Carlos Santana audio is a Mexican and American musician who first became famous in the late 1960s and early 1970s with his band, which pioneered a fusion of rock and Latin American jazz. The band's sound featured his melodic, blues-based guitar lines set against Latin and African rhythms featuring percussion instruments such as timbales and congas not heard in rock music. Santana continued to work in these forms over the following decades, he experienced a resurgence of popularity and critical acclaim in the late 1990s. In 2015, Rolling Stone magazine listed Santana at number 20 on their list of the 100 Greatest Guitarists, he has won 10 Grammy Awards and three Latin Grammy Awards. Santana was born in Autlán de Navarro, Mexico, he learned to play the violin at age five and the guitar at age eight under the tutelage of his father, a mariachi musician. His younger brother, Jorge Santana, would become a professional guitarist. Young Carlos was influenced by Ritchie Valens at a time when there were few Mexicans in American rock and pop music.
The family moved from Autlán de Navarro to Tijuana, the city on Mexico's border with California, San Francisco. Carlos stayed in Tijuana but joined his family in San Francisco. During his early years from the age of 10–12 he was sexually molested by an American man who brought him across the border. Living in the Mission District, graduating from James Lick Middle School, in 1965 from Mission High School. Carlos was accepted at California State University and Humboldt State University, but chose not to attend college. Santana was influenced by popular artists of the 1950s such as B. B. King, T-Bone Walker, Javier Batiz, John Lee Hooker. Soon after he began playing guitar, he joined local bands along the "Tijuana Strip" where he was able to begin adding his own unique touch to'50s Rock'n' Roll, he was introduced to a variety of new musical influences, including jazz and folk music, witnessed the growing hippie movement centered in San Francisco in the 1960s. After several years spent working as a dishwasher in a diner and busking for spare change, Santana decided to become a full-time musician.
In 1966 he gained all happening on the same day. Santana was a frequent spectator at Bill Graham's Fillmore West. During a Sunday matinee show, Paul Butterfield was slated to perform there but was unable to do so as a result of being intoxicated. Graham assembled an impromptu band of musicians he knew through his connections with Butterfield's band and with the Grateful Dead and Jefferson Airplane, but he had not yet chosen all the guitarists. Santana's manager, Stan Marcum suggested to Graham that Santana join the impromptu band and Graham agreed. During the jam session, Santana's guitar playing and solo gained the notice of both the audience and Graham. During the same year, Santana formed the Santana Blues Band, with fellow street musicians David Brown, Marcus Malone and Gregg Rolie, he was signed to Columbia where his band name, "Santana Blues Band" was shortened to, "Santana" that released a series of hit albums with an Afro-Cuban and Latin Rock feel thanks to Carlos' exquisite guitar playing, characterized by the self-sustaining melody that became his trademark.
With their original blend of Latin-infused rock, blues and African rhythms, the band gained an immediate following on the San Francisco club circuit. The band's early success, capped off by a memorable performance at Woodstock in 1969, led to him signing a recording contract with Columbia Records run by Clive Davis. Santana was signed by CBS Records and went into the studio to record their first album in January 1969, they decided changes needed to be made. This resulted in the dismissal of drummer Bob Livingston. Santana replaced him with Mike Shrieve, who had a strong background in both rock. Percussionist Marcus Malone was forced to quit the band due to involuntary manslaughter charges, the band re-enlisted Michael Carabello. Carabello brought with him percussionist Jose Chepito Areas, well known in his native Nicaragua, with his skills and professional experience, was a major contributor to the band. Bill Graham, a Latin Music aficionado, had been a fan of the band from its inception, arranged for them to appear at the Woodstock Music and Art Festival before their debut album was released.
