Olympique Lyonnais referred to as Lyon or OL, is a French football club based in Lyon. It plays in France's highest football division, Ligue 1; the club was formed as Lyon Olympique Universitaire in 1899, according to many supporters and sport historians, but was nationally established as a club in 1950. The club's most successful period has been the 21st century; the club won its first Ligue 1 championship in 2002, starting a national record-setting streak of seven successive titles. Lyon has won a record seven Trophée des Champions, five Coupe de France titles and three Ligue 2 titles. Lyon has participated in the UEFA Champions League 12 times, during the 2009–10 season, reached the semi-finals of the competition for the first time after three previous quarter-final appearances. Olympique Lyonnais plays its home matches at the 59,186-seat Parc Olympique Lyonnais, commercially known as Groupama Stadium, in Décines-Charpieu, a suburb of Lyon; the club's home colors are white and blue. Lyon was a member of the G14 group of leading European football clubs and are founder members of its successor, the European Club Association.
Olympique Lyonnais is one of the most popular clubs in France. A 2009 survey found that about 11% of the country's football fans support the club, a proportion Lyon shared with Paris Saint-Germain, behind only Olympique de Marseille; the club's nickname, Les Gones, means "The Kids" in Lyon's regional dialect of Arpitan. The chairman of Lyon is Jean-Michel Aulas and the club is managed by Bruno Génésio. Olympique Lyonnais has a successful women's football team that has won its league a record 15 times; the women's team has won nine Coupe de France titles and the UEFA Women's Champions League in 2011, 2012, 2016 and 2017. Olympique Lyonnais was formed under the multisports club Lyon Olympique Universitaire, formed in 1896 as Racing Club de Lyon. Following numerous internal disagreements regarding the cohabitation of amateurs and professionals within the club, then-manager of the club Félix Louot and his entourage contemplated forming their own club. On 3 August 1950, Louot's plan came to fruition when Olympique Lyonnais was founded by Dr. Albert Trillat and numerous others.
The club's first manager was Oscar Heisserer and, on 26 August 1950, played its first official match defeating CA Paris-Charenton 3–0 in front of 3,000 supporters. In just the club's second year of existence, Lyon was crowned champion of the second division, securing promotion to the first division; the club maintained its first division place for the remainder of the decade, excluding a year's stint in the second division for the 1953–54 season. Lyon achieved moderate success during the 1960s and 1970s with the likes of Fleury Di Nallo, Néstor Combin, Serge Chiesa, Bernard Lacombe and Jean Djorkaeff playing major roles. Under manager Lucien Jasseron, Lyon won its first-ever Coupe de France title defeating Bordeaux 2–0 in the 1963–64 season; the club performed respectably in the league under Jasseron's reign until the 1965–66 season, when Lyon finished 16th, which led to Jasseron's departure. His replacement was Louis Hon, who helped Lyon win their second Coupe de France title after defeating Sochaux 3–1 in the 1966–67 season.
Lyon was managed by former Lyon legend Aimé Mignot heading into the 1970s. Under Mignot's helm, Lyon won its third Coupe de France title in 1972–73, beating Nantes 2–1. In June 1987, Lyon was bought by Rhône businessman Jean-Michel Aulas who took control of the club aiming to turn Lyon into an established Ligue 1 side, his ambitious plan, titled OL – Europe, was designed to develop the club at the European level and back into the first division within a period of no more than four years. The first manager under the new hierarchy was Raymond Domenech; the aspiring chairman gave Domenech carte blanche to recruit whoever he saw fit to help the team reach the first division. They went on to accomplish this in Domenech's first season in charge. Lyon achieved its zenith under Domenech. For the remainder of his tenure, the club underachieved. Domenech was replaced by former French international Jean Tigana, who led the team to an impressive second place in the 1994–95 season. At the start of the new millennium, Lyon began to achieve greater success in French football.
