Freebird Live was a music venue located in Jacksonville Beach, Florida. They closed their doors with a final concert on January 21, 2016; the venue opened in September 1999, with a concert by The Charlie Daniels Band. The cafe featured Lynyrd Skynyrd memorabilia and recorded music. In 2005, the owners of the venue considered moving the venue location to accommodate a larger capacity and big-name acts. Buildings in Atlantic Beach and Jacksonville, Florida were considered. However, the owners decided to renovate its current location in lieu of moving. Jacksonville bands that played at Freebird Live include the Gregg Allman Band in'02, Dickey Betts & Great Southern in'02, Yellowcard in'02, Shinedown in'03, Red Jumpsuit Apparatus in'04, Cold in 2010. Florida bands that played at Freebird Live include most of the famous Florida bands in the 00s including: Gainesville's Sister Hazel in'08, Less Than Jake in'05, Against Me! in'07.
Baseball Grounds of Jacksonville
The Baseball Grounds of Jacksonville is a baseball park in Jacksonville, Florida. It is the home stadium of the Jacksonville Jumbo Shrimp baseball team, who play in the Class Double-A Southern League; the facility opened in 2003. The Baseball Grounds were proposed as part of the city planning program known as the Better Jacksonville Plan, it was designed to replace the Jumbo Shrimp's previous home. The facility cost $34 million and broke ground in 2002, with construction being completed the following year; the ballpark was the first completed project of the Better Jacksonville Plan. The Atlantic Coast Conference baseball championship was held at the venue from 2005–2008; the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets won the first ACC Tournament at the Baseball Grounds of Jacksonville, followed by the Clemson Tigers in 2006, the North Carolina Tar Heels in 2007, the Miami Hurricanes in 2008. The Baseball Grounds hosts an annual game between the Florida Gators and the Florida State Seminoles; the most recent game was on March 26, 2019 when Florida defeated Florida State 4–2 in front of 8,041 fans.
On July 17, 2013 the Baseball Grounds hosted the Southern League All-Star Game. The South Division defeated the North Division 6–0 in front of a crowd of 9,373, it has nearly 6,000 stadium-style chairs and can accommodate more than 11,000 fans, the highest capacity in all of Double-A baseball, with an old-fashioned design, brick facade and a grass seating berm and bleacher seating. It features 12 luxury skyboxes, four skydecks, a large scoreboard and videoboard, a playground, the "knuckle," a unique 9-foot-high mound for seating at the left field corner. Other ballpark features include a souvenir shop, first aid facility, various seating levels and perspectives, an ample number of restrooms and concession areas, first-class in-seat concession services behind home plate, wide concourse and seating aisles and a state-of-the-art video scoreboard in left center field; the park has an in-house video broadcast of games provided by The Schelldorf Television Network. The ballpark is located in downtown Jacksonville, situated between VyStar Veterans Memorial Arena and TIAA Bank Field.
The largest crowd for a baseball game at the ballpark was 12,943, which occurred on April 11, 2003 during the grand opening of the park in a game between the Jacksonville Suns and the Huntsville Stars. Official Baseball Grounds of Jacksonville website Baseball Grounds of Jacksonville Views - Ball Parks of the Minor Leagues
Bryan Simpson United States Courthouse
The Bryan Simpson United States Courthouse is a courthouse and U. S. federal government facility in Jacksonville, Florida. It houses: The United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida, Jacksonville Division, corresponding offices of the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Middle District of Florida, United States Attorney for the Middle District of Florida A satellite office of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit U. S. Probation and Pretrial Services System, United States Marshals Service, United States Trustee Program officesThe courthouse was completed in late 2002 at a cost of $84 million and opened in early 2003, it replaced the old former courthouse, built in 1933 and had many indoor air quality problems, including illness-inducing mold and mildew. The new courthouse comprises 492,000 square feet over 14 floors, with a secure parking facility in the basement, it was named after John Milton Bryan Simpson after an act of Congress introduced by Florida U.
S. Senator Bill Nelson was passed; the courthouse was dedicated on August 11, 2008. List of tallest buildings in Jacksonville Bryan Simpson United States Courthouse, Jacksonville Division, US District Court for the Middle District of Florida
The Florida Theatre is a historic American movie theater located in Jacksonville, Florida. Opened in April 1927, it was added to the U. S. National Register of Historic Places on November 4, 1982. On April 18, 2012, the AIA's Florida Chapter placed the building on its list of Florida Architecture: 100 Years. 100 Places. The theatre is one of only four remaining high-style movie palaces built in Florida during the Mediterranean Revival architectural boom of the 1920s; the Florida Theatre began construction in summer of 1926 by Southern Enterprises, Inc. with R. E. Hall & Co. and Roy A. Benjamin as the architects; the theatre was established as a seven-story concrete fireproof building with a roof garden and with an emphasis on showing movies and live performances. R. E. Hall and Roy A. Benjamin designed the Florida Theatre in the Mediterranean Revival architecture style; the site of the Florida Theatre was occupied by a police station and jail but was demolished. Construction of the theatre took only one year and was opened to the public on April 8, 1927.