They were one of the surprises of the festival. Graham gave the band some key advice to record the Willie Bobo song "Evil Ways", as he felt it would get them radio airplay, their first album, was released in August 1969 and became a huge hit, reaching #4 on the U. S. album charts. In 1969, the band's performance at the Woodstock festival introduced them to an international audience and garnered critical acclaim, although the band's sudden success put pressure on the group, highlighting the different musical directions in which Rolie and Santana were starting to go. Rolie, along with some of the other band members, wanted to emphasize a basic hard rock sound, a key component in establishing the band from the start. Santana, was interested in moving beyond his love of blues and rock and wanted more jazzy, ethereal elements in the music, which were influenced by his fascination with Gábor Szabó, Miles Davis, Ph
Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AG was a German producer of electrical equipment founded as the Deutsche Edison-Gesellschaft für angewandte Elektricität in 1883 in Berlin by Emil Rathenau. After World War II its headquarters moved to Frankfurt am Main. In 1967 AEG joined with its subsidiary Telefunken AG creating Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AEG-Telefunken. In 1985 Daimler-Benz purchased the AEG-Telefunken Aktiengesellschaft, renamed to AEG Aktiengesellschaft and wholly integrated the company in 1996 into Daimler-Benz AG; the remains of AEG became part of Deutsche Aerospace. After acquiring the AEG household subsidiary AEG Hausgeräte GmbH in 1994, in 2005 Electrolux obtained the rights to the brand name AEG, which it now uses on some of its products; the AEG name is licensed to various brand partners under the Electrolux Global Brand Licensing program. In 1883 Emil Rathenau founded Deutsche Edison-Gesellschaft für angewandte Elektricität in Berlin, which became Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft in 1887.
Producing electrical equipment, the company soon became involved in AC electric transmission systems. In 1907 Peter Behrens was appointed as artistic consultant to AEG; this led to the creation of the company's initial corporate identity, with products and advertising sharing common design features. The company expanded in the first half of the 20th century, is credited with a number of firsts and inventions in electrical engineering. During the same period it entered the airplane markets. Electrical equipment for railways was produced during this time, beginning a long history of supplying the German railways with electrical equipment. After WWII, the company lost its businesses in the eastern part of Germany. After a merger in 1967 the company was renamed Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AEG-Telefunken; the company experienced financial difficulties during the 1970s, resulting in the sale of some assets. In 1983 the consumer electronics division Telefunken Fernsehn und Rundfunk GmbH was sold.
In 1985 the company re-took the name AEG and the remainder of the company was acquired by Daimler-Benz. Under Daimler-Benz ownership, the former AEG companies become part of the newly named Adtranz in 1995 and the AEG name was no longer used. Electrolux, which had acquired the household subsidiary AEG Hausgeräte GmbH of AEG in 1994, now own the rights to use and license the brand; the company originated in 1882, when Emil Rathenau acquired licences to use some of Thomas Edison's lamp patents in Germany. The Deutsche Edison Gesellschaft was founded in 1883 with the financial backing of banks and private individuals, with Emil Rathenau as company director. In 1884, Munich-born engineer Oskar von Miller joined the executive board; the same year, the company entered negotiations with the Berlin Magistrat to supply a large area from a central supply, which resulted in the formation of the Städtischen Elektricitätswerke on 8 May 1884. The original factory was located near Stettiner Bahnhof. In 1887 the Company acquired land in the Berlin-Gesundbrunnen area on which the Weddingsche Maschinenfabrik was located.
In the same year, in addition to a restructuring and expansion of the production range, the AEG name was adopted. In 1887 Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrowolsky joined the company as chief engineer becoming vice-director, his work on polyphase electric power led him to become the world's leading engineer in three-phase electric power systems at the end of the 1880s. In 1891 Miller and Dobrovolski demonstrated the transmission of electrical power over a distance of 175 km from a hydro electric power plant in Lauffen am Neckar to Frankfurt, where it lit 1000 light bulbs and drove an artificial waterfall at the International Electrotechnical Exhibition in Frankfurt am Main; this success marked one of beginnings of the general use of alternating current for electrification in Germany, showed that distance transmission of electric power could be economically useful. In the same year the Stadtbahn Halle/Saale opened, the first electric tram system in GermanyTropp Paul began his work for the AEG 1889/90 until 1893, Franz Schwechten designed the facades of the Acker- und Hussitenstraße in 1894–95.