The club established itself as the premiere club in France defeating Marseille and Paris Saint-Germain and became France's richest club as well as one of the most popular. Lyon became known for developing promising talent who went on to achieve greatness not only in France, but abroad and internationally. Notable examples include Michael Essien, Florent Malouda, Sidney Govou, Cris, Eric Abidal, Mahamadou Diarra, Patrick Müller and Karim Benzema. Lyon won its first Ligue 1 championship in 2002, starting a national record-breaking streak of seven successive titles. During that run the club won one Coupe de France title, its first Coupe de la Ligue title and a record six Trophée des Champions; the club performed well in UEFA competitions, reaching as far as the quarter-finals on three occasions and the semi-finals in 2010 in the UEFA Champions League. Lyon's streak and consistent dominance of French football came to an end during the 2008–09 season, when it lost the title to Bordeaux. Olympique Lyonnais is owned by Rhône businessman Jean-Michel Aulas, who acquired the club on 15 June 1987.
He serves as the founder and chief operating officer of CEGID. After ridding the club of its debt, Aulas restructured the club's management and reorganised the finances and, in a span of two decades, transform
Dida (footballer, born 1973)
Nélson de Jesus Silva, better known as Dida, is a Brazilian former football goalkeeper. After starting his senior club career in Brazil in the early 1990s with Vitória, Dida became a penalty kick-saving specialist with Cruzeiro and Corinthians, he is best remembered for his successful and tumultuous ten-year stint with Milan from 2000 to 2010, where he established himself as one of the world's best goalkeepers due to his shot-stopping ability and command of the area. Dida won one Serie A title and twice the UEFA Champions League with Milan, with the first of those victories coming after he saved three penalties in the 2003 final against Serie A rivals Juventus. One of four Rossoneri goalies with over 300 total career appearances, Dida was inducted into Milan's Hall of Fame in 2014, has joined other former club players for various off-pitch events and exhibition matches following his 2010 departure. After a two-year absence from playing, he returned to Brazil in 2012, suiting up for three teams—Portuguesa, Grêmio and Internacional—in as many seasons.
At international level, Dida earned 91 caps in 11 years with the Brazil national team, winning the FIFA World Cup and an Olympic medal, is the most successful player in the history of the FIFA Confederations Cup. He notably broke a color barrier during the 1999 Copa América by being the Seleção's first Afro-Brazilian starting goalkeeper since Moacyr Barbosa half a century earlier, and, in 2006, became the first black goalkeeper to start in a FIFA World Cup final for Brazil since 1950, he retired from international play. Considered to be one of the best goalkeepers of his generation, Dida is the first goalkeeper in history to become the goalkeeper of the year in 2005 by FIFPro and the first Brazilian goalkeeper to be nominated for the FIFA Ballon d'Or, is the first two-time winner of the FIFA Club World Cup, a seven-time nominee of the IFFHS World's Best Goalkeeper award, is one of only nine players to win both the Champions League and the Copa Libertadores, he was named the best Latin American keeper, the sixth-best keeper overall, of the 21st century by IFFHS, is rated among the all-time greats in the position for Brazil alongside Marcos, Rogério Ceni, Cláudio Taffarel and Gilmar.
He has been credited with helping end the prejudice against black goalkeepers in Brazilian club football due to his success in Europe, upon joining Internacional in 2014, became the first Afro-Brazilian keeper to play for the club in 43 years. Nélson de Jesus Silva was born on 7 October 1973 in the city of Irará in the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia, is one of eight children along with five sisters and two brothers, he was raised in Lagoa da Canoa in the smaller neighboring state of Alagoas, to where his family had moved when he was three months old. His first sport of choice was volleyball, which he played with his brothers, until he discovered football by way of futsal and pickup games, his preferred position was that of goalkeeper, despite its longtime unpopularity in Brazilian football and the country's history of discrimination against black players in the position. A supporter of Rio de Janeiro-based club Flamengo, Dida helped form an amateur squad called Flamenguinho at age thirteen, which marked his first experience in organized team play.
He took his future playing name from revered Flamengo striker Dida, while his footballing idols were goalkeepers Rinat Dasayev and future Seleção teammate Cláudio Taffarel, who had enjoyed successful runs in Italy and Turkey and whom Dida considered a pioneer in the growing acceptance of Brazilian keepers into European clubs. In 1990, at age 17, Dida made his club football debut with now-defunct Alagoan team Cruzeiro de Arapiraca. Two years he joined the youth academy of hometown team and 1992 Campeonato Baiano winners Vitória. In 1993, after starting in Brazil's FIFA World Youth Championship victory, Dida made 24 starts in goal for Vitória's senior squad as they finished runner-up to Palmeiras in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, he became the youngest recipient, at 20, of Brazilian football magazine Placar's annual Bola de Prata award as the Série A's best goalkeeper. Dida was acquired by Minas Gerais-based club Cruzeiro in 1994, in a span of five seasons, he won four state titles, the 1996 Copa do Brasil and the 1997 Copa Libertadores, two more Bola de Prata goalkeeping awards.
