Central–Wan Chai Bypass
The Central–Wan Chai Bypass is a four-kilometre trunk road running between Sheung Wan and Fortress Hill on Hong Kong Island. The original design consists of a 2.3 km dual three-lane tunnel running under new reclamation areas provided by the Central and Wan Chai Reclamation project, connections to Connaught Road West flyover and Island Eastern Corridor. It substitutes Connaught Road Central, Harcourt Road, Gloucester Road and Victoria Park Road to be part of Route 4; the bypass opened to traffic on 20 January 2019. The project estimated to cost HK$28 billion, was approved by the Legislative Council finance committee in 2009, following a "decade of objections and legal challenges" from environmentalists and citizens concerned by further reclamation of Victoria Harbour. An Environmental Permit was issued under the Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance and construction began the same year. Lawmakers were "shocked" in 2013 by cost overruns; the Transport and Housing Bureau requested HK$8 billion in extra funding, bringing the total bill to HK$36 billion.
Gary Fan, a member of LegCo's transport panel, asked: "Did the government deliberately underestimate the cost in order to get Legco to pass it?" The government bureau blamed unforeseen geotechnical difficulties as well as fluctuating labour and materials costs for the 28 per cent budget increase. On 15 September 2015 the Director of Highways announced that the Central–Wan Chai Bypass will not open in 2017 as anticipated, he blamed a large metal object, found on the seabed at the reclamation site in Wan Chai. As a result of the discovery, reclamation works were suspended for some time; the bypass will start from Rumsey Street Flyover at Sheung Wan. It enters a tunnel outside the International Finance Centre in Central heads east past the Tamar site in Admiralty with an interchange at Wan Chai, it continues to head east under the proposed reclamation areas of Wan Chai, Causeway Bay and Tin Hau. The original design to have the bypass via Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter leave the tunnel and connect with Island Eastern Corridor at Fortress Hill was amended so that the bypass would now emerge from the tunnel between the IEC carriageways, merging with them near Oil Street, Fortress Hill.
Ventilation is an indispensable part for the operation of the tunnel as it will supply fresh air to maintain good air-quality environment to the commuters inside the tunnel while discharge vitiated air in a controlled manner at pre-determined suitable locations of exhaust. The tunnel ventilation system is required to remove smoke in case of tunnel fire incidents, it is proposed to have three ventilation buildings sited near the western end, mid-length and eastern end of the Bypass to achieve the three objectives of supplying fresh air, extracting vitiated air and removing smoke during fire. To achieve an energy efficient ventilation system by shortening the air extraction path, the location of proposed East Ventilation Building needs to be as close to the tunnel portal as possible. Central and Wan Chai Reclamation Highways Department - Major Projects - Central-Wan Chai Bypass and Island Eastern Corridor Link Central-Wan Chai Bypass Project Website Two years time lapse record of Wan Chai section construction work Semi-submersible ship installing large precast unit Central – Wan Chai Bypass and Island Eastern Corridor Link construction sites
Canadian Wheat Board
The Canadian Wheat Board was a marketing board for wheat and barley in Western Canada. Established by the Parliament of Canada on 5 July 1935, its operation was governed by the Canadian Wheat Board Act as a mandatory producer marketing system for wheat and barley in Alberta, Manitoba, a small part of British Columbia, it was illegal for any farmer in areas under the CWB's jurisdiction to sell their wheat and barley through any other channel than the CWB. Although called a monopoly, it was a monopsony since it was the only buyer of wheat and barley, it was a marketing agency acting on behalf of Western Canadian farmers, passing all profits from its operation back to farmers. Its market power over wheat and barley marketing was referred to as the "Single Desk". " The CWB’s mandate was to pay farmers a base price for their grain, identify markets, negotiate the best price, deliver the goods, issue advance cheques and make final payment after the crop was sold. If the wheat market went up, farmers pocketed the profits.
If the market went down, the government absorbed the loss. Nothing was subtracted from the farmer’s share except the cost of marketing and delivery." Amid criticism, the Canadian Wheat Board's Single Desk marketing power ended on 1 August 2012 as a result of Bill C-18 known as the Marketing Freedom for Grain Farmers Act, tabled by the Harper government and passed in December 2011. The Canadian Wheat Board changed its name to CWB, reflecting its changed status. CWB continued to operate as a grain company, although the bill set a timeline for the eventual privatization of CWB. On 15 April 2015, it was announced that a 50.1% majority stake in CWB would be acquired by Global Grain Group, a joint venture of Bunge Limited and the Saudi Agricultural and Livestock Investment Company, for $250 million. The CWB name has been changed to G3 Canada Limited; the third-highest sales year for wheat industry in Canada was 2011–2012 when the CWB "sold $7.2-billion worth of grain to more than 70 countries, $4.9 billion of, paid back to farmers."
