous about the boundary between Maine and the neighboring British provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec and this would set the stage for further fighting in the nineteenth century. The New Ireland colony and the Penobscot expedition was fictionalised in the 2010 novel The Fort by British author Bernard Cornwell, in 26 days, they succeeded in taking possession of Hampden and Machias, destroying or capturing 17 American ships. They won the Battle of Hampden and occupied the village of Castine for the rest of the war, the Treaty of Ghent returned this territory to the United States. The British left in April 1815, at time they took £10,750 obtained from tariff duties at Castine. The brief life of the colony yielded customs revenues, called the Castine Fund, Dalhousie University has a street named Castine Way.
(Ironically, the British military burned Belfast, Maine in 1779, History of Maine Military history of Nova Scotia History of Nova Scotia Samuel Francis Batchelder
A steamship, often referred to as a steamer, is a vessel, typically ocean-faring and seaworthy, that is propelled by one or more steam engines that typically drive propellers or paddlewheels. The first steamships came into usage during the early 1800s, however. Steamships usually use the designations of PS for paddle steamer or SS for screw steamer. As paddle steamers became less common, SS is assumed by many to stand for steam ship, Ships powered by internal combustion engines use a prefix such as MV for motor vessel, so it is not correct to use SS for most modern vessels. The steamship was preceded by smaller vessels designed for insular transportation, once the technology of steam was mastered at this level, steam engines were mounted on larger, and eventually, ocean-going vessels. Becoming reliable, and propelled by screw rather than paddlewheels, the changed the design of ships for faster. Paddlewheels as the main motive source became standard on these early vessels and it was an effective means of propulsion under ideal conditions but otherwise had serious drawbacks.
Within a few decades of the development of the river and canal steamboat, the first sea-going steamboat was Richard Wrights first steamboat Experiment, an ex-French lugger, she steamed from Leeds to Yarmouth in July 1813. She carried passengers and freight to Paris in 1822 at an speed of 8 knots. The American ship SS Savannah first crossed the Atlantic Ocean, another claimant is the Canadian ship SS Royal William in 1833. The SS Archimedes, built in Britain in 1839 by Francis Pettit Smith, was the worlds first steamship to be driven by a screw propeller. It had considerable influence on development, encouraging the adoption of screw propulsion by the Royal Navy. The key innovation that made ocean-going steamers viable was the change from the paddle-wheel to the screw-propeller as the mechanism of propulsion and these steamships quickly became more popular, because the propellers efficiency was consistent regardless of the depth at which it operated. Being smaller in size and mass and being submerged, it was far less prone to damage.
The development of screw propulsion relied on the technological innovations. Steam engines had to be designed with the power delivered at the bottom of the machinery, a paddle steamers engines drive a shaft that is positioned above the waterline, with the cylinders positioned below the shaft. SS Great Britain used chain drive to power from a paddlers engine to the propeller shaft - the result of a late design change to propeller propulsion. An effective stern tube and associated bearings were required, the stern tube contains the propeller shaft where it passes through the hull structure
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdoms naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the medieval period. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century, from the middle decades of the 17th century and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century it was the worlds most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War. The Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the world power during the 19th. Due to this historical prominence, it is common, even among non-Britons, following World War I, the Royal Navy was significantly reduced in size, although at the onset of the Second World War it was still the worlds largest. By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the worlds largest, during the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap.
The Royal Navy is part of Her Majestys Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the power in the 10th century. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Medieval fleets, in England as elsewhere, were almost entirely composed of merchant ships enlisted into service in time of war. Englands naval organisation was haphazard and the mobilisation of fleets when war broke out was slow, early in the war French plans for an invasion of England failed when Edward III of England destroyed the French fleet in the Battle of Sluys in 1340. Major fighting was confined to French soil and Englands naval capabilities sufficed to transport armies and supplies safely to their continental destinations. Such raids halted finally only with the occupation of northern France by Henry V.
Henry VII deserves a large share of credit in the establishment of a standing navy and he embarked on a program of building ships larger than heretofore. He invested in dockyards, and commissioned the oldest surviving dry dock in 1495 at Portsmouth, a standing Navy Royal, with its own secretariat, dockyards and a permanent core of purpose-built warships, emerged during the reign of Henry VIII. Under Elizabeth I England became involved in a war with Spain, the new regimes introduction of Navigation Acts, providing that all merchant shipping to and from England or her colonies should be carried out by English ships, led to war with the Dutch Republic. In the early stages of this First Anglo-Dutch War, the superiority of the large, heavily armed English ships was offset by superior Dutch tactical organisation and the fighting was inconclusive
Tallahassee /ˌtæləˈhæsi/ is the capital of the U. S. state of Florida. It is the county seat and only incorporated municipality in Leon County, Tallahassee became the capital of Florida, the Florida Territory, in 1824. In 2015, the population was 189,907, making the city the 126th-largest city in the United States, the population of the Tallahassee metropolitan area was 377,924 as of 2015. Tallahassee is the largest city in the Northwest Florida region as well as the center for trade and agriculture in the Florida Big Bend. Tallahassee is home to Florida State University, ranked the nations thirty-eighth best public university by U. S. News & World Report and it is home to the Florida A&M University, one of the countrys largest historically black universities by total enrollment. Tallahassee is home to the Florida State Capitol, Supreme Court of Florida, Florida Governors Mansion, the city is known for its large number of law firms, lobbying organizations, trade associations and professional associations, including the Florida Bar and the Florida Chamber of Commerce.