However, in January 1999 he publicly stated his desire to test his skills in Europe and catch the attention of the Brazilian national team coaching staff in the process, therefore took the club to court in order to cancel the remainder of his contract so he could sign with Milan, the only European team that had extended him an offer. The ensuing legal battle between the player and Cruzeiro lasted for five months, a FIFA ruling allowed Dida to be loaned to Swiss club FC Lugano in the meantime so he could keep in shape, though he never played a game, his move to Milan was finalized in May 1999 with a transfer fee of 2.7 billion Italian lire paid to Cruzeiro, which brought the dispute to a close. Dida was the third goalkeeper on Milan coach Alberto Zaccheroni's depth chart behind Christian Abbiati and aging veteran Sebastiano Rossi for the 1999–2000 Serie A season, he returned to Brazil as he was loaned to São Paulo-based club Corinthians to receive regular playing time. During this stint, his reputation as a penalty stopper came int
Lavras is a municipality in Southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Located at an altitude of 919 m, it has a population of 102,728 inhabitants; the area of the municipality is 564.495 km². The average annual temperature is 19.6°C and the average annual rainfall is 1,511 millimetres. Located at the Green Valley and Waterfalls tourist circuit, it is near Waters circuit — a series of spas in the state of São Paulo and Minas Gerais — and the Inconfidentes Trail circuit — a historical region of Minas. Lavras is connected by highway to the state capital, Belo Horizonte, to São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro; the settlements on the Campos de Sant'Ana das Lavras do Funil dated from the first half of the 18th century, founded in 1729. The first inhabitants were the Paulista family of Francisco Bueno da Fonseca, leader of a revolt against a Portuguese judge in São Paulo in 1712. Bueno da Fonseca, his sons and other explorers, settled in the rivers Capivari and Grande region by 1720 or 1721, where they were engaged in the search for gold and in the opening of new roads to the Goiás mines.
In 1737 the explorers receive from the Governor Martinho de Mendonça an allotment letter confirming their region occupation, which grew through agriculture and livestock. On June 18, 1759, Bartolomeu Bueno do Prado, Anhangüera's grandson and Francisco Bueno da Fonseca's son-in-law, left the village heading 400 men, summoned from the entire Minas Gerais captaincy, to disrupt the quilombo confederation of Campo Grande; the influence of captain Bueno da Fonseca's family contributed to the village's rapid growing. In 1760 they managed to change the parish seat from Carrancas, as Lavras do Funil had 1,000 inhabitants, twice more than the former. In 1813 the village was elevated to freguesia; that time, Lavras had a population of 10,612 souls. On the Imperial period, Lavras obtained its political and administrative emancipation, becoming a municipality in 1831 and city in 1868, when there was a change in municipal toponymic from "Lavras do Funil" to "Lavras". In 1832 the inspector Manuel Custódio Neto reported to the municipal chamber that the town consisted of 245 buildings and there was no pavement on its streets.
The only public buildings where the parish church, the Rosário and Mercês chapels. Lavras had three private primary schools, with a total of 62 students. According to the 1834 census, Lavras had 11,322 inhabitants. One of the most significant events of this period was the Liberal Revolution of 1842. For just over a month, between June 14 and July 22, liberals and conservatives kept their barracks in Sant'Ana main square, current Praça Dr. Augusto Silva; the defeated liberals were arrested, subsequently amnestied by the imperial government. The late nineteenth century and early twentieth century was a time of rapid development in Lavras. On December 18, 1880 it was inaugurated the 208 km river navigation between the Ribeirão Vermelho port and Capetinga port, made by steamboat "Dr. Jorge ". On April 14, 1888 the Estrada de Ferro Oeste de Minas inaugurated the first station in Ribeirão Vermelho, and, on April 1, 1895, Lavras' city station is inaugurated. In 1911, a tramway was opened, so Lavras was one of the few cities in Brazilian interior to have this transportation system.
