New Brunswick is one of four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada. According to the Constitution of Canada, New Brunswick is the only bilingual province. About two thirds of the population declare themselves a third francophones. One third of the population describes themselves as bilingual. Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas in Greater Moncton, Greater Saint John and the capital Fredericton. Unlike the other Maritime provinces, New Brunswick's terrain is forested uplands, with much of the land further from the coast, giving it a harsher climate. New Brunswick is 83% forested, less densely-populated than the rest of the Maritimes. Being close to Europe, New Brunswick was among the first places in North America to be explored and settled by Europeans, starting with the French in the early 1600s, who displaced the indigenous Mi'kmaq and the Passamaquoddy peoples; the French settlers were displaced when the area became part of the British Empire.
In 1784, after an influx of refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the province was partitioned from Nova Scotia. The province prospered in the early 1800s and the population grew reaching about a quarter of a million by mid-century. In 1867, New Brunswick was one of four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada. After Confederation, wooden shipbuilding and lumbering declined, while protectionism disrupted trade ties with New England; the mid-1900s found New Brunswick to be one of the poorest regions of Canada, now mitigated by Canadian transfer payments and improved support for rural areas. As of 2002, provincial gross domestic product was derived as follows: services 43%. Tourism accounts for about 9 % of the labour force indirectly. Popular destinations include Fundy National Park and the Hopewell Rocks, Kouchibouguac National Park, Roosevelt Campobello International Park. In 2013, 64 cruise ships called at Port of Saint John carrying on average 2600 passengers each.
Indigenous peoples have been in the area since about 7000 BC. At the time of European contact, inhabitants were the Mi'kmaq, the Maliseet, the Passamaquoddy. Although these tribes did not leave a written record, their language is present in many placenames, such as Aroostook, Petitcodiac and Shediac. New Brunswick may have been part of Vinland during the Norse exploration of North America, Basque and Norman fishermen may have visited the Bay of Fundy in the early 1500s; the first documented European visits were by Jacques Cartier in 1534. In 1604, a party including Samuel de Champlain visited the mouth of the Saint John River on the eponymous Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day. Now Saint John, this was the site of the first permanent European settlement in New Brunswick. French settlement extended up the river to the site of present-day Fredericton. Other settlements in the southeast extended from Beaubassin, near the present-day border with Nova Scotia, to Baie Verte, up the Petitcodiac and Shepody Rivers.
By the early 1700s the area was part of the French colony of Acadia, in turn part of New France. Acadia covered what is now the Maritimes, as well as bits of Maine. In the early 1700s, rivalry between Britain and France for control of territory led to the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, under which Acadia was reduced to Île Saint-Jean and Île-Royale; the ownership of New Brunswick being disputed, with an informal border on the Isthmus of Chignecto. The British prevailed, leading to the 1755 Expulsion of the Acadians. Present-day New Brunswick became part of the colony of Nova Scotia. Hostilities ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Acadians returning from exile discovered several thousand immigrants from New England, on their former lands; some settled along the Saint John River. Settlement was slow. Pennsylvanian immigrants founded Moncton in 1766, English settlers from Yorkshire arrived in the Sackville area. After the American Revolution, about 10,000 loyalist refugees settled along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit.
The number reached 14,000 by 1784, with about one in ten returning to America. The same year New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia and that year saw its first elected assembly; the colony was named New Brunswick in honour of George III, King of Great Britain, King of Ireland, Prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in what is now Germany. In 1785 Saint John became Canada's first incorporated city; the population of the colony reached 26,000 in 1806 and 35,000 in 1812. The 1800s saw an age of prosperity based on wood export and shipbuilding, bolstered by The Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 and demand from the American Civil War. St. Martins became the third most productive shipbuilding town in the Maritimes, producing over 500 vessels; the first half of the 1800s saw large-scale immigration from Ireland and Scotland, with the population reaching 252,047 by 1861. In 1848, responsible home government was granted and the 1850s saw the emergence of political parties organised along religious and ethnic lines.
