Portuguese Armed Forces
The Portuguese Armed Forces are the military of Portugal. They include the General Staff of the Armed Forces, the other unified bodies and the three service branches: Portuguese Navy, Portuguese Army and Portuguese Air Force; the President of the Republic is the head of the Portuguese military, with the title of "Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces". The management of the Armed Forces and the execution of the national defense policy is however done by the government via its Minister of National Defense; the highest-ranking officer in the military is the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces, which has operational control of the Armed Forces during peacetime and assumes their full control when a state of war exists. The Armed Forces are charged with protecting Portugal as well as supporting international peacekeeping efforts when mandated by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United Nations and/or the European Union. Portugal was ranked the 3rd most peaceful country in the World in the Global Peace Index 2017, presently not having significant national security issues.
The Portuguese Armed Forces have been thus focused in non military public service activities and in external military operations. Recent external operations include anti-piracy action in the Gulf of Aden, the conflicts in the Central African Republic and in Afghanistan, the peacekeeping missions in East-Timor, Lebanon and Bosnia-Herzegovina, the air policing of Iceland and the Baltic States. Military units and other bodies are stationed throughout all the Portuguese territory, including Continental Portugal and the Azores; the Portuguese Armed Forces were opened regular for women during the early-1990's. Portugal had mandatory conscription for all able-bodies men until November 2004; the national defense is the activity whose objectives are to guarantee the State sovereignty, the national independence and the territorial integrity of Portugal, as well as to assure the liberty and security of the populations and the protection of the fundamental values of the constitutional order against any external threat or aggression.
The national defense assures the fulfillment of the international military agreements of the State, accordingly with the national interest. The Portuguese Armed Forces are responsible for the military defense, the military component of the national defense; the Portuguese Armed Forces are an essential pillar of the national defense and are the structure of the State that has as its main mission the military defense of the Republic. They obey to the competent bodies of sovereignty, accordingly with the Constitution and the law, being integrated in the State direct administration through the Ministry of National Defense; the bodies of State directly responsible for the national defense and the Armed Forces are the following: President of the Republic Assembly of the Republic Government Superior Council of National DefenseThe Minister of National Defense is the political responsible for the elaboration and execution of the military component of the national defense policy, for the administration of the Armed Forces and for the results of their employment.
The system of forces defines the set of capacities that should exist for the fulfillment of the missions of the Armed Forces. It encompasses the set of systems of forces of all branches of the Armed Forces; the system of forces includes two components: Operational component - includes the set of assets and forces to be employed operationally. It is the dynamic part of the system of forces, including deployable elements, such as frigates, infantry battalions and flying squadrons; the operational component includes some non-deployable operational command bodies. Fix component - is the set of commands, establishments and services that are essential to the organization and general support of the Armed Forces and their branches, it is the static part of the system of forces, including only non-deployable elements, such as naval facilities and air bases. The Portuguese armed forces' structure includes: the General Staff of the Armed Forces the three branches of the Armed Forces: Navy and Air Force the military bodies of command: Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces, the Chief of Staff of the Navy, the Chief of Staff of the Army and the Chief of Staff of the Air Force the military bodies of advisement The Armed Forces activity is defined and oriented by the following strategic guidelines: The National Defense Law defines the general guidelines of the national defense, including the concept of national defense, the national defense policy, the responsibilities of the several bodies of State regarding national defense, the assignments and general structure of the Ministry of National Defense and of the Armed Forces, the participation of the citizens in the Homeland defense and the situation of State of War.