It is a regional center for scientific research. In 2015, Tallahassee was awarded the All-American City Award by the National Civic League for the second time, Tallahassee is currently ranked as the 18th best college town in the nation by Best College Reviews. During the 17th century several Spanish missions were established in the territory of the Apalachee to procure food, the largest, Mission San Luis de Apalachee, has been partially reconstructed by the state of Florida. They found large areas of cleared land previously occupied by the Apalachee tribe, the Mississippian Indians built mounds near Lake Jackson around AD1200, which survive today in the Lake Jackson Archaeological State Park. The expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez encountered the Apalachees, although it did not reach the site of Tallahassee, hernando de Soto and his expedition occupied the Apalachee town of Anhaica in what is now Tallahassee in the winter of 1538–1539. Based on archaeological excavations this site is now known to be located about 0.5 miles east of the present Florida State Capitol, the DeSoto encampment is believed to be the first place Christmas was celebrated in the continental United States.
During the First Seminole War, General Andrew Jackson fought two separate skirmishes in and around Tallahassee, the first battle took place on November 12,1817. Chief Neamathla, of the village of Fowltown, just west of present day Tallahassee had refused Jacksons orders to relocate, Jackson responded by entering the village, burning it to the ground, and driving off its occupants. The Indians retaliated, by killing 50 soldiers and civilians, Jackson reentered Florida in March 1818. According to Jacksons adjutant, Colonel Robert Butler, they advanced on the Indian village called Tallahasse two of the enemy were made prisoner, Tallahassee became the capital of Florida during the second legislative session. It was chosen as it was equidistant from St. Augustine and Pensacola. The first session of Floridas Legislative Council—as a territory of the United States—met on July 22,1822 at Pensacola, the second session was in St. Augustine and required western delegates to travel perilously around the peninsula on a twenty-eight-day trek
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, legally known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, is the capital of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The municipality had a population of 403,131 in 2016, the regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996, Dartmouth and the Municipality of Halifax County. Halifax is an economic centre in Atlantic Canada with a large concentration of government services. Agriculture, mining and natural gas extraction are major resource found in the rural areas of the municipality. Additionally, Halifax has consistently placed in the top 10 for business friendliness of North and South American cities, the first permanent European settlement in the region was on the Halifax Peninsula. The establishment of the Town of Halifax, named after the 2nd Earl of Halifax, the establishment of Halifax marked the beginning of Father Le Loutres War. The war began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports, by unilaterally establishing Halifax the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mikmaq, which were signed after Father Rales War.
Cornwallis brought along 1,176 settlers and their families, St. Margarets Bay was first settled by French-speaking Foreign Protestants at French Village, Nova Scotia who migrated from Lunenburg, Nova Scotia during the American Revolution. The resulting explosion, the Halifax Explosion, devastated the Richmond District of Halifax, killing approximately 2,000 people, the blast was the largest artificial explosion before the development of nuclear weapons. Significant aid came from Boston, strengthening the bond between the two coastal cities, the municipal boundary thus now includes all of Halifax County except for several First Nation reserves. Since amalgamation, the region has officially been known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, on April 15,2014, the regional council approved the implementation of a new branding campaign for the region developed by the local firm Revolve Marketing. The campaign would see the region referred to in promotional materials simply as Halifax, mayor Mike Savage defended the decision, stating, Im a Westphal guy, Im a Dartmouth man, but Halifax is my city, we’re all part of Halifax.
Because when I go and travel on behalf of this municipality, metropolitan Halifax is a term used to describe the urban concentration surrounding Halifax Harbour, including the Halifax Peninsula, the core of Dartmouth, and the Bedford-Sackville areas. It is the Statistics Canada population centre of Halifax, the dense urban core is centred on the Halifax Peninsula and the area of Dartmouth inside of the Circumferential Highway. The suburban area stretches into areas known as Mainland Halifax to the west, Cole Harbour to the east and this urban area is the most populous on Canadas Atlantic coast, and the second largest coastal population centre in the country after Vancouver, British Columbia. Halifax currently accounts for 40% of Nova Scotias population, and 15% of that of Atlantic Canada, Halifaxs urban core is home to a number of regional landmark buildings and retains significant historic buildings and districts. The downtowns office towers are overlooked by the fortress of Citadel Hill with its iconic Halifax Town Clock, Dalhousie Universitys campus is often featured in films and documentaries.
