David Glasgow Farragut /ˈfærəɡət/ was a flag officer of the United States Navy during the American Civil War. He was the first rear admiral, vice admiral, and admiral in the United States Navy and he is remembered for his order at the Battle of Mobile Bay usually paraphrased as Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead in U. S. Navy tradition. Farragut was born in 1801 to Jordi Farragut, a native of Minorca, Spain and it was a few miles southeast of Campbells Station, near Knoxville. His father operated the ferry and served as a officer in the Tennessee militia. Jordi Farragut, son of Antoni Farragut and Joana Mesquida, became a Spanish merchant captain from Minorca and he joined the American Revolutionary cause after arriving in America in 1766, when he changed his first name to George. George was a lieutenant during the Revolutionary War, serving first with the South Carolina Navy the Continental Naval forces. George and Elizabeth had moved west to Tennessee after his service in the American Revolution, in 1805, George Farragut accepted a position at the U. S.
port of New Orleans. He traveled there first and his family followed, in a 1, 700-mile flatboat adventure aided by hired rivermen, the family was still living in New Orleans when Elizabeth died of yellow fever. His father made plans to place the children with friends. In 1808, after his mothers death, he agreed to live with David Porter, in 1812, James adopted the name David in honor of his foster father, with whom he went to sea late in 1810. David Farragut grew up in a family, as the foster brother of future Civil War admiral, David Dixon Porter. David Farraguts naval career began as a midshipman when he was nine years old and this included service in several wars, most notably during the American Civil War, where he gained fame for winning several decisive naval battles. Through the influence of his father, Farragut was commissioned a midshipman in the United States Navy on December 17,1810. A prize master by the age of 12, Farragut fought in the War of 1812, at the same time, the Americans battled the hostile tribes on the islands with the help of their Te Ii allies.
Farragut was 12 years old when, during the War of 1812 and he was wounded and captured while serving on the Essex during the engagement at Valparaíso Bay, against the British on March 28,1814. Farragut was promoted to lieutenant in 1822, during the operations against West Indian pirates, in 1824, he was placed in command of USS Ferret, which was his first command of a U. S. naval vessel. He served in the Mosquito Fleet, a fleet of ships fitted out to fight pirates in the Caribbean Sea. On February 14,1823, the fleet set sail for the West Indies where, for the six months, they would drive the pirates off the sea
New Orleans is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana. The population of the city was 343,829 as of the 2010 U. S. Census, the New Orleans metropolitan area had a population of 1,167,764 in 2010 and was the 46th largest in the United States. The New Orleans–Metairie–Bogalusa Combined Statistical Area, a trading area, had a 2010 population of 1,452,502. The city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723, as it was established by French colonists and it is well known for its distinct French and Spanish Creole architecture, as well as its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. New Orleans is famous for its cuisine and its celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras. The city is referred to as the most unique in the United States. New Orleans is located in southeastern Louisiana, straddling the Mississippi River, the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. The city and parish are bounded by the parishes of St.
Tammany to the north, St. Bernard to the east, Plaquemines to the south, and Jefferson to the south and west. Lake Pontchartrain, part of which is included in the city limits, lies to the north, before Hurricane Katrina, Orleans Parish was the most populous parish in Louisiana. As of 2015, it ranks third in population, trailing neighboring Jefferson Parish, La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded May 7,1718, by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha. It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, who was Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time and his title came from the French city of Orléans. The French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, during the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez successfully launched a campaign against the British from the city in 1779.
New Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted briefly to French oversight, nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, the most notable exception being the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the city grew rapidly with influxes of Americans, French and Africans. Later immigrants were Irish and Italians, Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on large plantations outside the city. The Haitian Revolution ended in 1804 and established the republic in the Western Hemisphere. It had occurred several years in what was the French colony of Saint-Domingue
The Brooke rifle was a type of rifled, muzzle-loading naval and coast defense gun designed by John Mercer Brooke, an officer in the Confederate States Navy. They were produced by plants in Richmond and Selma, Alabama between 1861 and 1865 during the American Civil War and they served afloat on Confederate ships and ashore in coast defense batteries manned by the Confederate States Army. Brookes can be identified by the presence of at least one band of iron at the breech. Because no southern foundries had the capacity to wrap the rifles in a band like the Parrott design. All of Brookes rifles used the same seven-groove rifling with a right-hand twist, most of Brookes guns had a Gomer-style powder chamber, shaped like a truncated cone with a hemispherical tip, but the 6. 4-inch rifles had a simple hemispherical powder chamber. These weapons were manufactured at the Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, Guns manufactured at Selma bear the foundry imprint S, those from Tredegar TF. R. N. O. W may be found on some guns as they were bored and rifled by the Richmond Naval Ordnance Works in Richmond, Virginia after a fire in May 1863 temporarily crippled Tredegars boring shop.
Brooke reported fourteen single-banded 6.4 in rifles were completed by 8 January 1863, three were cast in 1861 with the remainder in 1862. Two of the earliest were mounted on the broadside of the ironclad CSS Virginia, two were mounted fore and aft on pivot carriages aboard the ironclad gunboat CSS Neuse. Two others were mounted on the broadside of the ironclad CSS Atlanta, double-banded rifles were produced from 28 October 1862 by direction of Stephen Mallory, Confederate Secretary of the Navy. Twenty-four were cast by Tredegar between 1862 and 1864 while Selma cast twenty-seven, but only fifteen were shipped due to casting problems, five of the damaged gun blocks were rebored as 8-inch double-banded smoothbores. Nine survivors exist, including four from USS Tennessee, and one from CSS Albemarle, the first seven single-banded 7-inch were bored and rifled from 9-inch Dahlgren gun blocks between July and December 1861. Two of these were the front and rear guns of the CSS Virginia. Tredegar made another nineteen to the Brooke pattern between 1862 and 1863 of which three survive, two of these are found at the Washington Navy Yard as trophies from CSS Atlanta.
Selma cast fifty-four double-banded rifles in 1863 and 1864, but only shipped thirty-nine due to casting flaws, Tredegar cast thirty-six between 1863 and 1865. Eight survive, two from USS Tennessee, one in the Washington Navy Yard and the other in Selma, number S89, may be found at Fort Morgan State Historic Park. Two more have just been recovered from the CSS PeeDee on September 29,2015, three triple-banded rifles were cast by Tredegar in 1862. These were 15 inches longer than the other 7-inch rifles and were unique among Brooke guns in that they lacked cast trunnions, instead a separate trunnion strap was fitted around the breech
A flagship is a vessel used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships, characteristically a flag officer entitled by custom to fly a distinguishing flag. Used more loosely, it is the ship in a fleet of vessels, typically the first, fastest, most heavily armed. In common naval use, the flagship is fundamentally a temporary designation. Historically, only larger ships could accommodate such requirements, the term was used by commercial fleets, when the distinction between a nations navy and merchant fleet was not clear. In the age of sailing ships, the flagship was typically a first-rate, non-first rates could serve as flagships, the USS Constitution, a frigate, served as flagship for parts of the United States Navy during the early 19th century. In the 20th century, ships became large enough that the types, cruisers and up, could accommodate a commander. Some larger ships may have a flag bridge for use by the admiral. Because its primary function is to coordinate a fleet, a flagship is not necessarily more heavily armed or armored than other ships, during World War II admirals often preferred a faster ship over the largest one.
Modern flagships are designed primarily for command and control rather than for fighting, as with many other naval terms, flagship has crossed over into general usage, where it means the most important or leading member of a group, as in the flagship station of a broadcast network. Is used as both a noun and adjective describing the most prominent or highly touted product, location, derivations include the flagship brand or flagship product of a manufacturing company, flagship store of a retail chain, or flagship service of a hospitality or transportation concern. The term flagship may have applications, Auto companies may have a flagship in the form of their leading or highest-priced car. Electronics companies may have a series of products considered to be their flagship, for example, the Samsung Galaxy S series consists of several flagship smartphones that are released on a yearly basis. In rail transport, a service is either the fastest or most luxurious. Often it is a train or service. In some cases, special service or a class above first class may be available in the service while it is not offered in normal services.
