Urdă is a sort of whey cheese variously claimed to be from Romania, but now produced in the Balkans, namely in Serbia and Hungary. The Romanian term'urdă' has been borrowed into Bulgarian, Serbian, Rusyn, Polish and Russian languages. Urda is made from whey of goat or cow milk. Urdă is produced by heating the whey resulting from the draining of any type of cheese, it is made into molds to the shape of a half sphere. The paste is finely grained and palatable, it contains 18 grams of protein per 100 grams. In Romania, urdă is traditionally used in the preparation of several desserts, such as clătită and plăcintă. Urda is traditionally prepared in Serbia, notably in the southern region of Pirot. Urdă is similar to ricotta in the way. List of cheeses
Milk is a nutrient-rich, white liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases, it contains many other nutrients including lactose. Interspecies consumption of milk is not uncommon among humans, many of whom consume the milk of other mammals; as an agricultural product, milk called dairy milk, is extracted from farm animals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk from 260 million dairy cows. India is the world's largest producer of milk, is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports few other milk products; the increasing rise in domestic demand for dairy products and a large demand-supply gap could lead to India being a net importer of dairy products in the future. The United States, India and Brazil are the world's largest exporters of milk and milk products.
China and Russia were the world's largest importers of milk and milk products until 2016 when both countries became self-sufficient, contributing to a worldwide glut of milk. Throughout the world, more than six billion people consume milk products. Over 750 million people live in dairy farming households; the term "milk" comes from "Old English meoluc, from Proto-Germanic *meluks "milk"". Milk consumption occurs in two distinct overall types: a natural source of nutrition for all infant mammals and a food product obtained from other mammals for consumption by humans of all ages. In all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, either directly or by expressing the milk to be stored and consumed later; the early milk from mammals is called colostrum. Colostrum contains antibodies that provide protection to the newborn baby as well as nutrients and growth factors; the makeup of the colostrum and the period of secretion varies from species to species. For humans, the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months and breastfeeding in addition to other food for up to two years of age or more.
In some cultures it is common to breastfeed children for three to five years, the period may be longer. Fresh goats' milk is sometimes substituted for breast milk, which introduces the risk of the child developing electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, megaloblastic anemia, a host of allergic reactions. In many cultures in the West, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other mammals as a food product; the ability to digest milk was limited to children as adults did not produce lactase, an enzyme necessary for digesting the lactose in milk. People therefore converted milk to curd and other products to reduce the levels of lactose. Thousands of years ago, a chance mutation spread in human populations in Europe that enabled the production of lactase in adulthood; this mutation allowed milk to be used as a new source of nutrition which could sustain populations when other food sources failed. Milk is processed into a variety of products such as cream, yogurt, ice cream, cheese.
Modern industrial processes use milk to produce casein, whey protein, condensed milk, powdered milk, many other food-additives and industrial products. Whole milk and cream have high levels of saturated fat; the sugar lactose is found only in milk, forsythia flowers, a few tropical shrubs. The enzyme needed to digest lactose, reaches its highest levels in the human small intestine after birth and begins a slow decline unless milk is consumed regularly; those groups who do continue to tolerate milk, however have exercised great creativity in using the milk of domesticated ungulates, not only of cattle, but sheep, yaks, water buffalo, horses and camels. India is buffalo milk in the world. In food use, from 1961, the term milk has been defined under Codex Alimentarius standards as: "the normal mammary secretion of milking animals obtained from one or more milkings without either addition to it or extraction from it, intended for consumption as liquid milk or for further processing." The term dairy relates to animal milk production.
A substance secreted by pigeons to feed their young is called "crop milk" and bears some resemblance to mammalian milk, although it is not consumed as a milk substitute. The definition above precludes non-animal products which resemble dairy milk in color and texture, such as almond milk, coconut milk, rice milk, soy milk. In English, the word "milk" has been used to refer to "milk-like plant juices" since 1200 AD. In the USA, milk alternatives now command 13% of the "milk" market, leading the US dairy industry to attempt, multiple times, to sue producers of dairy milk alternatives, to have the name "milk" limited to animal milk, so far without success; the mammary gland is thought to have derived from apocrine skin glands. It has been suggested. Much of the argument is based on monotremes; the original adaptive significance of milk secretions may have been nutrition or immunological protection. This secretion became more copious and accrued nutritional complexity over evolutionary time. Tritylodontid cynodonts seem to have displayed lactation, based on
Processed cheese is a food product made from cheese and other unfermented dairy ingredients mixed with emulsifiers. Additional ingredients, such as vegetable oils, food coloring, or sugar may be included; as a result, many flavors and textures of processed cheese exist. Its invention is credited to Walter Gerber of Thun, Switzerland, in 1911. Processed cheese has several technical advantages over natural cheese, including a far longer shelf-life, resistance to separating when cooked, a uniform look and physical behavior, its mass-produced nature provides arguably its greatest advantage over natural cheese: a lower cost — to producers and consumers alike — than conventional cheesemaking. This, in turn, enables industrial-scale production volumes, lower distribution costs, a steadier supply, much faster production time compared to traditional cheeses; the use of emulsifiers in processed cheese results in a product that melts without separating when cooked. The emulsifiers reduce the tendency for tiny fat globules in the cheese to coalesce and pool on the surface.