Dartmouth has its share of historic neighbourhoods and this has resulted in some modern high rises being built at unusual angles or locations
Raid on Lunenburg, Nova Scotia (1782)
Lunenburg was defended by militia leaders Colonel John Creighton and Major Dettlieb Christopher Jessen. In Nova Scotia, the assault on Lunenburg was the most spectacular raid of the war, on the morning of 1 July Stoddard led approximately 170 US privateers in four heavily armed vessels and overpowered Lunenburg’s defence, capturing the blockhouses and burning the house of Jessen. The privateers looted the settlement and kept the militia at bay with the threat of destroying the entire town, the American privateers plundered the town and took three prisoners, including Creighton, who were released from Boston without a ransom having been paid. During the American Revolution, Nova Scotia was invaded regularly by American Revolutionary forces by land, throughout the war, American privateers devastated the maritime economy by raiding many of the coastal communities. There were constant attacks by privateers, such as the raids on Liverpool. There was an engagement with a French fleet at Spanish River.
On 17 November 1775, Washingtons Marblehead Regiment aboard the Hancock and Franklin made a landing at Charlottetown. Three days later, they expedited to Nova Scotia and raided Canso, in 1779, American privateers returned to Canso and destroyed the fisheries, which were worth ₤50,000 a year to Britain. The 84th Regiment had been defending Nova Scotia, attacking an American privateer ship off of Lunenburg, the 84th was led by Captain John MacDonald. They boarded the warship when some of its crew were ashore seeking plunder and they captured the crew and sailed her into Halifax. There were Patriot attacks on Nova Scotia by land, such as the Battle of Fort Cumberland, there was the constant threat that American Patriots would attack Halifax by land. Stoddards vessel the Scammell was commissioned in April 1782 and made the plan in Boston to raid Lunenburg, soon after, he rescued the 60 American prisoners on board the H. M. S. Blonde which was wrecked on Seal Island, Nova Scotia, Stoddard allowed the British crew to return to Halifax in the HMS Observer.
On June 30, the day before the raid on Lunenburg and others were involved in gathering intelligence at Chester, Nova Scotia for the raid. During the early morning of 1 July 1782, five American privateers, Captain Stoddard’s ship was the schooner Scammel, which had sixteen guns and sixty men. Stoddard organized both a land and sea assault of the town, the vessels first landed at Red Head, two miles outside of the town and soldiers began to march toward the town. The vessels moved toward a frontal assault on the town, the Lunenburg militia was led by Colonel John Creighton and Major D. C. Colonel Creighton and five other militia men occupied the eastern blockhouse, several of Captain Stoddard’s privateers were wounded
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, North Carolina is the 28th most extensive and the 9th most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties, the most populous municipality is Charlotte, which is the second largest banking center in the United States after New York City. The state has a range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell. The climate of the plains is strongly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a highland climate. North Carolina is bordered by South Carolina on the south, Georgia on the southwest, Tennessee on the west, Virginia on the north, the United States Census Bureau places North Carolina in the South Atlantic division of the southern region.
So many ships have been lost off Cape Hatteras that the area is known as the Graveyard of the Atlantic, the most famous of these is the Queen Annes Revenge, which went aground in Beaufort Inlet in 1718. The coastal plain transitions to the Piedmont region along the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, the Piedmont region of central North Carolina is the states most populous region, containing the six largest cities in the state by population. It consists of rolling countryside frequently broken by hills or low mountain ridges. The Piedmont ranges from about 300 feet in elevation in the east to about 1,500 feet in the west, the western section of the state is part of the Appalachian Mountain range. Among the subranges of the Appalachians located in the state are the Great Smoky Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains, the Black Mountains are the highest in the eastern United States, and culminate in Mount Mitchell at 6,684 feet, the highest point east of the Mississippi River. North Carolina has 17 major river basins, the five basins west of the Blue Ridge Mountains flow to the Gulf of Mexico, while the remainder flow to the Atlantic Ocean.
Of the 17 basins,11 originate within the state of North Carolina, but only four are contained entirely within the states border – the Cape Fear, the Neuse, the White Oak, and the Tar-Pamlico basin. Elevation above sea level is most responsible for temperature change across the state, the climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream, especially in the coastal plain. These influences tend to cause warmer winter temperatures along the coast, the coastal plain averages around 1 inch of snow or ice annually, and in many years, there may be no snow or ice at all. North Carolina experiences severe weather in summer and winter, with summer bringing threat of hurricanes, tropical storms, heavy rain