At the time of the opening the Florida Theatre was the largest theatre in Florida. The opening night had several programs featuring fanfare of the American Legion Bugle Corps, a live stage show, the film Let It Rain; the Florida Theatre was open from 11:00 AM to 11:00 PM showing a variety of films, news reels, or a stage presentation. In 1938 the roof garden was replaced with offices to be rented out. On August 10–11, 1956 Elvis Presley played two shows at the Florida Theatre to the dislikes of Jacksonville's city leadership. A committee was formed and Judge Marion Gooding prepared arrest warrants due to Presley's bodily movements and influence on the local youth. Gooding and Elvis had a private meeting where Gooding threatened to execute the warrants if Elvis disobeyed his orders. Elvis performed the show with no action from Gooding. By the 1970s, the Florida Theatre was in decline and on May 8, 1980 it was forced to close; the historical significance of the Florida Theatre and its architecture led to a $500,000 grant from the State of Florida and a $350,000 grant from the City of Jacksonville HUD Community Development Block Grant with an additional $150,000 from fundraising.
On October 31, 1981 the Florida Theatre was purchased by the Arts Assembly of Jacksonville for $1 million. The Arts Assembly began restoring the dilapidated building with $5 million; the Florida Theatre was at the time placed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 28, 1982. One year on August 26, 1983, the newly renovated Florida Theatre was reopened to the public. On October 1, 1987 the Florida Theatre separated from the Arts Assembly as an independent entity governed by its own board of directors; the Florida Theatre today is the permanent home of the Florida Ballet and the annual Community Nutcracker. Duval County listings at National Register of Historic Places Florida's Office of Cultural and Historical Programs Duval County listings Florida Theatre Media related to Florida Theatre at Wikimedia Commons
Fuller Warren Bridge
The Fuller Warren Bridge is a prestressed concrete girder bridge that carries Interstate 95 across the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida; the current bridge was completed in October 2002, replacing the original bascule bridge span completed in 1954. The current bridge was designed by HNTB Corporation in 1990 and built by Balfour Beatty Construction; the entire bridge is over 7,500 ft. long, with a main span of 250 feet, a vertical clearance of 75 ft. The bridge now carries eight lanes across the span; the bridge is named after former Florida governor Fuller Warren, former member and eventual denouncer of the KKK, who held the office from 1949 to 1953. He had served as a member of the Jacksonville City Council from 1931 to 1937; the original bascule bridge was tolled until 1988, when the city of Jacksonville abolished toll collections. Increasing wear from heavy traffic, including a 1993 incident in which a 3 square feet fragment of concrete broke loose, forced officials to ban large trucks from the bridge in 1998.
It was permanently closed June 2001, when all traffic was moved to the new Fuller Warren Bridge. After delays in removal because of legal and environmental concerns, the Florida Department of Transportation used explosives to complete demolition of the old bridge on February 17, 2007. Conversion from the old Fuller Warren Bridge to the new one began with one lane of southbound I-95 traffic on April 16, 2000; the new bridge, built at a cost of $100 million, was opened to all eight lanes in late 2002 and formally dedicated on January 13, 2003. About 2013, The Florida State Department of Transportation began the Your10&95 project to add operational improvements and enhancements to the I-10, I-95 highway interchange in metro Jacksonville. A planning department held several public meetings to discuss the proposed project and the cost of its construction with residents, community partners and businesses, they asked for input from the public attendees. The meetings were held on February 10, 2014, on August 28, 2014 and on February 26, 2015.