Because processed cheese does not separate when melted, it is used as an ingredient in a variety of dishes. Unlike some unprocessed cheeses, heating does not alter its texture. Processed cheese is sold in blocks, pressurized cans, packs of individual slices separated by wax paper, or with each slice individually wrapped by machine. In the United Kingdom, processed cheese is sold in individually wrapped slices referred to as "singles", or in foil-wrapped portions. Dairylea and The Laughing Cow are leading brands. In 1916, James L. Kraft applied for the first U. S. patent for a method of making processed cheese. Kraft Foods developed the first commercially available, shelf-stable, processed cheese; this form of sliced cheese have become ubiquitous in U. S. households since, most notably used for cheeseburgers and grilled cheese sandwiches because of its ability to cook evenly, distribute/stretch smoothly, resist congealing, unlike traditional cheddar cheeses. Competitors lobbied unsuccessfully to require processed cheese be labeled "embalmed cheese".
The first commercially available, individually wrapped, cheese slices were introduced in the U. S. by Clearfield Cheese Co. in 1956. U. S. Patent 2759308 by Arnold Nawrocki was assigned to Clearfield Cheese Co. in 1956. The best known processed cheese in the United States is marketed as American cheese by Kraft Foods and other companies, it is yellow, or off-white. It is made from a blend of cheeses, most Colby and cheddar. Another type of processed cheese created in the United States is Provel pasteurized processed pizza cheese, which uses cheddar and provolone cheeses as flavorants. Provel cheese is used in St. Louis-style pizza. A third variety of processed pizza cheeses are mozzarella-like imitation processed cheeses, which are sometimes used in frozen pizzas. Owing to its mechanized methods of production, additive ingredients, some softer varieties of processed cheese cannot be labeled as actual "cheese" in many countries those in which harder varieties can be; such products tend to be classified as "cheese food", "cheese spread", or "cheese product".
In the United States, processed cheese is defined and regulated by the Food and Drug Administration under the U. S. Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Section 133. Pasteurized process cheese can be made from a blend of several cheeses. Cream, milk fat, salt, artificial color and spices may be added; the mixture is heated with an emulsifier, poured into a mold, allowed to cool. The definitions include: Pasteurized process cheese, made from one or more cheeses, which may contain one or more specified "optional ingredients". Moisture not more than 41 percent. Pasteurized process cheese food, made from not less than 51 percent by final weight of one or more "optional cheese ingredients", mixed with one or more "optional dairy ingredients", which may contain one or more specified "optional ingredients". Moisture must be <44 percent, fat content >23 percent. Pasteurized process cheese spread, made to pasteurized process cheese food but must be spreadable at 70 ° F. Moisture must be between 44-60 percent, fat content >20 percent.
The U. S. Food and Drug Administration does not maintain a standard of identity for "pasteurized prepared cheese product," a designation which appears on many Kraft products. Nor does the FDA maintain a standard of identity for "pasteurized process cheese product", a designation which appears on many American store- and generic-branded singles. Products labeled as such may use milk protein concentrate in the formulation, an ingredient which doe
Bryndza is product of a sheep milk cheese made in Slovakia, Romania and Serbia, but in Poland, Ukraine and part of Moravia in Czech Republic. Bryndza cheese is creamy white in appearance, known for taste; the cheese is white, tangy and moist. It has characteristic flavor with a notable taste of butyric acid; the overall flavor sensation begins mild goes strong and fades to a salty finish. Recipes differ across countries. Known as juhtúró in Hungarian, брынза in Russian, brenca in Serbian, Brimsen in German, ברינזע in Yiddish, bryndza, a word borrowed from Romanian brânză, is used in various countries throughout Ukraine and the EU, due to its introduction by migrating Vlachs. Though the word brânză is the generic word for "cheese" in Romanian, there is no special type of cheese associated with it, it is a word inherited by the Romanian language from Dacian, the language of the pre-Roman population in modern-day Romania. Outside Slovakia and the flanking regions of Southern Poland, it is still popular nowadays in the Czech Republic under the Czech spelling "brynza".