After the Proclamation of the Republic, Lavras established itself as a major regional center of Minas Gerais, being the birthplace of Francisco Salles, an important politician of the Old Republic. At this time, several colleges were created, such as the Evangelical Institute, the College of Our Lady of Lourdes, the Lavras School Group and the Agricultural School of Lavras; the quality its education made Lavras to become known as "the city of ipês and schools", a slogan created by journalist Jorge Duarte. Local demographics has been modified with the arrival of many immigrants, representing 1.9% of the population according to Census 1920: the municipality had a total of 806 foreigners, of which 380 were Italian, 189 were Portuguese, 166 Lebanese, 28 Spaniards, 20 Americans, 12 Austrians, five French, two Russians, one Uruguayan and three of undetermined nationality. The 1920s represented a slowdown in Lavras progress caused by the intense political dispute promoted by two distinct groups: the Mineiro Republican Party, under the new direction of Italian doctor Paulo Menicucci, was favorable to the candidacy of Arthur Bernardes to the Presidency and Raul Soares to the Presidency of Minas Gerais.
This dispute became known as between "Doves and Hawks": Doves because of effeminate psychasthenics tics attributed to Bernardes, Hawks for associating the cleverness, the cunning spirit, and, of course, as one of the little dove predators. Such local clash lasted until the following decade, when it was eclipsed by the new national political order — the Estado Novo, it was in the mid-twentieth century. In its administrative division for the year 1933, the municipality was formed by eight districts: Lavras, Ijaci, Ingaí, Itutinga, Luminárias and Ribeirão Vermelho; the municipality has experienced political and administrative separation in 1938, 1943, 1948 and 1962, when their old districts became newly created neighboring municipalities and is compose
The Premier League is the top level of the English football league system. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the English Football League; the Premier League is a corporation. Seasons run from August to May with each team playing 38 matches. Most games are played on Sunday afternoons; the Premier League has featured 47 English and two Welsh clubs since its inception, making it a cross-border league. The competition was formed as the FA Premier League on 20 February 1992 following the decision of clubs in the Football League First Division to break away from the Football League, founded in 1888, take advantage of a lucrative television rights deal; the deal was worth £1 billion a year domestically as of 2013–14, with BSkyB and BT Group securing the domestic rights to broadcast 116 and 38 games respectively. The league generates € 2.2 billion per year in international television rights. Clubs were apportioned revenues of £2.4 billion in 2016–17. The Premier League is the most-watched sports league in the world, broadcast in 212 territories to 643 million homes and a potential TV audience of 4.7 billion people.
In the 2014–15 season, the average Premier League match attendance exceeded 36,000, second highest of any professional football league behind the Bundesliga's 43,500. Most stadium occupancies are near capacity; the Premier League ranks second in the UEFA coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons, as of 2018. Forty-nine clubs have competed since the inception of the Premier League in 1992. Six of them have won the title since then: Manchester United, Arsenal, Manchester City, Blackburn Rovers, Leicester City; the record of most points in a Premier League season is 100, set by Manchester City in 2017–18. Despite significant European success in the 1970s and early 1980s, the late 1980s marked a low point for English football. Stadiums were crumbling, supporters endured poor facilities, hooliganism was rife, English clubs were banned from European competition for five years following the Heysel Stadium disaster in 1985; the Football League First Division, the top level of English football since 1888, was behind leagues such as Italy's Serie A and Spain's La Liga in attendances and revenues, several top English players had moved abroad.
By the turn of the 1990s the downward trend was starting to reverse: at the 1990 FIFA World Cup, England reached the semi-finals. In the 1980s, major English clubs had begun to transform into business ventures, applying commercial principles to club administration to maximise revenue. Martin Edwards of Manchester United, Irving Scholar of Tottenham Hotspur, David Dein of Arsenal were among the leaders in this transformation, it gave the top clubs more power. By threatening to break away, clubs in Division One managed to increase their voting power, they took a 50% share of all television and sponsorship income in 1986. Revenue from television became more important: the Football League received £6.3 million for a two-year agreement in 1986, but by 1988, in a deal agreed with ITV, the price rose to £44 million over four years with the leading clubs taking 75% of the cash. According to Scholar, involved in the negotiations of television deals, each of the First Division clubs received only around £25,000 per year from television rights before 1986, this increased to around £50,000 in the 1986 negotiation to £600,000 in 1988.