The notion of unifying the separate colonies of British North America was discussed i
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, formally known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It had a population of 403,131 with 316,701 in the urban area centred on Halifax Harbour; the regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth and Halifax County. Halifax is a major economic centre in Atlantic Canada with a large concentration of government services and private sector companies. Major employers and economic generators include the Department of National Defence, Dalhousie University, Saint Mary's University, the Halifax Shipyard, various levels of government, the Port of Halifax. Agriculture, mining and natural gas extraction are major resource industries found in the rural areas of the municipality. Halifax is located within the traditional ancestral lands of the Mi'kmaq indigenous peoples, known as Mi'kma'ki; the Mi'kmaq have resided in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island since prior to European landings in North America in the 1400s and 1500s to set up fisheries.
The Mi'kmaq name for Halifax is K'jipuktuk, pronounced "che-book-took". The first permanent European settlement in the region was on the Halifax Peninsula; the establishment of the Town of Halifax, named after the 2nd Earl of Halifax, in 1749 led to the colonial capital being transferred from Annapolis Royal. The establishment of Halifax marked the beginning of Father Le Loutre's War; the war began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports and a sloop of war on June 21, 1749. By unilaterally establishing Halifax, the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi'kmaq, which were signed after Father Rale's War. Cornwallis brought along their families. To guard against Mi'kmaq and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax, Bedford and Lawrencetown, all areas within the modern-day Regional Municipality. St. Margaret's Bay was first settled by French-speaking Foreign Protestants at French Village, Nova Scotia who migrated from Lunenburg, Nova Scotia during the American Revolution.
December 1917 saw one of the greatest disasters in Canadian history, when the SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship carrying munitions, collided with the Belgian Relief vessel SS Imo in "The Narrows" between upper Halifax Harbour and Bedford Basin. The resulting explosion, the Halifax Explosion, devastated the Richmond District of Halifax, killing 2,000 people and injuring nearly 9,000 others; the blast was the largest artificial explosion before the development of nuclear weapons. Significant aid came from Boston; the four municipalities in the Halifax urban area had been coordinating service delivery through the Metropolitan Authority since the late 1970s, but remained independent towns and cities until April 1, 1996, when the provincial government amalgamated all municipal governments within Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional Municipality. The municipal boundary thus now includes all of Halifax County except for several First Nation reserves. Since amalgamation, the region has been known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, although "Halifax" has remained in common usage for brevity.
On April 15, 2014, the regional council approved the implementation of a new branding campaign for the region developed by the local firm Revolve Marketing. The campaign would see the region referred to in promotional materials as "Halifax", although "Halifax Regional Municipality" would remain the region's official name; the proposed rebranding was met with mixed reaction from residents, some of whom felt that the change would alienate other communities in the municipality through a perception that the marketing scheme would focus on Metropolitan Halifax only, while others expressed relief that the longer formal name would no longer be primary. Mayor Mike Savage defended the decision, stating: "I'm a Westphal guy, I'm a Dartmouth man, but Halifax is my city, we’re all part of Halifax. Why does that matter? Because when I go and travel on behalf of this municipality, there isn’t a person out there who cares what HRM means." Unlike most municipalities with a sizeable metropolitan area, the Halifax Regional Municipality's suburbs have been incorporated into the "central" municipality by referendum.
For example, the community of Spryfield, in the Mainland South area, voted to amalgamate with Halifax in 1968. The most recent amalgamation, which brought the entirety of Halifax County into the Municipality, has created a situation where a large "rural commutershed" area encompasses half the municipality's landmass; the Halifax Regional Municipality occupies an area of 5,577 km2, 10% of the total land area of Nova Scotia. The land area of HRM is comparable in size to the total land area of the province of Prince Edward Island, measures 165 km in length between its eastern and western-most extremities, excluding Sable Island; the nearest point of land to Sable Island is not in HRM, but rather in adjacent Guysborough County. However, Sable Island is considered part of District 7 of the Halifax Regional Council; the coastline is indented, accounting for its length of 400 km, with the northern boundary of the municipality being between 50–60 km inland. The coast is rock with small isolated sand beaches in sheltered bays.