The word was first recorded as brençe, described as "Vlach cheese", in the Croatian port of Dubrovnik in 1370. Bryndza was first recorded in Kingdom of Hungary, in 1470 and in the adjacent Polish Podhale in 1527. In Slovakia, bryndza serves as the main ingredient to bryndzové halušky, regarded the national speciality. Bryndza is therefore regarded as Slovak product; the modern version of the soft spreadable bryndza is believed to have been developed by entrepreneurs from Stará Turá toward the end of the 18th century who founded bryndza manufactures in mountainous regions of Central and Northern Slovakia where sheep cheese production had deep roots in the local cheese manufacturing tradition, traded with it, popularizing bryndza all around the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy. In Austria, it was called Liptauer, after the northern Slovak Liptov region; the Viennese speciality Liptauer, a savoury cheese-based spread, has replaced bryndza with common cows' milk cottage cheese because the original Slovak bryndza disappeared from Austrian market after the disintegration of Austro-Hungarian monarchy.
Slovenská bryndza from Slovakia has been registered in the EU's Register of protected designations of origin and protected geographical indications on 16 July 2008 as a Protected Geographical Indication. The geographical indication was requested on 4 October 2007. Liptovská or ovčia bryndza is another variety for Slovakia which contains 100% sheep cheese Bryndza Podhalańska from Poland has been registered in the EU's Register of protected designations of origin and protected geographical indications on 11 June 2007 as a Protected Designation of Origin; the geographical indication was requested on 23 September 2006. Brânză de burduf from Romania, made from caș Austrian Liptauer Bulgarian Sirene Greek Feta Italian Ricotta Mexican Queso fresco List of cheeses Ehlers, S.. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Cheeses of the World. Complete Idiot's Guide to. Alpha Books. P. 117. ISBN 978-1-59257-714-9. Retrieved May 19, 2016
Telemea is the name of a Romanian cheese traditionally made of sheep’s milk. Nowadays the term encompasses cheese made out of cow's milk, in some cases of goat's, or buffalo's milk. Similar to the Greek feta, but as in the case of Turkish teleme, American teleme cheese, Bulgarian or Macedonian sirene, Serbian sir, Telemea can have a higher water content, making it a soft or semi-soft white cheese with a creamy texture and a tangy aftertaste. Alternatively, the cheese is put through an ageing process that makes it crisper, more flavoured and salty. Cumin seeds are added for a spicy, nutty flavor, it is used as a table cheese for snacks, in salads, in a variety of dishes. To make Telemea cheese, rennet is added into milk to curdle it. Most cow's and sheep's milk is used, with goat's and buffalo's being more of a delicacy; the resulting curd is removed and is kept in cheesecloth, pressed overnight cut into square pieces. The cheese is left to mature in brine; this fresh cheese has its own name, caș.
Subsequently, it is stored in wooden barrels named putini. It can be kept throughout winter in a more concentrated brine, in which case, it is desalted in fresh water before consumption. Starting 2004, the Telemea is intended to become a protected designation of origin product of Romania, the following types of telemea have sought to be recognized under the PDO label: Telemea de Argeș Telemea de Brașov Telemea de Carei Telemea de Harghita Telemea de Huedin Telemea de Ibănești Telemea de Nucet Telemea de Oaş Telemea de Sibiu Telemea de VâlceaIn 2017, the EU acknowledged Telemea de Ibănești as having Protected Geographical Indication; as of 2018, Telemea de Sibiu has an application in processing. Brined cheese – Cheese, matured in a solution of brine List of cheeses – A list of cheeses by place of origin List of sheep milk cheeses Telemea What Wikipedia can’t tell you about making cheese
Năsal is a traditional Romanian cheese bearing the same name as the village where it is produced in the Țaga commune, Cluj County. It is a smear-ripened cheese made from cow's milk. Năsal is produced by Napolact, in a natural cave, traditionally used in the cheese-making process from the Middle Ages, its characteristics and flavour are imparted by the unique microbiological conditions in which it is manufactured. The rock of the cave and the Brevibacterium linens bacteria which developed in it, the constant temperature and humidity, act on the cheeses produced here. Brevibacterium linens is ubiquitously present on the human skin; the same bacterium is employed to ferment several cheeses such as Limburger, Port-du-Salut and Năsal. Its smell attracts mosquitoes. Schilling János, an architect, purchased a farm in Năsal in the mid-19th century, he or his son, Schilling Ottó, started producing cheese in the farm cellars in the 19th century. The cheese became famous in Transylvania, it was awarded a gold medal at the Paris World Expo.