The 1988 negotiations were conducted under the threat of ten clubs leaving to form a "super league", but they were persuaded to stay with the top clubs taking the lion share of the deal. As stadiums improved and match attendance and revenues rose, the country's top teams again considered leaving the Football League in order to capitalise on the influx of money into the sport. In 1990, the managing director of London Weekend Television, Greg Dyke, met with the representatives of the "big five" football clubs in England over a dinner; the meeting was to pave the way for a break away from The Football League. Dyke believed that it would be more lucrative for LWT if only the larger clubs in the country were featured on national television and wanted to establish whether the clubs would be interested in a larger share of television rights money; the five clubs decided to press ahead with it. The FA did not enjoy an amicable relationship with the Football League at the time and considered it as a way to weaken the Football League's position.
At the close of the 1991 season, a proposal was tabled for the establishment of a new league that would bring more money into the game overall. The Founder Members Agreement, signed on 17 July 1991 by the game's top-flight clubs, established the basic principles for setting up the FA Premier League; the newly formed top division would have commercial independence from The Football Association and the Football League, giving the FA Premier League licence to negotiate
The Copa CONMEBOL was an annual football cup competition organized by CONMEBOL between 1992 and 1999 for South American football clubs. During its time of existence, it was a prestigious South American club football contest, similar to the UEFA Cup. Clubs qualified for the competition based on their performance in their national leagues and cup competitions. Teams that were not able to qualify for the Copa Libertadores played in this tournament; the tournament was played as a knockout cup. The tournament ended following the expansion of Copa Libertadores to 32 teams; the Copa Mercosur and Copa Merconorte, which both started in 1998, replaced the Copa CONMEBOL, the merger of those three cups transformed in the current Copa Sudamericana, being all of them the precursors of the cup. The last champion of the competition was Talleres, while Atlético Mineiro is the most successful club in the cup history, having won the tournament two times; the cup was won by seven different clubs but it was never won consecutively.
Each national association was assigned a number of entries determined by CONMEBOL which changed from one edition to another. The best teams from the previous season that did not qualify for the Copa Libertadores through their league qualified for the Copa CONMEBOL; the tournament itself was played in two-legged knockout stages. The champion of the Copa CONMEBOL disputed the Recopa Sudamericana, the Copa de Oro and the Copa Master de CONMEBOL, albeit irregularly; the tournament started in the first stage in which 16 clubs were paired in a series of two-legged knockout ties in the round of 16, the first of four stages that worked on a single elimination phase knockout system that culminated in the finals. During each stage of the tournament, ties were decided on points, followed by goal difference, away goals a penalty shootout after full-time of the second leg, if necessary. Copa Sudamericana Copa Mercosur Copa Merconorte Copa Interamericana Copa Libertadores Copa Master de CONMEBOL CONMEBOL Cup at RSSSF Copa Conmebol Información sobre la Copa Conmebol Globo Esporte
Thailand national football team
The Thailand national football team represents Thailand in international men's association football. Nicknamed the War Elephants, the team is controlled by the governing body for football in Thailand, Football Association of Thailand, a member of the Asian Football Confederation and the regional ASEAN Football Federation. With five ASEAN Football Championship titles and nine senior-level Southeast Asian Games titles, the team has a history as the most successful team in Southeast Asia. Thailand won third place in the 1972 AFC Asian Cup, competed twice in the Summer Olympics, won fourth place in the 1990 and 1998 Asian Games; the team was founded in 1915 as the Siam national football team and played its first unofficial match at the Royal Bangkok Sports Club Stadium on 20 December of that year. On 25 April 1916, King Vajiravudh established the Football Association of Siam; the team played its first international match in 1930 against the Indochina national team, which included both South Vietnamese and French players.