During those meetings, it was suggested that as part of the widening project to add two additional traffic lanes to the Fuller-Warren bridge, an additional pedestrian Shared use path should be added. The proposed path over the St. Johns River would connect the Riverside and Avondale historic neighborhood with the San Marco historic neighborhood; the FDOT agreed to implement the shared use path suggestion, as well as a number of other requests, such as adding traffic Noise barrier for residents. The project began May 5, 2017 and was expected to be completed in the summer of 2020. See Shared Use Path renderings On the morning of October 4, 2018, a fatal accident involving one of the construction workers caused a suspension of the project until further notice. Bridges portal Florida portal List of crossings of the St. Johns River Media related to Fuller Warren Bridge at Wikimedia Commons "FDOT Structures Design Office - Fuller Warren Bridge". Retrieved 2006-05-26
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
CSX Corporation is an American holding company focused on rail transportation and real estate in North America, among other industries. The company was established in 1980 as part of the Chessie System and Seaboard Coast Line Industries merger; the various railroads of the former Chessie System and Seaboard Coast Line Industries that are now owned by CSX Corporation were merged into a single line in 1986 and it became known as the CSX Transportation. CSX Corporation has a number of subsidiaries beyond CSX Transportation. Based in Richmond, Virginia, USA after the merger, in 2003 the CSX Corporation headquarters moved to Jacksonville, Florida. CSX is a Fortune 500 company. CSX Transportation is a Class I railroad operating in the eastern United States and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec; the railroad operates 21,000 route miles of track. As of December 30, 2016, CSX Transportation served population centers in 23 states east of the Mississippi River, the District of Columbia and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
As of December 30, 2016, it had access to over 70 ocean and lake port terminals along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, the Mississippi River, the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway. Conrail was the primary Class I railroad in the Northeastern United States between 1976 and 1999; the trade name Conrail is a portmanteau based on the company's legal name, while it no longer operates trains it continues to do business as an asset management and network services provider in three Shared Assets Areas that were excluded from the division of its operations during its acquisition by CSX Corporation and the Norfolk Southern Railway. The federal government created Conrail to take over the lines of multiple bankrupt carriers, including the Penn Central Transportation Company and Erie Lackawanna Railway. After railroad regulations were lifted by the 4R Act and the Staggers Act, Conrail began to turn a profit in the 1980s and was privatized in 1987; the two remaining Class I railroads in the East, CSX Transportation and the Norfolk Southern Railway, agreed in 1997 to acquire the system and split it into two roughly-equal parts, returning rail freight competition to the Northeast by undoing the 1968 merger of the Pennsylvania Railroad and New York Central Railroad that created Penn Central.
Following approval by the Surface Transportation Board, CSX and NS took control in August 1998, on June 1, 1999 began operating their respective portions of Conrail. The old company remains a jointly-owned subsidiary, with CSX and NS owning 42 percent and 58 percent of its stock, corresponding to how much of Conrail's assets they acquired; each parent, has an equal voting interest. The primary asset retained by Conrail is ownership of the three Shared Assets Areas in New Jersey and Detroit. Both CSX and NS have the right to serve all shippers in these areas, paying Conrail for the cost of maintaining and improving trackage, they make use of Conrail to perform switching and terminal services within the areas, but not as a common carrier, since contracts are signed between shippers and CSX or NS. Conrail retains various support facilities including maintenance-of-way and training, as well as a 51 percent share in the Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad; the Winston-Salem Southbound Railway is a 90-mile short-line railroad jointly held by CSX Transportation and the Norfolk Southern Railway, which provides it with equipment.
It connects with Norfolk Southern at the north end in Winston-Salem, CSX at the south end in Wadesboro, in between with NS at Lexington and Whitney, the subsidiary High Point and Denton Railroad at High Rock, the Aberdeen and Western Railway at Norwood. Owned jointly by the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad and Norfolk and Western Railway, predecessors to CSX and NS, it was completed in November 1910. Commodities carried by the railroad are grain, gravel, forest products, paper products, coke, clay fertilizer, chemicals and steel, its principal shippers are Corn Products Company of Winston-Salem, a manufacturer of corn syrup and related products, Owens Brockway Glass Company of Eller, a manufacturer of glass products. CSX is organized into two operating regions: the East Region; each primary region is divided into two sub-regions: Northeast Region, based in Baltimore, Maryland South Region, based in Waycross, Georgia Midwest Region, based in Cincinnati, Ohio Southwest Region, based in Nashville, Tennessee Fruit Growers Express CSX Intermodal Terminals CSX Real Property CSX Technology Chessie Computer Service Cybernetics & Services Total Distribution Services TRANSFLO Corporation CSX de Mexico] Powerhouse Logistics CSX Corporation was formed on November 1, 1980, by combining the railroads of the former Chessie System with Seaboard Coast Line Industries.
The name came about during merger talks between Chessie System and SCL called "Chessie" and "Seaboard". The company chairmen said it was important for the new name to include neither of those names because it was a partnership. Employees were asked for suggestions. At the same time, a temporary shorthand name was needed for discussions with the Interstate Commerce Commission. "CSC" was belonged to a trucking company in Virginia. "CSM" was taken. The lawyers decided to use "CSX", the name stuck. In the public announcement, it was said. C can stand for Chessie, S for Seaboard, X, which has no meaning." However, an August 9, 2016, article on the Railway Age website stated that