By the early 20th century in Western Canada, grain purchasing and marketing were dominated by large companies headquartered outside the region, such as the Canadian Pacific Railway and the trading companies which dominated the Winnipeg Grain Exchange. Producers were suspicious of the business practices of these companies and hostile to their positions of power. Farmers were impressed by the success of state-led marketing as it was practised during World War I; the government created a series of boards in and around the war, each with progressively more power to control the grain trade. The Board of Grain Commissioners of 1912 was purely for regulation, but by 1915 the government had seized control of all wheat exports to help the war effort, by 1917 futures trading on the Winnipeg Exchange was banned. In 1917, the new Board of Grain Supervisors was given monopoly powers over wheat, fixed uniform prices across the country. Soon afterwards, the Board took over marketing of other crops as well.
Farmers were worried that after the war, prices would crash and various agrarian groups lobbied Ottawa to keep the Board in place. The government relented by creating the Canadian Wheat Board for the 1919 crop only. Farmers got a guaranteed price for that crop, paid and a further payment once the Board had completed the year's sales; this system of guaranteed prices and distributed income was popular and when the Board dissolved in 1920, many farmers were livid. It did not help that, "from a peak of $2.85 per bushel in September, 1920 began a slow and sickening decline to less than a dollar a bushel in late 1923." This marked contrast to the stable prices of 1919–1920 Board seemed to confirm farmers' suspicions of market trading. After the dissolution of the early board in 1920, farmers turned to the idea of farmer-owned cooperatives. Cooperative grain elevator operators existed, like United Grain Growers, started in 1917. In 1923 and 1924 the wheat pools were created to resell it overseas; the Alberta Wheat Pool, the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool, Manitoba Pool Elevators became giants in the industry and displaced the private traders.
However they did not hedge against falling prices, during the price collapse of 1929, they went bankrupt. The majority of farmers did not want the private traders to return, now it seemed impossible for them to own their own marketing companies, so the idea of a government marketing board was revived; the Canadian Wheat Board was re-created in 1935 with the aim of controlling grain prices, so as to benefit farmers devastated by the Great Depression. During the Second World War, the authority of the Board was expanded, the Board was given the authority to set statutory maximums on wheat, barley and corn between December, 1941 until expiry after the war. Membership was made compulsory for Western Canadian farmers in 1943 via the War Measures Act, now with the purpose of aiding the war effort. In April, 1943 the Board was authorized to buy rapeseed and sunflowers. Between 1958 and 1970 the CWB was chaired by William Craig McNamara, he managed to perennialise the CWB in 1965, until subject to amendments by Parliament when they periodically extended the Board's duration.
McNamara convinced thereby creating a permanent Board. CWB control over interprovincial shipments of feed grains became a public issue during the grains crisis in 1969 to 1972 and was removed. Only non-feed wheat and barley r
The Wildlife Society
The Wildlife Society is an international non-profit association involved in wildlife stewardship through science and education. The Wildlife Society works to improve wildlife conservation in North America by advancing the science of wildlife management, promoting continuing education of wildlife professionals, advocating for sound, science-based wildlife policy; the organization encourages professional growth through certification, peer-reviewed publications and working groups. Society members are dedicated to sustainable management of their habitats. Ecology is the primary scientific discipline of the wildlife profession; the Society supports the belief that wildlife, in its myriad forms, is basic to the maintenance of a human culture that provides quality living. The Wildlife Society known as The Society of Wildlife Specialists, was launched at the North American Wildlife Conference in Washington, D. C. in 1936. A year in St. Louis, the Specialists became The Wildlife Society. A constitution and bylaws were adopted in 1937, the Society was incorporated on March 25, 1948.