The LDN is updated, with the present version being the Law 21-A/2006. The Strategic Concept of National Defense is the component of the national defense policy which defines the State's priorities in terms of defense, accordingly with the national interest; the present version of the CEDN was approved by the Council of Ministers through its Resolution 19/2013. The Organic Basic Law of the Organization of the Armed Forces defines the organization of the Armed Forces; the present version of the LOBOFA is the Organic Law 1-A/2009. The Strategic Military Concept – due to the Strategic Concept of National Defense, it defines the conceptual guidelines of ac
This article is about the military school in Lisbon, Portugal. For other articles, see Colégio Militar. Colégio Militar is a military secondary school in Portugal, it was founded by Marechal António Teixeira Rebello in 1803. Its initial location was S. Julião da Barra Fort, in Oeiras, it moved a first time to a former hospital-convent in Luz in 1814 - during its first years it moved two more times before resettling in Luz in 1859. Intended to shelter the sons of military officers stationed abroad to fight the French armies and turn them into army officers, it endured through the French Invasions until the present, it is the eldest educational institution of Portugal, after the Universidade de Coimbra and one of the eldest schools of Europe and the most decorated military institution in Portugal. Colégio Militar has been through many regime changes and wars, providing a military education for thousands of youngsters who join at the age of ten and finish just before entering university or military academies.
It is quite distinctive in its educational method, in which the elder students are ranked and put in command of the younger, perpetuating many rich and ancient traditions that keep a tight bond in the student corps. Teaching is led by a mixed staff of civilian teachers. There is a high sports component in the curriculum which includes, among others, horse riding, competition gymnastics, shooting. Many of its former students have influenced the development of the Portuguese society since the mid-19th century, such as five presidents of the Portuguese Republic, prominent military men such as Morais Sarmento and Óscar Monteiro Torres, writers such as Manuel Pinheiro Chagas and Júlio Dantas, explorers like Serpa Pinto and Henrique Carvalho, artists and actors such as Tomás Alcaide, Raúl de Carvalho, Artur Semedo, Raúl Ferrão and Luís Esparteiro, politicians such as António Sérgio, Humberto Delgado and Tito Morais and many others. About 15,000 students have graduated from Colégio Militar, its anniversary is celebrated on March 3 with a parade descending "Avenida da Liberdade", Lisbon's main avenue.
Former students can be seen shouting their war cry "Zacatraz" - these can be recognised by the use of the informal symbol, the "Barretina", on their lapels. The Portuguese Colégio Militar gave birth to a net of twelve military schools in Brazil built in cooperation with the Portuguese experience of a centenary school with high levels of success; this is a list of alumni with their own articles: Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen, Viscount of Porto Seguro, Brazilian diplomat and historian Alexandre de Serpa Pinto, Army Colonel and colonial administrator Gomes da Costa, Army Marshal and President of Portugal Alfredo de Sá Cardoso, Army General and Prime-Minister of Portugal Júlio Dantas, poet, politician and dramatist Francisco Craveiro Lopes, Air Force Marshal and President of Portugal Humberto Delgado, Air Force General and Presidential candidate António de Spínola, Army Marshal and President of Portugal Adriano Moreira, university professor, ministry of the Overseas and politician Official website Alumni website
Portuguese Guinea, called the Overseas Province of Guinea from 1951, was a West African colony of Portugal from the late 15th century until 10 September 1974, when it gained independence as Guinea-Bissau. The Portuguese Crown commissioned its navigators to explore the Atlantic coast of West Africa to find the sources of gold; the gold trade was controlled by Morocco, Muslim caravan routes across the Sahara carried salt, textiles, fish and slaves. The navigators first passed the obstruction of Cape Bojador in 1437 and were able to explore the West African coast as far as Sierra Leone by 1460 and colonize the Cape Verde islands from 1456; the gold came from the upper reaches of the Niger River and Volta River and the Portuguese crown aimed to divert the gold trade towards the coast. To control this trade, the king ordered the building of a castle, called São Jorge da Mina, on the Portuguese Gold Coast in 1482 and other trading posts; the Portuguese government instituted the Company of Guinea to deal with the trading and to fix the prices of the goods.
Besides gold, Melegueta pepper and slaves were traded. It is estimated that the Atlantic slave trade transported around 11 million people from Africa between 1440 and 1870, including 2 million from Senegambia or Upper Guinea; this area was the source of an estimated 150,000 African slaves transported by the Portuguese from Upper Guinea before 1500, some used to grow cotton and indigo in the uninhabited Cape Verde islands. Portuguese traders and exiled criminals penetrated the rivers and creeks of Upper Guinea forming a mulatto population using Portuguese-based Creole language as their lingua franca. However, after 1500 the main area of Portuguese interest, both for gold and slaves, was further south in the Gold Coast. At the start of the 17th century, the main Portuguese bases for the export of slaves were Santiago, Cape Verde for the Upper Guinea traffic, São Tomé Island for the Gulf of Guinea. In the 1630s and 1640s, the Dutch drove the Portuguese from most of the Gold Coast, but they retained a foothold at São João de Ajuda, now called Ouidah in Benin, as they preferred to acquire slaves from the Gulf of Guinea rather than Upper Guinea before the 1750s.