In 1894 the site of the former Berlin Viehmarktgasse was purchased. This had a railroad siding connecting to the Berlin rail network, but there was no rail connection between the two plants. In 1895 an underground railway link between the two plots was built in a tunnel 270 meters long; the tunnel was built by Siemens & Halske under the direction of C. Schwebel and Wilhelm Lauter, is now the Spree tunnel Stralau, used by public transport. In 1903 the competing radio companies AEG and Siemens & Halske merged, forming a joint subsidiary named Telefunken. In 1907 architect Peter Behrens became an artistic adviser. Responsible for the design of all products and architecture, he has since become considered as the world's first corporate designer. Behren's philosophy was to create a building, solid and simple in its structure, it is perfect for doing its job of producing heavy machinery. The dimensions of the building were chosen to allow turbines to be transported above other machinery. In t
Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark
Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark are an English electronic band formed in Wirral, Merseyside in 1978. Spawned by earlier group The Id, the outfit is composed of co-founders Andy McCluskey and Paul Humphreys, along with Martin Cooper and Stuart Kershaw. OMD released their debut single, "Electricity", in 1979, gained popularity throughout Europe with the 1980 anti-war song "Enola Gay"; the band achieved broader recognition via their album Architecture & Morality and its three singles, all of which were international hits. Although retrospectively reappraised, the experimental Dazzle Ships eroded European support; the band embraced a more straightforward pop sound on Junk Culture, while continuing to experiment via newly acquired digital samplers. A year after the release of The Best of OMD, creative differences rendered McCluskey the only remaining member of the group as Humphreys formed spin-off band The Listening Pool. OMD would return with a new line-up and explore the dance-pop genre: Sugar Tax and its initial singles were sizeable hits.
By the mid 1990s, electronic music had been supplanted by alternative rock, both OMD and The Listening Pool disbanded in 1996. McCluskey conceived pop girl group Atomic Kitten, for whom he served as a principal songwriter, while Humphreys performed as half of the duo Onetwo. In 2006, the outfit reformed with Humphreys back in the fold, began to work on material more akin to their early output; the band re-established themselves as a chart act, kept on touring extensively. Founders Andy McCluskey and Paul Humphreys met at primary school in Meols in the early 1960s, in the mid-1970s, as teenagers, they were involved in different local groups but shared a distaste for guitar driven rock with a macho attitude popular among their friends at the time. By 1975 McCluskey had formed Equinox, as bassist and vocalist, alongside schoolmate Malcolm Holmes on drums, while Humphreys was their roadie. During that time McCluskey and Humphreys discovered their electronic style influenced by Kraftwerk. After Equinox, McCluskey joined Pegasus, the short-lived Hitlerz Underpantz, alongside Humphreys.
McCluskey would sing and play bass guitar. The pair shared a love of electronic music Brian Eno and Kraftwerk. In September 1977, McCluskey and Humphreys put together the seven-piece Wirral group The Id, whose line-up included drummer Malcolm Holmes and McCluskey's girlfriend Julia Kneale on vocals; the group began to gig in the Merseyside area, performing original material. They had quite a following on the scene, one of their tracks was included on a compilation record of local bands called Street to Street. Meanwhile, Humphreys and McCluskey collaborated on a side-project called VCL XI; this side-project allowed them to pursue their more bizarre electronic experiments working with tape collages, home-made kit-built synthesisers, circuit-bent radios. In August 1978, The Id split due to musical differences; the same month, McCluskey joined Wirral electronic outfit Dalek I Love You as their lead singer, but quit in September. In September 1978, the same month he left Dalek I Love You, McCluskey rejoined Humphreys and their VCL XI project was renamed Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark.
The name was gleaned from a list of song lyrics and ideas that were written on McCluskey's bedroom wall. OMD began to gig as a duo, performing to backing tracks played from a TEAC 4-track tape-recorder christened "Winston", their debut performance was in October 1978 at Eric's Club in Liverpool. Finding themselves on the cusp of an electronic new wave in British pop-music, they released a one-off single, "Electricity", with independent label Factory Records; the track was supposed to be produced by the Factory Records producer Martin Hannett. However, the A-side was the band's original demo produced by their friend, owner of Winston and soon to be manager, Paul Collister under the pseudonym Chester Valentino; the single's sleeve was designed by Peter Saville, whose distinctive graphics provided OMD's public image well into the mid-1980s. In 1979 they were asked to support Gary Numan on his first major British tour. Humphreys noted, " gave us our first big break, he saw us opening for Joy Division and he asked us to go on tour with him... we went from the small clubs to playing huge arenas.