Flagship services are used to present the company in advertising or abroad. Most states in the United States provide public university education through one or more university systems, the phrase flagship institution or flagship university may be applied to an individual school or campus within each state system. These schools are often land-grant, sea-grant, or space-grant research universities, the use of the term is seen by some as elitist and boastful
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Alabama is the 30th-most extensive and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. At nearly 1,500 miles, Alabama has one of the nations longest navigable inland waterways, Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the Heart of Dixie and the Cotton State, the state tree is the longleaf pine, and the state flower is the camellia. The largest city by population is Birmingham, which has long been the most industrialized city, the oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, like other southern states, Alabama legislators disenfranchised African Americans and many poor whites at the turn of the century. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the economy changed from one primarily based on agriculture to one with diversified interests.
The state economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education, retail, in the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo. The word Alabama is believed to have come from the Alabama language, the words spelling varies significantly among historical sources. As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the words meaning, some scholars suggest the word comes from the Choctaw alba and amo. The meaning may have been clearers of the thicket or herb gatherers, the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language, an 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant Here We Rest. This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek, experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation.
Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization, trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact. The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no links to Mesoamerican culture
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U. S. Navy is the largest, most capable navy in the world, the U. S. Navy has the worlds largest aircraft carrier fleet, with ten in service, two in the reserve fleet, and three new carriers under construction. The service has 323,792 personnel on duty and 108,515 in the Navy Reserve. It has 274 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of October 2016, the U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. It played a role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy. It played the role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense.
The Chief of Naval Operations is an admiral and the senior naval officer of the Department of the Navy. The CNO may not be the highest ranking officer in the armed forces if the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression, the United States Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States. The Navys three primary areas of responsibility, The preparation of naval forces necessary for the prosecution of war. The development of aircraft, tactics, organization, U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is to prepare and conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest, as part of that establishment, the U. S. Navys functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to sealift duties. It follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, the Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders.
In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia, the establishment of a national navy was an issue of debate among the members of the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, the worlds preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships, and reported the captures to the Congress
A casemate, sometimes erroneously rendered casement, is a fortified gun emplacement or armored structure from which guns are fired. Originally, the referred to a vaulted chamber in a fortress. In armoured fighting vehicles that do not have a turret for the main gun, the word comes from the Italian casamatta, the etymology of which is uncertain. Others think that it comes from the Arabic word kasaba, transliterated to kasbah, menagio speculated that it came from the Greek word for pit, the plural of which is khasmata. Hensleigh Wedgwood thought that it came from the Spanish casa and matar, others take matto in its archaic Italian meaning of dark, equivalent to the English matt, as in opaque, making a casamatta a dark house. Casematte were used as prisons, making use of their lack of light to add to the punishment. This explanation seems to be the most agreed upon, a casemate was originally a vaulted chamber usually constructed underneath the rampart. It was intended to be impenetrable and could be used for sheltering troops or stores, with the addition of an embrasure through the scarp face of the rampart, it could be used as a protected gun position.
In the early 19th century, French military engineer Baron Haxo designed a free-standing casemate that could be built on the top of the rampart, casemates built in concrete were used in the Second World War to protect coastal artillery from air attack. In warship design the term casemate has been used in a number of ways, the most famous naval battle of the war was the duel at Hampton Roads between the Union turretted ironclad USS Monitor and the Confederate casemate ironclad CSS Virginia. Casemate ship was a term for central battery ship or center battery ship. The casemate was a box that extended the full width of the ship protecting many guns. The armoured sides of the box were the sides of hull of the ship, there was an armoured bulkhead at the front and rear of the casemate, and a thick deck protecting the top. The lower edge of the casemate sat on top of ships belt armour, some ships, such as the Alexandra, had a two-storey casemate. A casemate was a room in the side of a warship. A typical casemate held a 6-in gun, and had a 6 front plate, with armour plates on the sides and rear, with a protected top and floor.