The largest coastal features include St. Margarets Bay, Halifax Harbour/Bedford Basin, Cole Harbour, Musquodoboit Harbour, Jeddore Harbour, Ship Harbour, Sheet Harbou
Moncton is the largest city in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Situated in the Petitcodiac River Valley, Moncton lies at the geographic centre of the Maritime Provinces; the city has earned the nickname "Hub City" due to its central inland location in the region and its history as a railway and land transportation hub for the Maritimes. The city proper has a population of 71,889 and has a land area of 142 km2; the Moncton CMA has a population of 144,810, making it the largest city and CMA in New Brunswick, the second-largest city and CMA in the Maritime Provinces. The CMA includes the neighbouring city of Dieppe and the town of Riverview, as well as adjacent suburban areas in Westmorland and Albert counties. Although the Moncton area was first settled in 1733, Moncton is considered to have been founded in 1766 with the arrival of Pennsylvania Dutch immigrants from Philadelphia. An agricultural settlement, Moncton was not incorporated until 1855; the city was named for Lt. Col. Robert Monckton, the British officer who had captured nearby Fort Beauséjour a century earlier.
A significant wooden shipbuilding industry had developed in the community by the mid-1840s, allowing for the civic incorporation in 1855, but the shipbuilding economy collapsed in the 1860s, causing the town to lose its civic charter in 1862. Moncton regained its charter in 1875 after the community's economy rebounded due to a growing railway industry. In 1871, the Intercolonial Railway of Canada had chosen Moncton to be its headquarters, Moncton remained a railway town for well over a century until the closure of the Canadian National Railway locomotive shops in the late 1980s. Although the economy of Moncton was traumatized twice—by the collapse of the shipbuilding industry in the 1860s and by the closure of the CNR locomotive shops in the 1980s—the city was able to rebound on both occasions; the city adopted the motto Resurgo after its rebirth as a railway town. The city's economy is stable and diversified based on its traditional transportation, distribution and commercial heritage, supplemented by strength in the educational, health care, information technology, insurance sectors.
The strength of Moncton's economy has received national recognition and the local unemployment rate is less than the national average. Acadians settled the head of the Bay of Fundy in the 1670s; the first reference to the "Petcoucoyer River" was on the De Meulles map of 1686. Settlement of the Petitcodiac and Memramcook river valleys began about 1700 extending inland and reaching the site of present-day Moncton in 1733; the first Acadian settlers in the Moncton area established a marshland farming community and chose to name their settlement Le Coude, an allusion to the 90° bend in the river near the site of the settlement. In 1755, nearby Fort Beausejour was captured by British forces under the command of Lt. Col. Robert Monckton; the Beaubassin region including the Memramcook and Petitcodiac river valleys subsequently fell under English control. That year, Governor Charles Lawrence issued a decree ordering the expulsion of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia; this action came to be known as the "Great Upheaval".
The reaches of the upper Petitcodiac River valley came under the control of the Philadelphia Land Company and in 1766 Pennsylvania Dutch settlers arrived to re-establish the pre-existing farming community at Le Coude. The Settlers consisted of eight families. There is a plaque dedicated in their honor at the mouth of Hall's Creek, they renamed the settlement "The Bend". The Bend remained an agricultural settlement for nearly 80 more years. By 1836, there were only 20 households in the community. At this time, the Westmorland Road became open to year-round travel and a regular mail coach service was established between Saint John and Halifax; the Bend became an important rest station along the route. Over the next decade and shipbuilding would become important industries in the area; the turning point for the community was when Joseph Salter took over a shipyard at the Bend in 1847. The expanded shipyard grew to employ about 400 workers; the Bend subsequently developed a service-based economy to support the shipyard and began to acquire all the amenities of a growing town.