Gary was good to us." Numan supported OMD on a 1993 arena tour. The eponymous first album showcased the band's live set at the time, was recorded by the Humphreys/McCluskey duo, although included some guest drums from Id drummer Malcolm Holmes, saxophone from Wirral musician Martin Cooper, it had a simple, poppy, melodic synth-pop sound. Dindisc arranged for the song "Messages" to be re-recorded and released as a single – this gave the band their first hit. Dave Hughes, a founder member of Dalek I Love You who joined OMD in early 1980, is featured in the "Messages"
Bob Dylan is an American singer-songwriter and visual artist, a major figure in popular culture for six decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s, when songs such as "Blowin' in the Wind" and "The Times They Are a-Changin'" became anthems for the Civil Rights Movement and anti-war movement, his lyrics during this period incorporated a wide range of political, social and literary influences, defied pop-music conventions and appealed to the burgeoning counterculture. Following his self-titled debut album in 1962, which comprised traditional folk songs, Dylan made his breakthrough as a songwriter with the release of The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan the following year; the album featured "Blowin' in the Wind" and the thematically complex "A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall". For many of these songs he adapted the tunes and sometimes phraseology of older folk songs, he went on to release the politically charged The Times They Are a-Changin' and the more lyrically abstract and introspective Another Side of Bob Dylan in 1964.
In 1965 and 1966, Dylan encountered controversy when he adopted electrically amplified rock instrumentation, in the space of 15 months recorded three of the most important and influential rock albums of the 1960s: Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde. The six-minute single. In July 1966, Dylan withdrew from touring after being injured in a motorcycle accident. During this period he recorded a large body of songs with members of the Band, who had backed him on tour; these recordings were released as the collaborative album The Basement Tapes, in 1975. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Dylan explored country music and rural themes in John Wesley Harding, Nashville Skyline, New Morning. In 1975, he released Blood on the Tracks. In the late 1970s, he became a born-again Christian and released a series of albums of contemporary gospel music before returning to his more familiar rock-based idiom in the early 1980s; the major works of his career include Time Out of Mind, "Love and Theft", Tempest.
His most recent recordings have comprised versions of traditional American standards songs recorded by Frank Sinatra. Backed by a changing lineup of musicians, he has toured since the late 1980s on what has been dubbed "the Never Ending Tour". Since 1994, Dylan has published eight books of drawings and paintings, his work has been exhibited in major art galleries, he has sold more than 100 million records, making him one of the best-selling music artists of all time. He has received numerous awards including ten Grammy Awards, a Golden Globe Award, an Academy Award. Dylan has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Minnesota Music Hall of Fame, Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, the Songwriters Hall of Fame; the Pulitzer Prize jury in 2008 awarded him a special citation for "his profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power". In 2012, Dylan received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, in 2016, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition".
Bob Dylan was born Robert Allen Zimmerman in St. Mary's Hospital on May 24, 1941, in Duluth and raised in Hibbing, Minnesota, on the Mesabi Range west of Lake Superior, he has David. Dylan's paternal grandparents and Anna Zimmerman, emigrated from Odessa, in the Russian Empire, to the United States following the anti-Semitic pogroms of 1905, his maternal grandparents and Florence Stone, were Lithuanian Jews who arrived in the United States in 1902. In his autobiography, Chronicles: Volume One, Dylan wrote that his paternal grandmother's maiden name was Kirghiz and her family originated from the Kağızman district of Kars Province in northeastern Turkey. Dylan's father, Abram Zimmerman – an electric-appliance shop owner – and mother, Beatrice "Beatty" Stone, were part of a small, close-knit Jewish community, they lived in Duluth until Dylan was six, when his father had polio and the family returned to his mother's hometown, where they lived for the rest of Dylan's childhood. In his early years he listened to the radio—first to blues and country stations from Shreveport and when he was a teenager, to rock and roll.