The farm was nationalised in 1948 and a smaller cheese factory was built in the village in 1954. As the legend goes, the village of Năsal was owned by a cruel count. One day, some farmers ignored the commandments of the noble and took some pieces of his cheese, for their children, they hid the cheese in a cave near the Năsal village, did not rush to go and take it. Weeks passed, one day a villager went into the cave, convinced he would find the cheese rotten. to his surprise, he found it in good condition. The cheese had changed its colour to a reddish yellow, but the taste was good, despite the smell; the count found out and punished the peasants. However, he kept the cheese from the cave, began serving it to all his noble guests, proud of its exquisite taste and shortly thereafter began storing his cheeses in the cave. Napolact
Kashkaval is a type of yellow cheese made of cow milk, sheep milk, or both. The name is derived from the Italian caciocavallo. In Albania, North Macedonia and Romania, the term is used to refer to all yellow cheeses. In English-language menus in Bulgaria, "кашкавал" is translated as "yellow cheese"; the name kashkaval comes from Latin caseus and caballus. According this theory for the Italian name caciocavallo, the accepted explanation of the word "cavallo" comes from the cheese being traditionally dried by attaching two gourd shaped balls of caciocavallo with a single rope and hanging them to a wooden pole as if placed on a horse's back. Another theory exists; some researchers from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Belgrade claim the Aromanian population, a native Balkan people, created cașcaval. As in Romanian, the word caș means in Aromanian language cheese. No etymology is given for the suffix -kaval in the word kachkaval in the study, nor do the researchers mention the horse, the Latin term caballus or the Italian term cavallo and instead refer to the seasonal movement of the semi nomadic Aromanians and their livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures.
In Bulgaria, kashkaval is made from cow's milk and is known as Kashkaval "Vitosha" while a variation made from ewe's milk is called Kashkaval "Balkan". Kashkaval "Preslav" is the name given to the cheese made from a mixture of both milks. Kashkaval is a traditional food used in most of the breakfast pastry. One of the most common dishes with kashkaval is kashkavalka, a little pastry containing kashkaval inside and on top. Like in the other Balkan countries, it is a major substitute for all other kinds of cheese in pizzas. Another popular Bulgarian snack is Princess, a grilled slice of bread topped with kashkaval or topped with ground pork meat and kashkaval. In Albania, kaçkavall is the most popular type of cheese after djathë i bardhë. It's considered a traditional Albanian cheese, is used as a side dish. A great majority of traditional restaurants will bring plates of raw or fried kaçkavall for no additional cost before the main dishes finish cooking. All dairy companies is Albania produce kaçkavall and use cow's or sheep's milk.
In Syria and Lebanon, this type of cheese is called qashqawān. It is popular imported or manufactured domestically. In Romania and Moldova, cașcaval is used to refer to a number of types of yellow medium and semi hard cheeses made of sheep's or cow's-milk; the term is used by extension as a generic name for all semi-hard yellow cheeses such as the Swiss Emmental cheese, the Dutch Gouda and the British Cheddar, or anything that looks similar to cașcaval. During the communist regime, because of the food shortages, Romanian housewives developed a technique for a homemade pressed cheese, similar to cașcaval, made out of milk, smântână, butter and eggs. In Romanian cuisine, a lot of dishes are made with cașcaval, like caşcaval pane or mămăligă cu brânză. Kashkaval cheese is popular in Russia. In addition to the Balkan and Italian production of the cheese, there exists a Russian version of the Kashkaval production. In Serbia, kačkavalj is traditionally a sheep milk hard cheese, as such a protected brand of the city of Pirot.
Other cheeses, made from a mix of cow and sheep milk, are sometimes branded as kačkavalj but they cannot be defined as pirotski. Kačkavalj is one of the six traditional cheeses of Serbia; the production process can be seen online, according to a TV show video clip, it was brought to Pirot in the 1810s with the Dalmatian or Italian cheesemakers who settled in then-Ottoman Empire. List of cheeses List of stretch-cured cheeses