The prosperity engendered by the wooden shipbuilding industry allowed The Bend to incorporate as the town of Moncton in 1855. The town was named for Lt. Col. Robert Monckton, but a clerical error at the time the town was incorporated resulted in the misspelling of the community's name, perpetuated to the present day; the first mayor of Moncton was the shipbuilder Joseph Salter. Two years in 1857, the European and North American Railway opened its line from Moncton to nearby Shediac. At about the time of the arrival of the railway, the popularity of steam-powered ships forced an end to the era of wooden shipbuilding; the Salter shipyard closed in 1858. The resulting industrial collapse caused Moncton to surrender its civic charter in 1862. Moncton's economic depression did not last long and a second era of prosperity came to the area in 1871 when Moncton was selected to be the headquarters of the Intercolonial Railway of Canada; the arrival of the ICR in Moncton was a sem
Compass (1986 TV program)
Compass is a 60-minute local CBC television news program based in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada. Broadcast weeknights from 6:00 to 7:00 p.m. AT on CBCT-DT, it is the only PEI-specific television newscast available in the province; the newscast launched as a single 60-minute newscast in 1986, with Roger Younker as its anchor from its inception until his departure in 2002. Younker trusted within Prince Edward Island; the program's humorous and popular weatherman, Kevin "Boomer" Gallant joined the show in 1986. Bruce Rainnie replaced Younker as the show's permanent host in 2003, announced on February 23, 2017 that he would be departing Compass at the end of April. Less than a week longtime weatherman Kevin "Boomer" Gallant announced his retirement after 31 years with Compass. Both Gallant and Rainnie ended their tenures with the program on Friday, April 28, 2017. Sarah Fraser assumed interim anchor duties for Compass on May 1, 2017, Kalin Mitchell assumed temporary weather forecasting duties the same day, He worked at CTV Atlantic on March 26, 2018.
On May 30, 2017, Louise Martin was named permanent host, Jay Scotland permanent weatherman. In about 1995, reporter Sara Fraser was brought on as co-anchor with Younker, but in 2000, as a result of budget-cuts, all local supper-hour CBC newscasts were replaced with Canada Now, a hybrid national and local newscasts. Younker continued as sole anchor of the PEI-specific half from Charlottetown, with a national program following at 6:30PM local time, presented by Ian Hanomansing from the network's Vancouver studios. In 2002, with Younker's departure, former co-host and long-time correspondent Sara Fraser temporarily succeeded him for one year. In 2003, newcomer Bruce Rainnie was brought in as a permanent replacement for Younker/Fraser as the anchor, brought his own unique style to the program. Sara Fraser continues as correspondent. In May 2006, the local half of the newscast was renamed CBC News at Six: Prince Edward Island. In February 2007, Canada Now was scrapped; the same day, the Prince Edward Island newscast was expanded to a full hour, with local news in the first 30 minutes and national & international news in the second half-hour - albeit and presented locally.
The title of the program was changed back to the original Compass. In September 2009, Compass was split into two separate half-hour newscasts, at 5:00 PM and 6:00 PM, with the pan-regional program CBC News: Maritimes at 5:30 from CBAT aired at 5:30 PM. In January 2010, CBC News: Maritimes at 5:30 was cancelled and replaced with a 5:30 p.m. edition of Compass creating a 90-minute program. In October 2015, Compass returned to a one-hour format. In October 2008, the program won a Gemini award for its coverage of a major ice storm earlier that year. Roger Younker Sara Fraser Bruce Rainnie Louise Martin Kevin "Boomer" Gallant Kalin Mitchell Jay Scotland Sara Fraser Brian Higgins Kerry Campbell Patrick Faller CBC Television local newscasts CBC Prince Edward Island | Programs | CBC News: Compass Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Robie Street is a north-south artery and provincial road that runs for 7 kilometres within the Halifax Peninsula area of the Halifax Regional Municipality, from Memorial Drive in the North End Halifax, to Gorsebrook Avenue in the South End. The street in most places is 4 lanes wide with a centre median from Gorsebrook Ave to Cunard Street. From Cunard to Almon Streets, it is a 2-lane street. From Livingstone Street to Memorial Drive it is a 2 lane street. From Almon Street to the MacKay Bridge Ramps it is 4 lanes undivided. Massachusetts Avenue connects Robie Street from Livingstone Street to the MacKay Bridge. On the Halifax Peninsula street grid system the civic numbers range from 820 to 3899; the street was named for a prominent Nova Scotia judge and politician. There streets named after Judge Robie in Truro and Amherst, Nova Scotia. At first Robie was a residential and commercial street, but in 1882, the Nova Scotia Cotton Manufacturing Company was constructed at Robie and Almon and was followed by a series of other factories creating an industrial distinct in the north end of Robie.