Over time, The Wildlife Society has broadened its programs beyond its original focus on scientific publications to include education and certification of wildlife biologists and advocacy. The society publishes three scientific journals: Journal of Wildlife Management, Wildlife Society Bulletin, Wildlife Monographs. In addition to these scholarly journals, the Society publishes The Wildlife Professional, a popular magazine for members. Other important publications include technical reviews featuring analyses of current issues in wildlife conservation that are written by expert panels; the Wildlife Society
The Chocolate Watchband
The Chocolate Watchband is an American garage rock band that formed in 1965 in Los Altos, California. The band went through several lineup changes during its existence. Combining psychedelic and garage rock components, their sound was marked by David Aguilar's lead vocals, as well as proto-punk musical arrangements; the band's rebellious musical posture made them one of the harder-edged groups of the period. The Chocolate Watchband was signed to Tower Records in 1966 and released their first single, "Sweet Young Thing", in 1967. In the year, the band released their debut album, No Way Out. Though the album was nationally unsuccessful, the band became a frequent attraction in San Jose and the San Francisco Bay Area. In 1968, their second album, The Inner Mystique, was released and included the band's most popular song, a cover version of "I'm Not Like Everybody Else". By 1969, the band released their final album, One Step Beyond, however it was not as regarded as their past work, the band broke up in 1970.
This band should not be confused with The Chocolate Watch Band, a London-based UK group that issued two singles on Decca Records in 1967. The Chocolate Watchband was formed in the summer of 1965 in Los Altos, California by Ned Torney and Mark Loomis, who had played guitar together in a local band known as The Chaparrals in the previous year; the two were joined by other local collegies Rick Young, Pete Curry, Jo Kemling, Danny Phay to form the first version of the Chocolate Watchband, a name, meant to be taken as a joke. All five musicians had a background rooted in rock and roll and blues, with each one having spent time on the local club circuit; the band garnered a local following, integrating cover versions of British Invasion groups The Who, into their live repertoire. Curry was soon replaced by a jazz drummer from Cupertino High School, they never recorded any commercial releases. The band was gaining popularity until Torney and Phay accepted an offer from a rival band, The Otherside, to join their group.
Kemling followed soon after dismantling the first incarnation of the band. With the first version of the Chocolate Watchband disbanded, Mark Loomis moved on to join The Shandels. Becoming disillusioned, he took the discarded name "Chocolate Watchband" and recruited The Shandels' bass player Bill'Flo' Flores and former Watchband drummer, Gary Andrijasevich. Next he convinced former Topsiders guitarist Dave "Sean" Tolby to enlist; the group recruited David Aguilar as the lead singer. Loomis asserted the role of leader during this initial time period, although the band never acknowledged it had a designated leader. Songs to cover were presented, shows were talked about, the band voted together on all decisions. Sean Tolby obtained the latest in Vox equipment while Loomis provided the space for nightly rehearsals. Within a week, the band began performing at local clubs in San Francisco's South Bay, playing a range of songs that included obscure British import tunes never released before in the States.
Unlike other local bands who were covering the latest hits from the top 10 on radio, the Chocolate Watchband played songs few people had heard before. Thus, in many instances, these songs became associated with the Chocolate Watchband and not the original artists. Six months after opening for the Mothers of Invention at the Fillmore Auditorium, Hollywood music producer Bill Graham urged the Chocolate Watchband to sign a management contract with him, he was opening up a new Fillmore East in New York City and wanted to shuttle the Chocolate Watchband, the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane back and forth from coast to coast as his personal house bands. However, having signed a management contract with local promoter Ron Roupe a week earlier, their future followed a different path. Roupe, having secured a recording deal with Green Grass Productions in Los Angeles, introduced the band to producers Ed Cobb and Ray Harris; the band flew to Los Angeles and entered the recording studio. Cobb introduced the band to a song he had written a week earlier named "Sweet Young Thing".
Released in December 1966 by Tower Records, the B-side featured the group's cover of Bob Dylan's "It's All Over Now, Baby Blue", another stage song the band played. However, unknown to the Watchband, Tower Records farmed the distribution of their recordings out to Uptown Records, a rhythm and blues label with predominantly black artists. Frontman Aguilar began writing material for the band, including originals like "Right By My Side", "Gone & Passes By", "Don't Need Your Lovin' Anymore", "No Way Out" and "Sitting There Standing." The band's second single was the more restrained track "Misty Lane", released with a sweet orchestrated ballad, "She Weaves a Tender Trap", as its B-side. During this period the band were featured in two Sam Katzman films: Riot on Sunset Strip and The Love-Ins; the latter film inspired the group's next single. The single was released with the B-side "No Way Out", an instrumental spawned from a studio warm-up with spontaneous Aguilar vocals that Cobb took credit for.