Casemates were similar in size to turrets, ships carrying them had them in pairs, the first battleships to carry them were the British Royal Sovereign class laid down in 1889. They were adopted as a result of live-firing trials against HMS Resistance in 1888, the use of casemates enabled the 6-in guns to be dispersed, so that a single hit would not knock out all of them
Selma is a city in and the county seat of Dallas County, in the Black Belt region of south central Alabama and extending to the west. Located on the banks of the Alabama River, the city has a population of 20,756 as of the 2010 census and it had been a trading center and market town during the years of King Cotton in the South. It was an important armaments manufacturing and iron shipbuilding center during the Civil War, the undermanned Confederate forces were defeated during the Battle of Selma. Before settlement by European peoples, the area of present-day Selma had been inhabited for thousands of years by varying cultures of indigenous peoples, the Europeans encountered the historic Native American people known as the Muscogee, who had been in the area for hundreds of years. French explorers and colonists were the first Europeans to explore this area, in 1732, they recorded the site of present-day Selma as Écor Bienville. Later Anglo-Americans called it the Moores Bluff settlement, the city was planned and named as Selma by William R.
King, a politician and planter from North Carolina who was a future Vice President of the United States. The name, meaning seat or throne, came from the Ossianic poem The Songs of Selma. During the Civil War, Selma was one of the Souths main military manufacturing centers, producing tons of supplies and munitions, the Selma iron works and foundry was considered the second-most important source of weaponry for the South, after the Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, Virginia. This strategic concentration of manufacturing capabilities eventually made Selma a target of Union raids into Alabama late in the Civil War, because of its military importance, Selma had been fortified by three miles of earthworks that ran in a semicircle around the city. They were anchored on the north and south by the Alabama River, the works had been built two years earlier, and while neglected for the most part since, were still formidable. They were 8 feet to 12 feet high,15 feet thick at the base, in front of this was a 5 feet high picket fence of heavy posts planted in the ground and sharpened at the top.
At prominent positions, earthen forts were built with artillery in position to cover the ground over which an assault would have to be made, the North had learned of the importance of Selma to the Confederate military, and Federal military planned to take the city. On March 30,1865, Union General James H. Wilson detached Gen. John T. Croxtons brigade to destroy all Confederate property at Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Wilsons forces captured a Confederate courier, who was found to be carrying dispatches from Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest describing his scattered forces, Wilson sent a brigade to destroy the bridge across the Cahaba River at Centreville, which cut off most of Forrests reinforcements from reaching the area. He began a fight with Forrests forces that did not end until after the fall of Selma. On the afternoon of April 1, after skirmishing all morning, Wilsons advanced guard ran into Forrests line of battle at Ebenezer Church, Forrest had hoped to bring his entire force to bear on Wilson.
The outnumbered and outgunned Confederates fought for more than an hour as reinforcements of Union cavalry and artillery were deployed, Forrest was wounded by a saber-wielding Union captain, whom he shot and killed with his revolver. Finally, a Union cavalry charge broke the Confederate militia, causing Forrest to be flanked on his right, early the next morning, Forrest reached Selma, he advised Gen. Richard Taylor, departmental commander, to leave the city
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
The casemate ironclad is a type of iron or iron-armored gunboat briefly used in the American Civil War. In its general appearance, a casemate ironclad consisted of a hull with little freeboard. This casemate housed anywhere from 2 to 15 cannons, most of them in positions as in classical warships. The casemate was heavily armored over heavy wood backing and was sloped to deflect direct hits, armor was applied to the part of the hull above the waterline. The casemate was often box-shaped, with octagon shapes appearing in the stages of the war. From the top of the casemate protruded an armored lookout structure that served as a pilothouse, inside the casemate, the guns were housed in one continuous deck. Unlike with turret ironclads, the guns had to fire through fixed gunports and therefore aiming was done by moving the gun relative to the gunport. This was labor-intensive and often up to 20 men were needed to load, aim and clean a gun, and even with this manpower the firing rate was no better than one shot per five minutes.