In the 17th century, the French at Saint-Louis, the English at Kunta Kinteh Island on the Gambia River and Dutch at Gorée had established bases in Upper Guinea. The weak Portuguese position in Upper Guinea was strengthened by the first Marquess of Pombal who promoted the supply of slaves from this area to the provinces of Grão-Pará and Maranhão in northern Brazil, between 1757 and 1777, over 25,000 slaves were transported from the “Rivers of Guinea”, which approximates Portuguese Guinea and parts of Senegal, although this area had been neglected by the Portuguese for the previous 200 years. Bissau, founded in 1765, became the centre of Portuguese control. Further British interest in the area led to a brief attempt in the 1790s to establish a base on the island of Bolama, where there was no evidence of any continuous Portuguese presence. Between the retreat of the British settlers in 1793 and the official Portuguese occupation of the island in 1837, there were several attempts to establish a European presence on the island.
After the Portuguese had asserted their claim in 1837, Afro-Portuguese lived and worked there alongside Afro-British from Sierra Leone, since Britain did not relinquish its claim to Bolama until 1870. The abolition of the slave trade by Britain in 1807 presented the slave traders of Guinea with a virtual monopoly of the West Africa slave trade with Brazil. Despite the Brazilian and Portuguese governments agreeing to stop this traffic in the 1830s, it continued at 18th-century levels, only declined after 1850, when the British government put pressure on Brazil to enforce its existing ban on the import of slaves; the last significant consignment of West African slaves reached Brazil in 1852. Britain's interest in the Upper Guinea region declined with the end of the British slave trade in 1807 and became focused on Sierra Leone after the Boloma Island settlement was abandoned. At the start of the 19th century, the Portuguese felt reasonably secure in Bissau and regarded the neighbouring coastline as their own.
Their control was tenuous: for much of the 19th century the Portuguese presence in Guinea was limited to the rivers of Guinea, the settlements of Bissau and Ziguinchor. Elsewhere it was preserved, with little official assistance, by local Creole people and Cape Verde islanders, who owned small plantations; the existence of French- and Senegalese-run plantations brought a risk of French claims south of the Casamance River. After the Berlin Conference of 1885 introduced the principle of Effective Occupation, negotiations with France led to the loss of the valuable Casamance region to French West Africa, in exchange for French agreement to Portuguese Guinea's boundaries. At this time, Portugal occupied half a dozen coastal or river bases, controlling some maritime trade but few of Guinea's people. However, in 1892, Portugal made Guinea a separate military district to promote its occupation. Had the doctrine of Effective Occupation been as prominent in 1870 as it was after 1884, Portugal might have lost Bolama to Britain.
However and Portugal agreed to international arbitration in 1868. President Ulysses S. Grant of the United States of America acted as arbiter, in 1870 he awarded the island to Portugal. Portugal's precarious financial position and military weakness threatened the retention of its colonies. In 1891, António José Enes, rationalised taxes, granted concessions in Guinea to foreign companies
Portuguese Colonial War
. The Portuguese Colonial War known in Portugal as the Overseas War or in the former colonies as the War of Liberation, was fought between Portugal's military and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugal's African colonies between 1961 and 1974; the Portuguese regime was overthrown by a military coup in 1974, the change in government brought the conflict to an end. The war was a decisive ideological struggle in Lusophone Africa, surrounding nations, mainland Portugal; the prevalent Portuguese and international historical approach considers the Portuguese Colonial War as was perceived at the time: a single conflict fought in three separate theaters of operations: Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique. Unlike other European nations during the 1950s and 1960s, the Portuguese Estado Novo regime did not withdraw from its African colonies, or the overseas provinces as those territories had been called since 1951. During the 1960s, various armed independence movements became active: the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola, National Liberation Front of Angola, National Union for the Total Independence of Angola in Angola, African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde in Portuguese Guinea, the Mozambique Liberation Front in Mozambique.