With Loomis gone, the band drifted apart in late 1967, shortly after the release of their first album, No Way Out. The band would reform with Sean Tolby, Billy Flores, Gary
Clear Water Bay
Clear Water Bay is a bay on the eastern shore of Clear Water Bay Peninsula of Hong Kong, located within Clear Water Bay Country Park. There are two beaches at Clear Water Bay: "Clear Water Bay First Beach" and "Clear Water Bay Second Beach"; the name is used to describe the area around the bay on the peninsula. Both beaches are protected by shark nets after the three fatal shark attacks in Hong Kong in 1995. During the summer, both beaches have life guards on duty. Changing rooms, shower facilities and rafts are available at both beaches. A BBQ area can only be found on the 1st beach, but there is a kiosk selling refreshment on the 2nd beach. On 13 June 1995, a 49-year-old woman Wong Kui-Yong had her left forearm and left leg bitten off by a shark at Clear Water Bay 1st beach, she died of her injuries. Features in the Clear Water Bay area include: Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Hong Kong Adventist Academy Cham Shan Monastery Tai Au Mun Road 91 - Plaza Hollywood in Diamond Hill to Clear Water Bay 2nd Beach Green Minibus 16 - Po Lam to Po Toi O Green Minibus 103 - Kwun Tong Ferry Pier to Clear Water Bay 2nd Beach Green Minibus 103M - Tseung Kwan O Station Public Transport Interchange to Clear Water Bay 2nd Beach Red Minibus - No Number, because only one type of bus for the red minibus trail or route.
Ngau Chi Wan Minibus Terminus to Clear Water Bay 2nd Beach Uncovered free parking is available at Clear Water Bay Second Beach. The car park is full on summer weekends so taking public transport is advisable. Beaches of Hong Kong
Afonso Pena International Airport
Afonso Pena International Airport is the main airport serving Curitiba, located in the adjoining municipality of São José dos Pinhais. It is named after the 6th President of Brazil, it is operated by Infraero. As it was the case with many important Brazilian airports located in strategic points along the coast, Afonso Pena, was built by the Brazilian Air Force Ministry in partnership with the United States Army during the Second World War. However, since its construction was completed only in 1945, shortly before the end of the war, Afonso Pena never saw heavy military movement. In 1946 most of its movement comprised civil operations; the original passenger terminal was in use until 1959. This second terminal is today used for cargo operations. In 1996, the present passenger terminal was built; the main problem of the airport are the unstable weather conditions of the region fog and smog in the morning hours of winter and the fact that the auxiliary runway 11/29 is too small and plagued with old equipment.
There are plans to upgrade runway 15/33 from an ILS CAT II runway to ILS CAT III. Since the bottleneck for the airport is the cargo capacity, the main runway was lengthened in 2008 to allow cargo flights to operate with greater loads and the cargo terminal was upgraded. On 31 August 2009, Infraero unveiled a BRL30 million investment plan to upgrade Afonso Pena International Airport focusing on the preparations for the 2014 FIFA World Cup which will be held in Brazil, Curitiba being one of the venue cities; the investment will include the enlargement of the apron and implementation of taxiways with completion scheduled for March 2011. The terminal is 45,000 m², has 14 jetways, is capable of handling 15 million passengers annually. There are 800 parking places; the airport complex includes a small museum, a playcenter and a mall with 60 stores inside the main terminal. 16 June 1958: a Cruzeiro do Sul Convair 440-59, registration PP-CEP, flying from Florianópolis to Curitiba, was on final approach procedures to land at Curitiba in bad weather when it was caught in windshear.
The aircraft struck the ground. Of the 27 passengers and crew aboard, 24 died. 3 November 1967: a Sadia Handley Page Dart Herald 214, registration PP-SDJ, flying from São Paulo-Congonhas to Curitiba, collided with a hill during approach to land at Curitiba. All 5 crew members and 21 passengers died. 4 passengers survived. 16 August 2000: a VASP Boeing 737-2A1 registration PP-SMG, en route from Foz do Iguaçu to Curitiba, was hijacked by 5 persons demanding the BRL 5 million that the aircraft was transporting. The pilot was forced to land at Porecatu. There were no injuries. 26 December 2002: a Brazilian Air Force Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante, registration FAB-2292, en route from São Paulo-Campo de Marte to Florianópolis Air Force Base, crashed while trying to carry out an emergency landing at Curitiba-Afonso Pena. Both engines had shut down; the airplane had taken off with insufficient fuel on board to complete the flight to Florianópolis. Of the 16 people on board, 1 crew member and 2 passengers died.
The airport is located 18 km southeast of downtown Curitiba. List of airports in Brazil Media related to Afonso Pena International Airport at Wikimedia Commons Airport information for SBCT at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006. Source: DAFIF. Airport information for SBCT at Great Circle Mapper. Source: DAFIF. Current weather for SBCT at NOAA/NWS Accident history for CWB at Aviation Safety Network