Saint Mary's University Inglis Street Elementary School Gorsebrook Park Gorsebrook Junior High School Dalhousie University IWK Health Centre Halifax Regional Fire and Emergency Station #2 Nova Scotia Archives and Records Management QEII Health Sciences Centre Camp Hill Cemetery Queen Elizabeth High School Halifax Regional School Board Halifax All City Music -Adult ESL Program Holiday Inn Halifax Centre The Willow Tree intersection Halifax Common CTV Atlantic and CTV TWO Welsford Apartments Nova Scotia Community College Institute of Technology Campus The Nova Scotia Institute of Technology Highland Park Junior High School Halifax Regional Water Commission reservoir Fire Fighters Monument Halifax Regional Fire and Emergency Station 6 Inglis Street South Street University Avenue Coburg Road Spring Garden Road Jubilee Road/Veterans Memorial Lane Quinpool Road/Bell Road/Cogswell Street Cunard Street North Street Almon Street Young Street Lady Hammond Road Leeds Street
Nova Scotia is one of Canada's three Maritime Provinces, one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada. Its provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the second-smallest of Canada's ten provinces, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres, including Cape Breton and another 3,800 coastal islands; as of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia is Canada's second-most-densely populated province, after Prince Edward Island, with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre. "Nova Scotia" means "New Scotland" in Latin and is the recognized English-language name for the province. In both French and Scottish Gaelic, the province is directly translated as "New Scotland". In general and Slavic languages use a direct translation of "New Scotland", while most other languages use direct transliterations of the Latin / English name; the province was first named in the 1621 Royal Charter granting to Sir William Alexander in 1632 the right to settle lands including modern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and the Gaspé Peninsula.
Nova Scotia is Canada's smallest province in area after Prince Edward Island. The province's mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than 67 km from the ocean. Cape Breton Island, a large island to the northeast of the Nova Scotia mainland, is part of the province, as is Sable Island, a small island notorious for its shipwrecks 175 km from the province's southern coast. Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations; these formations are rich on the Bay of Fundy's shores. Blue Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundy's shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous-age fossils. Wasson's Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic- and Jurassic-age fossils; the province contains 5,400 lakes. Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone and, although the province is surrounded by water, the climate is closer to continental climate rather than maritime.
The winter and summer temperature extremes of the continental climate are moderated by the ocean. However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental—still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west; the Nova Scotian climate is in many ways similar to the central Baltic Sea coast in Northern Europe, only wetter and snowier. This is true in spite of Nova Scotia's being some fifteen parallels south. Areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, winter lows a little colder. Described on the provincial vehicle licence plate as Canada's Ocean Playground, Nova Scotia is surrounded by four major bodies of water: the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the north, the Bay of Fundy to the west, the Gulf of Maine to the southwest, Atlantic Ocean to the east; the province includes regions of the Mi'kmaq nation of Mi'kma'ki. The Mi'kmaq people inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived. In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada at Port Royal, founding what would become known as Acadia.
The British conquest of Acadia took place in 1710. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this and returned Cape Breton Island to the French. Present-day New Brunswick still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia. After the capture of Port Royal in 1710, Francis Nicholson announced it would be renamed Annapolis Royal in honor of Queen Anne. In 1749, the capital of Nova Scotia moved from Annapolis Royal to the newly established Halifax. In 1755 the vast majority of the French population was forcibly removed in the Expulsion of the Acadians. In 1763, most of Acadia became part of Nova Scotia. In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. Nova Scotia included present-day New Brunswick until that province's establishment in 1784, after the arrival of United Empire Loyalists. In 1867, Nova Scotia became one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation; the warfare on Nova Scotian soil during the 17th and 18th centuries influenced the history of Nova Scotia. The Mi'kmaq had lived in Nova Scotia for centuries.