During the ensuing conflict, atrocities were committed by all forces involved. Throughout the period Portugal faced increasing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions imposed by the international community. By 1973, the war had become unpopular due to its length and financial costs, the worsening of diplomatic relations with other United Nations members, the role it had always played as a factor of perpetuation of the entrenched Estado Novo regime and the non-democratic status quo; the end of the war came with the Carnation Revolution military coup of April 1974. The withdrawal resulted in the exodus of hundreds of thousands of Portuguese citizens plus military personnel of European and mixed ethnicity from the former Portuguese territories and newly independent African nations; this migration is regarded as one of the largest peaceful migrations in the world's history. The former colonies faced severe problems after independence. Devastating and violent civil wars followed in Angola and Mozambique, which lasted several decades, claimed millions of lives, resulted in large numbers of displaced refugees.
Economic and social recession, lack of democracy and other elemental civil and political rights, poverty and failed central planning eroded the initial revolutionary zeal. A level of social order and economic development comparable to what had existed under Portuguese rule, including during the period of the Colonial War, became the goal of the independent territories; the former Portuguese territories in Africa became sovereign states, with Agostinho Neto in Angola, Samora Machel in Mozambique, Luís Cabral in Guinea-Bissau, Manuel Pinto da Costa in São Tomé and Príncipe, Aristides Pereira in Cape Verde as the heads of state. When the Portuguese began trading on the west coast of Africa, in the 15th century, they concentrated their energies on Guinea and Angola. Hoping at first for gold, they soon found that slaves were the most valuable commodity available in the region for export; the Islamic Empire was well-established in the African slave trade, for centuries linking it to the Arab slave trade.
However, the Portuguese who had conquered the Islamic port of Ceuta in 1415 and several other towns in current day Morocco in a Crusade against Islamic neighbors, managed to establish themselves in the area. But the Portuguese never established much more than a foothold in either place. In Guinea, rival Europeans grabbed much of the trade while local African rulers confined the Portuguese to the coast; these rulers sent enslaved Africans to the Portuguese ports, or to forts in Africa from where they were exported. Thousands of kilometers down the coast, in Angola, the Portuguese found it harder to consolidate their early advantage against encroachments by Dutch and French rivals; the fortified Portuguese towns of Luanda and Benguela remained continuously in Portuguese hands. As in Guinea, the slave trade became the basis of the local economy in Angola. Excursions traveled farther inland to procure captives that were sold by African rulers. More than a million men and children were shipped from Angola across the Atlantic.
In this region, unlike Guinea, the trade remained in Portuguese hands. Nearly all the slaves were destined for Brazil. In Mozambique, reached in the 15th century by Portuguese sailors searching for a maritime spice trade route, the Portuguese settled along the coast and made their way into the hinterland as sertanejos; these sertanejos lived alongside Swahili traders and obtained employment among Shona kings as interpreters and political advisers. One such sertanejo managed to travel through all the Shona kingdoms, including the Mutapa Empire's metropolitan district, between 1512 and 1516. By the 1530s, small bands of Portuguese traders and prospectors penetrated the interior regions seeking gold, where they set up garrisons and trading posts at Sena and Tete on the Zambezi River and tried to establish a monopoly over the gold trade; the Portuguese entered into direct relations with the
A cockfight is a blood sport between two cocks, or gamecocks, held in a ring called a cockpit. The history of raising fowl for fighting goes back 6,000 years; the first documented use of the word gamecock, denoting use of the cock as to a "game", a sport, pastime or entertainment, was recorded in 1634, after the term "cock of the game" used by George Wilson, in the earliest known book on the sport of cockfighting in The Commendation of Cocks and Cock Fighting in 1607. But it was during Magellan's voyage of discovery of the Philippines in 1521 when modern cockfighting was first witnessed and documented by Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan's chronicler, in the kingdom of Taytay; the combatants, referred to as gamecocks, are specially bred and conditioned for increased stamina and strength. Male and female chickens of such a breed are referred to as game fowl. Cocks possess congenital aggression toward all males of the same species. Wagers are made on the outcome of the match. Cockfighting is a blood sport due in some part to the physical trauma the cocks inflict on each other, sometimes increased by attaching metal spurs to the cocks' natural spurs.