Dylan formed several bands while attending Hibbing High School. In the Golden Chords, he performed covers of songs by Elvis Presley, their performance of Danny & the Juniors' "Rock and Roll Is Here to Stay" at their high school talent show was so loud that the principal cut the microphone. On January 31, 1959, three days before his death, Buddy Holly performed at the Duluth Armory. Zimmerman, 17, was in the audience. Something I didn't know what, and it gave me the chills."In 1959, Dylan's high school yearbook carried the caption "Robert Zimmerman: to join'Little Richard'." That year, as Elston Gunnn, he performed two dates with Bobby Vee, clapping. In September 1959, Zimmerman enrolled at the University of Minnesota, his focus on rock and roll gave way to American folk music. In 1985, he said: The thing about rock'n'roll is that for me anyway it wasn't enough... There were great catch-phrases and driving pulse rhythms... but the songs weren't serious or didn't reflect li
Dynamic range compression
Dynamic range compression or compression is an audio signal processing operation that reduces the volume of loud sounds or amplifies quiet sounds thus reducing or compressing an audio signal's dynamic range. Compression is used in sound recording and reproduction, live sound reinforcement and in some instrument amplifiers. A dedicated electronic hardware unit or audio software that applies compression is called a compressor. In the 2000s, compressors became available as software plugins that run in digital audio workstation software. In recorded and live music, compression parameters may be adjusted to change the way they affect sounds. Compression and limiting are different in degree and perceived effect. A limiter is a compressor with a high ratio and a short attack time. Downward compression reduces loud sounds over a certain threshold while quiet sounds remain unaffected. A limiter is an extreme type of downward compression. Upward compression increases the loudness of sounds below a certain threshold while leaving louder sounds unaffected.
Both downward and upward compression reduce the dynamic range of an audio signal. An expander increases the dynamic range of the audio signal. Expanders are used to make quiet sounds quieter by reducing the level of an audio signal that falls below a set threshold level. A noise gate is a type of expander; the signal entering a compressor is split. This design, known as a feed-forward type, is used today in most compressors. Earlier designs were based on a feedback layout where the signal level was measured after the amplifier. There are a number of technologies used for variable-gain amplification, each having different advantages and disadvantages. Vacuum tubes are used in a configuration called variable-mu where the grid-to-cathode voltage changes to alter the gain. Optical compressors use a small lamp to create changes in signal gain. Other technologies used include a diode bridge; when working with digital audio, digital signal processing techniques are used to implement compression as audio plug-ins, in mixing consoles, in digital audio workstations.
The algorithms used emulate the above analog technologies. A number of user-adjustable control parameters and features are used to adjust dynamic range compression signal processing algorithms and components. A compressor reduces the level of an audio signal. Threshold is set in decibels dB, where a lower threshold means a larger portion of the signal is treated; when the signal level is below the threshold, no processing is performed and the input signal is passed, unmodified, to the output. Thus a higher threshold of, e.g. − results in less processing, less compression. Threshold timing behavior is subject to release settings; when the signal level goes above threshold, compressor operation is delayed by the attack setting. For an amount of time determined by the release after the input signal has fallen below the threshold, the compressor continues to apply dynamic range compression; the amount of gain reduction is determined by ratio: a ratio of 4:1 means that if input level is 4 dB over the threshold, the output signal level is reduced to 1 dB over the threshold.
The gain and output level has been reduced by 3 dB. The highest ratio of ∞:1 is known as limiting, it is achieved using a ratio of 60:1, denotes that any signal above the threshold is brought down to the threshold level once the attack time has expired. A compressor may provide a degree of control over how it acts; the attack is the period when the compressor is decreasing gain in response to increased level at the input to reach the gain determined by the ratio. The release is the period when the compressor is increasing gain in response to reduced level at the input to reach the output gain determined by the ratio, or, to unity, once the input level has fallen below the threshold; because the loudness pattern of the source material is modified by the time-varying operation of compressor, it may change the character of the signal in subtle to quite noticeable ways depending on the attack and release settings used. The length of each period is determined by the required change in gain. For more intuitive operation, a compressor's attack and release controls are labeled as a unit of time.