The French arrived in 1604, Catholic Mi'kmaq and Acadians formed the majority of the population of the colony for the next 150 years. During the first 80 years the French and Acadians lived in Nova Scotia, nine significant military clashes took place as the English and Scottish and French fought for possession of the area; these encounters happened at Port Royal, Saint John, Cap de Sable and Baleine. The Acadian Civil War took place from 1640 to 1645. Beginning with King William's War in 1688, six wars took place in Nova Scotia before the British defeated the French and made peace with the Mi'kmaq: King William's War, Queen Anne's War, Father Rale's War, King George's War, Father Le Loutre’s War The Seven Years' War called the French and Indian War The battles during these wars took place Port Royal, Saint John, Chignecto, Dartmouth and Grand-Pré. Despite the British conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained occupied
Charlottetown is the capital and largest city of the Canadian province of Prince Edward Island, the county seat of Queens County. Named after Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, queen consort of King George III of the United Kingdom, Charlottetown was an unincorporated town that incorporated as a city in 1855, it was famously the site of the Charlottetown Conference in 1864, the first gathering of Canadian and Maritime statesmen to debate the proposed Maritime Union and the more persuasive British North American Union, now known as Canadian Confederation. From this, the city adopted as its motto Cunabula Foederis—"Birthplace of Confederation"; the population of Charlottetown in the 2016 census was 36,094. The first European settlers in the area were French; this settlement was led by Michel Haché-Gallant, who used his sloop to ferry Acadian settlers from Louisbourg. During King George's War, the British had taken over the Island. French officer Ramezay sent 500 men to attack the British troops in the Battle at Port-la-Joye.
The French were successful in capturing forty British troops. In August 1758, at the height of the French and Indian War, a British fleet took control of the settlement and the rest of the island, promptly deporting those French settlers that they could find in the Ile Saint-Jean Campaign. British forces built Fort Amherst near the site of the abandoned Port La Joye settlement to protect the entrance to the harbour. Charlottetown was selected as the site for the county seat of Queens County in the colonial survey of 1764 by Captain Samuel Holland of the Royal Engineers. A year Charlottetown was made the colonial capital of St. John's Island. Further surveys conducted between 1768–1771 established the street grid and public squares which can be seen in the city's historic district; the town was named in honour of Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, queen consort of the United Kingdom as the wife of King George III. On November 17, 1775, during the American Revolution, the colony's new capital was ransacked by Massachusetts-based privateers in the Raid on Charlottetown.
During the attack, the colonial seal was stolen and several prisoners, including Phillips Callbeck and Thomas Wright, were taken to Cambridge and released. In 1793, land had been set aside by Governor Fanning on the western limits of the community for use by the "Administrator of Government", as such it became known informally as "Fanning's Bank" or just "Fanning Bank". On November 29, 1798, St. John's Island was renamed to Prince Edward Island in honour of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the Commander-in-Chief, North America. In 1805, the local British garrison constructed a harbour defence called "Fort Edward" to the west of the capital's waterfront and the "Prince Edward Battery" manned this facility. In 1835, "Government House" was constructed at Fanning Bank as a residence for the colony's Governor. Today, it serves as the official residence for the Lieutenant Governor. Between 1843 and 1847, a new legislative building was constructed in the community. Named the Colonial Building following Confederation with Canada it became known as "Province House".
The completion of this structure with Isaac Smith as builder/architect was an important milestone in the history of the capital and it is still in use today as the provincial legislature as well as a National Historic Site, is the second-oldest legislative seat in Canada. On April 17, 1855, Charlottetown was incorporated as a city, holding its first council meeting on August 11 of that year; the community had 6,500 residents at the time of incorporation. Between September 1 -- 8, 1864, Charlottetown hosted. Although many of the meetings and negotiations which would lead to Canadian Confederation were held in Province House, various social events spilled over into the surrounding community. Prince Edward Island entered Confederation on July 1, 1873. Aside from being the seat of colonial government, the community came to be noted during the early nineteenth century for shipbuilding and its lumber industry as well as being a fishing port; the shipbuilding industry declined in the latter part of the nineteenth century.
On June 14, 1873 the "Government House Farm" at Fanning Bank was designated a municipal park, named Victoria Park in honour of Queen Victoria. In August 1874, the Prince Edward Island Railway opened its main line between Charlottetown and Summerside; the railway, along with the shipping industry, would continue to drive industrial development on the waterfront for several decades to come. The province's first health care facility, the Charlottetown Hospital, was opened by the Diocese of Charlottetown in 1879, followed by the publicly operated Prince Edward Island Hospital in 1884. Religion played a central role in the development of Charlottetown's institutions with non-denominational and Roman Catholic public schools and post-secondary institutions being instituted. St. Dunstan's was developed as a seminary for training priests, the Maritime Christian College was fo