While not all fights are to the death, the cocks may endure significant physical trauma. In some areas around the world, cockfighting is still practiced as a mainstream event. Advocates of the "age old sport" list cultural and religious relevance as reasons for perpetuation of cockfighting as a sport. Two owners place their gamecock in the cockpit; the cocks fight until one of them dies or is critically injured. This was in a cockpit, a term, used in the 16th century to mean a place of entertainment or frenzied activity. William Shakespeare used the term in Henry V to mean the area around the stage of a theatre. In Tudor times, the Palace of Westminster had a permanent cockpit, called the Cockpit-in-Court. Cockfighting is an ancient spectator sport. There is evidence; the Encyclopædia Britannica holds: The sport was popular in ancient times in India, China and other Eastern countries and was introduced into Ancient Greece in the time of Themistocles. For a long time the Romans affected to despise this "Greek diversion", but they ended up adopting it so enthusiastically that the agricultural writer Columella complained that its devotees spent their whole patrimony in betting at the side of the pit.
Based on his analysis of a Mohenjo-daro seal, Iravatham Mahadevan speculates that the city's ancient name could have been Kukkutarma. However, according to a recent study, "it is not known whether these birds made much contribution to the modern domestic fowl. Chickens from the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley may have been the main source of diffusion throughout the world." "Within the Indus Valley, indications are that chickens were used for sport and not for food" and that by 1000 BC they had assumed "religious significance". Some additional insight into the pre-history of European and American secular cockfighting may be taken from The London Encyclopaedia: At first cockfighting was a religious and a political institution at Athens. An early image of a fighting rooster has been found on a 6th-century BC seal of Jaazaniah from the biblical city of Mizpah in Benjamin, near Jerusalem. Remains of these birds have been found at other Israelite Iron Age sites, when the rooster was used as a fighting bird.
The anthropologist Clifford Geertz wrote the influential essay Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight, on the meaning of the cockfight in Balinese culture. In some regional variations, the birds are equipped with either metal spurs or knives, tied to the leg in the area where the bird's natural spur has been removed. A cockspur is a bracelet with a curved, sharp spike, attached to the leg of the bird; the spikes range in length from "short spurs" of just over an inch to "long spurs" two and a half inches long. In the highest levels of 17th century English cockfighting, the spikes were made of silver; the sharp spurs have been known to injure or kill the bird handlers. In the naked heel variation, the bird's natural spurs are left intact and sharpened: fighting is done without gaffs or taping in India. There it is fought naked heel and either three rounds of twenty minutes with a gap of again twenty minutes or four rounds of fifteen minutes each and a gap of fifteen minutes between them. Cockfighting, known in Brazil as rinha de galos, was banned in 1934 with the help of President Getúlio Vargas through Brazil's 1934 constitution, passed on 16 July.
Based on the recognition of animals in the Constitution, a Brazilian Supreme Court ruling resulted in the ban of animal related activities that involve claimed "animal suffering such as cockfighting, a tradition practiced in southern Brazil, known as'Farra do Boi'", stating that "animals have the right to legal protection against mistreatment and suffering". In Colombia, cockfighting is a tradition, es
Portuguese Air Force
The Portuguese Air Force is the aerial warfare force of Portugal. Locally, it is referred to by the acronym FAP, but internationally is referred to by the acronym PoAF, it is the youngest of the three branches of the Portuguese Armed Forces. The Portuguese Air Force was formed on July 1, 1952, when the former Aeronáutica Militar and Aviação Naval were united and formed an independent air branch of the Armed Forces. However, the remote origins of the FAP go back to the early 20th century, with the establishment of the first military air unit in 1911, of the Military Aeronautics School in 1914, of the participation of Portuguese pilots in the World War I and of establishment of the Army and Navy aviation services; the FAP is commanded by the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, a subordinate of the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces for operational matters and a direct subordinate of the Minister of National Defense for all other matters. The CEMFA is the only officer in the Air Force with the rank of general.