Both the Siam team and its governing association were renamed in 1949. Thailand appeared in the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne, where they lost to Great Britain by a score of 0–9 and failed to advance to the quarterfinals. In 1965, Thailand won the first place in the Southeast Asian Games for the first time; the team made another appearance at the Summer Olympics in 1968, losing to Bulgaria 0–7, Guatemala 1–4, Czechoslovakia 0–8 en route to a first-round exit. This was Thailand's latest appearance in the Olympics. 1992 featured one of Thailand's signature victories. Playing in Bangkok against South Korea, who had qualified for consecutive FIFA World Cups in 1986 and 1990, being the strongest team in Asia at the time, the Thais upset the Koreans, beating them 2 to 1. Thailand would defeat Bangladesh 1–0, winning the group and therefore qualifying for the 1992 AFC Asian Cup; the War Elephants would put on a strong performance at the tournament, drawing with eventual 3rd place China and Qatar before losing to eventual runners up Saudi Arabia 4 to nil.
In 1994, team manager Thawatchai Sartjakul assembled a team, renounced as the "Dream Team" with key players Kiatisuk Senamuang, Tawan Sripan and Dusit Chalermsan. In 1996, Thailand defeated Malaysia 1–0 to win the ASEAN Football Championship for the first time. Thailand were favourites to regain the crown in 2007, 2008 and 2012 only to lose tight finals to Singapore and Vietnam respectively. Thailand football team has competed three times in the Asian Games, making the semifinals in 1990, 1998 and 2002; the 2007 AFC Asian Cup finals were held from 7 to 29 July 2007. For the first time in its history, the competition was co-hosted by four nations: Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam; the regional 1998 ASEAN Football Championship tournament was most infamous in respect to Thailand football history. In what was a sporting event, the group stage match between Thailand and Indonesia was marred with an unsportsmanlike attempt. At the time both teams had qualified for semi-finals, but with knowledge that winners would have to face hosts Vietnam, while the losing team would play the weaker Singapore.
There was technical incentive that facing Vietnam would mean moving training bases from Ho Chi Minh City to Hanoi – which none of the teams wished to do. The first half saw little action as both teams making attempt to score. During the second half both teams managed to score thanks to half-hearted defending, resulting in a 2–2 tie after 90 minutes; however the real infamy didn't take place until extra time, in which an Indonesian defender deliberately kicked the ball into his own goal with a Thai attacker running towards the ball. FIFA fined both teams $40,000 for "violating the spirit of the game". In the semi-finals, Thailand lost to Vietnam, Indonesia lost to Singapore, pitting the teams together once again for the third-place playoff. Indonesia won by penalty shootout; as for the final, the unfancied Singapore team made one of the competition's biggest shocks by defeating Vietnam. Thailand qualified to the 2000 AFC Asian Cup held in Lebanon, which made Thailand sharing group with host Lebanon and Iraq.
Thailand, performed poor in the tournament. After being defeated by Iraq 0–2, Thailand drew giant Iran 1–1 but again Thailand only drew Lebanon with the same result putting them in third place, superior to Lebanon on goal differences, but since Thailand failed to gain any win, they were eliminated, by becoming the worst third-placed team as the tournament only featured three groups. The final between Thailand and Indonesia, at a sold out and energised Rajamangala, was a carbon copy of their encounter in the group stages; the War Elephants again triumphed 4-1 with Worrawoot setting up camp at the opponents’ goal. The 28-year-old scored twice in their first match and in the final struck a hat-trick in the first 32 minutes. In the final match between Thailand and Indonesia, Thailand took a 2–0 lead against hosts Indonesia by the end of the first half. However, the Indonesians battled back to level the score and force the game into a penalty shootout, won 4–2 by the Thais. Thailand qualified to the 2004 AFC Asian Cup in China, once again and Thailand was put into a tough group, which comprised Japan and debutant Oman.
Nonetheless, with vast experiences in the Asian Cup, Thailand was, expected to pass through if they didn't lose to Iran and defeated Oman. However, Thailan
Newcastle United F.C.