This is the amount of time it takes for the gain to change a set amount of dB or a set percentage towards the target gain. There is no industry standard for the exact meaning of these time parameters. In many compressors the attack and release times are adjustable by the user; some compressors, have the attack and release times determined by the circuit design and these cannot be adjusted by the user. Sometimes the attack and release times are automatic or program dependent, meaning that the behavior may change dependent on the input signal. Another control a compressor might offer is soft knee selection; this controls whether the bend in the response curve between below threshold and above threshold is abrupt or gradual. A soft knee increases the compression ratio as the level increases and reaches the compression ratio set by the user. A soft knee reduces the audible transition from uncompressed to compressed, is applicable for higher ratio settings where the changeover at the threshold
The Wall is the eleventh studio album by English rock band Pink Floyd, released in 1979 through Harvest and Columbia Records. Conceived during the In The Flesh tour, recording spanned nearly a year, from December 1978 to November 1979, took place in France, New York, Los Angeles, it was produced by Bob Erzin, who helped to refine the bridge tensions during recording. Some of the outtakes from the recording sessions were used on The Final Cut. A rock opera and a concept record, its story explores Pink, a jaded rockstar that bassist Roger Waters modeled after himself and band founder Syd Barrett. Pink's life begins with the loss of his father during the Second World War and continues with abuse from his schoolteachers, an overprotective mother, the breakdown of his marriage; the band, who were struggling with personal and financial difficulties, supported the idea. The Wall is the last album to feature Pink Floyd as a quartet; the record was promoted with three singles: "Another Brick in the Wall, Part 2", "Run Like Hell", "Comfortably Numb".
From 1980 to 1981, Pink Floyd embarked on The Wall Tour, notable for its elaborate theatrical effects. The concept was adapted into a feature film of the same name, directed by Alan Parker and released in 1982. At the time, The Wall received mixed reviews from critics, many of whom found it overblown and pretentious. Retrospectively, it is considered one of the greatest albums of all time, is one of the most well-known concept albums; the record was a commercial success, reaching number one in the US, number three in the UK. As of 2018, the album has sold over 24 million copies, the second best-selling in the band's catalog, as well as one of the best-selling of all time. Pink Floyd's In the Flesh Tour was their first playing in large stadiums. Bassist and songwriter Roger Waters recalled: "I disliked it intensely because it became a social event rather than a more controlled and ordinary relationship between musicians and an audience... The front sixty rows seemed to be screaming and shouting and rocking and swaying and not listening to anything.
And those further back could see bugger-all anyway." Some audience members set off firecrackers, leading Waters to scold them. In July 1977, on the final date at the Montreal Olympic Stadium, a group of noisy and excited fans near the stage irritated Waters so much that he spat at one of them. Guitarist David Gilmour refused to perform a final encore and sat at the soundboard, leaving the band, with backup guitarist Snowy White, to improvise a slow, sad twelve-bar blues, which Waters described as "some music to go home to"; that night, Waters spoke with music producer Bob Ezrin and Ezrin's psychiatrist friend about the alienation he was experiencing. He articulated his desire to isolate himself by constructing a wall across the stage between the performers and the audience, he said, "I kept saying to people on that tour,'I'm not enjoying this... There is something wrong with this.'"While Gilmour and Wright were in France recording solo albums, drummer Nick Mason was busy producing Steve Hillage's Green, Waters began to write material.
The spitting incident became the starting point for a new concept, which explored the protagonist's self-imposed isolation after years of traumatic interactions with authority figures and the loss of his father as a child. The Wall would study the performer's psychological separation from the audience, using a physical structure as a metaphorical and theatrical device. In July 1978, Pink Floyd reconvened at Britannia Row Studios, where Waters presented two new ideas for concept albums; the first was a 90-minute demo with the working title Bricks in the Wall. The second was about a man's dreams across one night, dealt with marriage and the pros and cons of monogamy and family life versus promiscuity; the band chose the first option. By September, Pink Floyd was experiencing financial difficulties and urgently needed to produce an album to make money. Financial planners Norton Warburg Group had invested £1.3–3.3 million of the group's money in high-risk venture capital to reduce their tax liabilities.
The strategy failed when many of the businesses NWG invested in lost money, leaving the band facing tax rates as high as 83 percent. "We made Dark Side and it looked as if we'd cracked it," recalled Waters. "Then these bastards had stolen it all. It looked as if we might be faced with huge tax bills for the money, lost. Eighty-three per cent was a lot of money in those days and we didn't have it." Pink Floyd terminated their relationship with NWG. "By force of necessity, I had to become involved in the business side," remarked Gilmour, "because no one around us has shown themselves sufficiently capable or honest to cope with it, I saw with Norton Warburg that the shit was heading inexorably towards the fan. They weren't the first crooks. Since there's not a penny that I haven't signed for. I sign every cheque and examine everything."To help manage the project's 26 tracks, Waters decided to bring in a producer and collaborator, feeling he needed "a collaborator, musically and intellectually in a similar place to where I was."
At the suggestion of Waters's then-girlfriend Lady Carolyne Christie, who had w