Presently, the FAP is an professional force made of career personnel and of volunteer personnel. As 2015, the FAP employed a total of 5957 military personnel, of which 1677 were officers, 2511 were NCOs and 1769 were other enlisted ranks; the Air Force further included 842 civilian employees. Besides its warfare role, the FAP has public service roles, namely assuring the Portuguese Air Search and Rescue Service; until 2014, the FAP integrated the National Aeronautical Authority. The AAN is now a separate body, but continues to be headed by the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, with the Air Force assuring most of its activities, namely the air policing service, its aerobatic display teams are the Asas de Portugal jet aircraft display team and the Rotores de Portugal helicopter display team. The remote origins of the Portuguese Air Force lay in the origins of the Portuguese military aeronautics. Portugal was directly linked with the history of aeronautics since its early beginnings. In 1709, the Portuguese priest Bartolomeu de Gusmão requested a patent for a device to move through the air, which consisted of a kind of hot air balloon.
The patent was granted on 19 April 1709 and small scale models of this device were tested with success on several occasions, including before the court of King John V of Portugal. Accordingly, with some opinions, a real scale device would have performed a crewed flight over Lisbon, taking off from the São Jorge Castle and landing in the Cotovia Hill; this may have been the first manned flight in history. In 1876, General Augusto Bon de Sousa proposed the use of aerostats as means of observation and communication; this proposal was implemented in 1886, with the beginning of the use of Lachambre balloons by the Army Engineering School at Tancos. The history of the Portuguese military aviation proper is connected with the foundation of the Air Club of Portugal on 11 December 1909, by 30 aviation enthusiasts, the majority of them being Army officers; the AeCP became one of the major boosters of the development of aviation in Portugal in the early 20th century, including of its military use. The AeCP sponsored Abeillard Gomes da Silva in the design and building of the first Portuguese airplane, financed by the War Ministry and tested at the Army School of Engineering, Tancos on 13 January 1910.
Despite the previous use of balloons by the Portuguese Army, its first air unit was only created in 1911, in the scope of the military re-organization that occurred that year. This unit was the Aerostation Company, part of the Army Telegraphic Service and was intended to operate observation aerostats; this unit would receive a handful of airplanes. In 1912, the Portuguese Government received its first airplane, a Deperdussin B, offered by the Portuguese-born Colonel Albino Costa of the Brazilian Army; the Government further received a Maurice Farman MF4 offered by the O Comércio do Porto newspaper and an Avro 500 offered by the Portuguese Republican Party. These aircraft would be integrated in the Aerostation Company, but remained for years without use because of the non-existence of pilots. Still in 1912, midshipman Miguel Freitas Homem of the naval purser branch applied for admission to any course that would qualify him as an aviator, he was the first member of the Portuguese Military to formally request to be an aircraft pilot.
In the same year, by request of the AeCP, the legislator António José de Almeida presented a bill to the Portuguese Parliament for the creation of a Military Aviation Institute. Despite the non approval of the bill, the War Ministry appointed an ad-hoc commission, made up of officers of the Army and Navy, intended to study the basis for the creation of aviation and airship schools. By the Army Order of 12 February 1913, this became the permanent Military Aeronautics Commission, attached to the Army Telegraphic Service; the Parliament issued the Law 162 of 14 May 1914, which created the Military Aeronautics School, including aviation and aerostation services. The EMA would include aeronautical troops and technical and support staff; the Law foresaw the existence of a Military Aeronautical Service from which the EMA would be dependent. However, while the Aeronautical Service was still not organized, the EMA would be under the inspection of the chairman of the Military Aeronautics Commission. After the formal creation of the EMA, the next steps were to implement it.