Although the Union successfully used a fleet of casemate ironclad riverboats in their Mississippi and Red River Campaigns. In their specific outer appearances, i. e, british examples were among others HMS Bellerophon and HMS Hercules. French examples included Brasil and Redoutable, as a result, by 1910 no navy had any casemate warship left in service. Union Navy Confederate States Navy Baxter, James Phinney, 3rd, the Introduction of the Ironclad Warship. War at Sea in the Ironclad Age, hampton Roads 1862, First Clash of the Ironclads. South Brunswick, New Jersey, Thomas Yoseloff Ltd. p.319, Sea Power, A Modern Illustrated Military History. New York City, New York, Exeter Books, History of the Confederate States navy from its organization to the surrender of its last vessel. Joseph McDonough, Albany, N. Y. p.824
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 36th largest and the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky and Virginia to the north, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, and Arkansas and Missouri to the west. The Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, Tennessees capital and second largest city is Nashville, which has a population of 654,610. Memphis is the states largest city, with a population of 655,770, the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact generally regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was initially part of North Carolina, Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1,1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war.
Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia and this sharply reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. This city was established to house the Manhattan Projects uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the worlds first atomic bomb, Tennessees major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the primary agricultural products, and major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, the town was located on a river of the same name, and appears on maps as early as 1725. The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain, some accounts suggest it is a Cherokee modification of an earlier Yuchi word. It has been said to mean meeting place, winding river, according to ethnographer James Mooney, the name can not be analyzed and its meaning is lost.
The modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, the spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlakes Draught of the Cherokee Country in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created Tennessee County, the county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee. When a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new out of the Southwest Territory. Other sources differ on the origin of the nickname, according to the Columbia Encyclopedia. Tennessee ties Missouri as the state bordering the most other states, the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet, Clingmans Dome, which lies on Tennessees eastern border, is the highest point on the Appalachian Trail, and is the third highest peak in the United States east of the Mississippi River
Carte de visite
The carte de visite, abbreviated CdV, was a type of small photograph which was patented in Paris by photographer André Adolphe Eugène Disdéri in 1854, although first used by Louis Dodero. It was usually made of a print, which was a thin paper photograph mounted on a thicker paper card. The size of a carte de visite is 54.0 mm ×89 mm mounted on a card sized 64 mm ×100 mm, in 1854, Disdéri had patented a method of taking eight separate negatives on a single plate, which reduced production costs. The Carte de Visite was slow to gain widespread use until 1859 and this made the format an overnight success. The new invention was so popular it was known as cardomania and it spread throughout Europe and quickly to America, each photograph was the size of a visiting card, and such photograph cards were traded among friends and visitors. Albums for the collection and display of cards became a fixture in Victorian parlors. The immense popularity of these card photographs led to the publication and collection of photographs of prominent persons.
By the early 1870s, cartes de visite were supplanted by cabinet cards, which were usually albumen prints, cabinet cards remained popular into the early 20th century, when Kodak introduced the Brownie camera and home snapshot photography became a mass phenomenon. The carte de visite photograph proved to be a popular item during the American Civil War. Soldiers and family members would have a means of obtaining photographs. Photos of Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and other celebrities of the era became an instant hit in the North, people were not only buying photographs of themselves, but collecting photographs of celebrities. Cabinet card Postcard Business card Gernsheim, Helmut, dr. Robert Leggat MA M. Ed Ph. D. The history of photograph Silkenat, David, a Typical Negro, Peter, Vincent Coyler, and the Story Behind Slaverys Most Famous Photograph. Available on Wisconsin Historical Images, the Wisconsin Historical Societys online image database, included are 64 photographs attributed to Mathew Brady.
Southern Cartes de Visite Collection, A. S, williams III American Collection, Division of Special Collections, University of Alabama Libraries. Over 3300 digitized cartes-de-visite, the majority of them from southern studios, the Carte de Visite file at the New-York Historical Society Cartes de Visite of California photographers at Beinecke Library