Newcastle United Football Club is an English professional association football club based in Newcastle upon Tyne, that plays in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. Newcastle United was founded in 1892 by the merger of Newcastle East End and Newcastle West End, has played at its current home ground, St James' Park since; the ground was developed into an all-seater stadium in the mid-1990s and has a capacity of 52,354. The club has been a member of the Premier League for all but three years of the competition's history, spending 85 seasons in the top tier as of May 2016, has never dropped below English football's second tier since joining the Football League in 1893, they have won four League Championship titles, six FA Cups and a Charity Shield, as well as the 1969 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup and the 2006 UEFA Intertoto Cup. Newcastle United has the ninth highest total of trophies won by an English club; the club's most successful period was between 1904 and 1910, when they won an FA Cup and three of their First Division titles.
The club were successful in the Premier League in the 1990s and early 2000s without winning any trophies, but have been struggling since the 2006–07 season, were relegated in 2009 and 2016. They returned to the Premier League for the 2017–18 season after winning the Championship title the preceding year. Newcastle has a fierce local rivalry with Sunderland, the two clubs have engaged in the Tyne–Wear derby since 1898; the club's traditional kit colours are black shorts and black socks. Their traditional crest takes elements of the city coat of arms. Prior to each home game the team enters the field to "Local Hero", written by Newcastle native Mark Knopfler, while "Blaydon Races" is invariably sung during games; the club has been owned by Mike Ashley since 2007, succeeding long term chairman and owner Sir John Hall. The club is the 17th-highest revenue producing club in the world in terms of annual revenue, generating €169.3 million in 2015. Newcastle's highest placing was in 1999, when they were the fifth-highest revenue producing football club in the world, second in England only behind Manchester United.
The first record of football being played on Tyneside dates from 3 March 1877 at Elswick Rugby Club. That year, Newcastle's first football club, Tyne Association, was formed; the origins of Newcastle United Football Club itself can be traced back to the formation of a football club by the Stanley Cricket Club of Byker in November 1881. This team was renamed Newcastle East End F. C. in October 1882, to avoid confusion with the cricket club in Stanley, County Durham. Rosewood F. C. of Byker merged with Newcastle East End a short time later. In 1886, Newcastle East End moved from Byker to Heaton. In August 1882, Newcastle West End F. C. formed from West End Cricket Club, in May 1886, the club moved into St James' Park. The two clubs became rivals in the Northern League. In 1889, Newcastle East End became a professional team, before becoming a limited company the following March. However, on the other hand, Newcastle West End were in serious financial trouble and approached East End with a view to a take over.
Newcastle West End were dissolved, a number of their players and backroom staff joined Newcastle East End merging the two clubs, with Newcastle East End taking over the lease on St James' Park in May 1892. With only one senior club in the city for fans to support, development of the club was much more rapid. Despite being refused entry to the Football League's First Division at the start of the 1892–93 season, they were invited to play in their new Second Division. However, with no big names playing in the Second Division, they turned down the offer and remained in the Northern League, stating "gates would not meet the heavy expenses incurred for travelling". In a bid to start drawing larger crowds, Newcastle East End decided to adopt a new name in recognition of the merger. Suggested names included Newcastle F. C. Newcastle Rangers, Newcastle City and City of Newcastle, but Newcastle United was decided upon on 9 December 1892, to signify the unification of the two teams; the name change was accepted by the Football Association on 22 December, but the club was not constituted as Newcastle United Football Club Co. Ltd. until 6 September 1895.
At the start of the 1893–94 season, Newcastle United were once again refused entry to the First Division and so joined the Second Division, along with Liverpool and Woolwich Arsenal. They played their first competitive match in the division that September against Woolwich Arsenal, with a score of 2–2. Turnstile numbers were still low, the incensed club published a statement stating, "The Newcastle public do not deserve to be catered for as far as professional football is concerned"; however figures picked up by 1895–96, when 14,000 fans watched the team play Bury. That season Frank Watt became secretary of the club, he was instrumental in promotion to the First Division for the 1898–99 season. However, they lost their first game 4–2 at home to Wolverhampton Wanderers and finished their first season in thirteenth place. In 1903–04, the club built up a promising squad of players, went on to dominate English football for a decade, the team known for their "artistic play, combining team-work and quick, short passing".
Long after his retirement, Peter McWilliam, the team's defender at the time, said, "The Newcastle team of the 1900s would give any modern side a two goal start and beat them, further more, beat them at a trot." Newcastle United went on to win the League on three occasions during the 1900s. In 1904 -- 05, they nearly did the double. The