One of the first steps was to train aviators to serve as the future instructors, with 11
Angolan War of Independence
The Angolan War of Independence began as an uprising against forced cotton cultivation, it became a multi-faction struggle for the control of Portugal's overseas province of Angola among three nationalist movements and a separatist movement. The war ended when a leftist military coup in Lisbon in April 1974 overthrew Portugal's Estado Novo regime, the new regime stopped all military action in the African colonies, declaring its intention to grant them independence without delay; the conflict is approached as a branch or a theater of the wider Portuguese Overseas War, which included the independence wars of Guinea-Bissau and of Mozambique. It was a guerrilla war in which the Portuguese armed and security forces waged a counter-insurgency campaign against armed groups dispersed across sparsely populated areas of the vast Angolan countryside. Many atrocities were committed by all forces involved in the conflict. In the end, the Portuguese achieved overall military victory, before the Carnation Revolution in Portugal most of Angola's territory was under Portuguese control.
In Angola, after the Portuguese had stopped the war, an armed conflict broke out among the nationalist movements. This war formally came to an end in January 1975 when the Portuguese government, the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola, the National Liberation Front of Angola signed the Alvor Agreement. In 1482, the Kingdom of Portugal's caravels, commanded by navigator Diogo Cão, arrived in the Kingdom of Kongo. Other expeditions followed, close relations were soon established between the two kingdoms; the Portuguese brought firearms, many other technological advances, a new religion, Christianity. In return, the King of the Congo offered slaves and minerals. Paulo Dias de Novais founded Luanda in 1575 as São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda. Novais occupied a strip of land with a hundred families of colonists and four hundred soldiers, established a fortified settlement; the Portuguese crown granted Luanda the status of city in 1605.
Several other settlements and ports were founded and maintained by the Portuguese. Benguela, a Portuguese fort from 1587, a town from 1617, was another important early settlement founded and ruled by Portugal; the early period of Portuguese incursion was punctuated by a series of wars and disputes with local African rulers Nzinga Mbandi, who resisted Portugal with great determination. The conquest of the territory of contemporary Angola started only in the 19th century and was not concluded before the 1920s. In 1834, Angola and the rest of the Portuguese overseas dominions received the status of overseas provinces of Portugal. From on, the official position of the Portuguese authorities was always that Angola was an integral part of Portugal in the same way as were the provinces of the Metropole; the status of province was interrupted from 1926 to 1951, when Angola had the title of "colony", but it was recovered on 11 June 1951. The Portuguese constitutional revision of 1971 increased the autonomy of the province, which became the State of Angola.
Angola has always had low population density. Despite having a territory larger than France and Germany combined, in 1960, Angola had just a population of 5 million, of which around 180,000 were whites, 55,000 were mixed race and the remaining were blacks. In the 1970s, the population had increased to 5.65 million, of which 450,000 were whites, 65,000 were mixed race and the remaining were blacks. Political scientist Gerald Bender wrote "… by the end of 1974 the white population of Angola would be 335,000, or more than half the number, reported."At the time of the conflict, the government of the province of Angola was headed by the Governor-General of Angola, who had both legislative and executive powers, reporting directly to the Portuguese Minister of the Overseas. The Governor-General did not have however military responsibilities, which were vested in the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Angola, who reported to the Minister of National Defense and the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces.
However, the Governor-General was responsible for the internal security forces. The Governor-General was assisted by a cabinet made up of a Secretary-General and several provincial secretaries. There was a Legislative Council - including both appointed and elected members - with legislative responsibilities that were increased in the 1960s and 1970s. In 1972, it was transformed in the Legislative Assembly. There was a Council of Government, which included the senior public officials of the province and, responsible to advice the Governor-General in his legislative and executive responsibilities. In 1961, the local administration of Angola included the following districts: Cabinda, Luanda, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Lunda, Huambo, Bié-Cuando-Cubango, Moxico, Moçâmedes and Huíla. In 1962, the Congo District was divided in the Zaire and Uige districts and that of Bié-Cuando-Cubando in the Bié and Cuando-Cubango districts. In 1970, the Cunene District was created by the separation of the southern part of the Huíla District.
Each was headed by a district governor, assisted by a district board. Following the Portuguese model of local government, the districts were made of municipalities and these were subdivided in civil parishes, each administered by local council. In the regions where the necessary social and economical development had not yet been