Blue Room (White House)
The Blue Room is one of three state parlors on the first floor in the White House, the residence of the President of the United States. It is distinct for its oval shape; the room is used for receptions and receiving lines and is set for small dinners. President Grover Cleveland married Frances Folsom in the room on June 2, 1886, the only wedding of a President and First Lady in the White House; the room is traditionally decorated in shades of blue. With the Yellow Oval Room above it and the Diplomatic Reception Room below it, the Blue Room is one of three oval rooms in James Hoban's original design for the white house; the room is 30 by 40 feet. It has six doors, which open into the Cross Hall, Green Room, Red Room, South Portico; the three windows look out upon the South Lawn. The Blue Room is furnished in the French Empire style. A series of redecorations through the 19th century caused most of the original pieces to be sold or lost. Today much of the furniture is original to the room. Eight pieces of gilded European beech furniture purchased during the administration of James Monroe furnish the room, including a bergère and several fauteuils.
The suite of furniture was produced in Paris around 1812 by the cabinetmaker Pierre-Antoine Bellangé, reproduction side chairs and armchairs were made by Maison Jansen in 1961 during the Kennedy restoration. A marble-top center table has been in the White House since it was purchased by Monroe in 1817. A c. 1817 ormolu French Empire mantel clock with a figure of Hannibal, by Denière et Matelin, sits on the mantel. The early 19th-century French chandelier is made of gilded wood and cut glass, encircled with acanthus leaves. Acquired during the Kennedy Administration, it hung in the President's Dining Room on the second floor. George Peter Alexander Healy's 1859 portrait of John Tyler hangs on the west wall above the Monroe sofa; the sapphire-blue silk fabric used for the draperies and furniture upholstery was chosen by Mrs. Clinton; the silk lampas upholstery fabric retains the gold eagle medallion on the chair backs, adapted from the depiction of one of the Monroe-era chairs in a portrait of James Monroe.
The painting, depicts the chair upholstered in crimson, not blue, showing the original color used for the room. The design of the blue satin draperies is derived from early 19th-century French patterns; the present drapery design is similar to those installed during the administration of Richard Nixon. Clement Conger, White House Curator at that time, used archive materials from the Society for the Protection of New England Antiquities and the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Department of Decorative Arts as patterns for the drapery; the walls are hung with a chamois-colored wallpaper imprinted with medallions of burnished gold. It is adapted from an early 19th-century American Empire wallpaper having French influences; the upper border is a faux printed blue fabric drapery swag. The faux fabric border is similar in effect to an actual fabric border installed during the administration of John F. Kennedy; the printed dado border along the chair rail is gold with rosettes. Installation of a new oval carpet, based on early 19th-century designs, completed the renovation project.
The design was adapted from an original design for a neoclassical English carpet from about 1815, the period of the furnishings acquired by Monroe for the Blue Room. During the administration of John Adams, the Blue Room served as the south entrance hall, though it has always functioned as the principal reception room of the White House. During the administration of James Madison, architect Benjamin Latrobe designed a suite of classical-revival furniture for the room, but the furnishings were destroyed in the fire of 1814; when the White House was rebuilt, President James Monroe redecorated the room in the French Empire style. Martin Van Buren had the room carpeted and wallpapered in blue in 1837, it has remained the tradition since, although many administrations have made changes to the decoration. During the administration of James Buchanan, the room was refurbished in a Victorian style called Rococo Revival. Buchanan was a lifelong bachelor, his niece, Harriet Lane, acted as de facto First Lady.
Lane focused on her hosting duties, rather than maintaining the White House. Although Congress allotted President Buchanan $20,000 to refurbish the White House when he moved in, Buchanan spent nearly all these funds building a glass conservatory adjacent to the mansion to replace an orangery on the east side of the White House. Rococo Revival furniture, a purchase of Harriet Lane's, financed by the auction of older White House furniture, arrived in December 1859; the centerpiece of this suite was a large circular settee with a central table for flowers. A series of complex patterned styles followed until 1902 when the room was returned to an Empire style by the firm of McKim, Mead & White during the administration of Theodore Roosevelt; the company fabricated a suite of chairs based on chairs made for Napoleon by François-Honoré-Georges Jacob-Desmalter. Two new doorways were cut in the walls to provide more access to the room; the White House was gutted and rebuilt from 1950 to 1952 during the Harry S. Truman administration.
When it came time to redecorate the Blue Room, Truman's designers selected for wall coverings a deep blue silk, which contained a pattern of gold urns draped with flowers. The addition of the Truman Balcony provided shade to the oval portico outside the Bl
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. and has been the residence of every U. S. President since John Adams in 1800; the term "White House" is used as a metonym for the president and his advisers. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the neoclassical style. Hoban modelled the building on Leinster House in Dublin, a building which today houses the Oireachtas, the Irish legislature. Construction took place between 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white; when Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior and charring much of the exterior. Reconstruction began immediately, President James Monroe moved into the reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817.
Exterior construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824 and the North portico in 1829. Because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901. Eight years in 1909, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office, moved as the section was expanded. In the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as a reception area for social events. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946. By 1948, the residence's load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the interior rooms were dismantled and a new internal load-bearing steel frame constructed inside the walls. Once this work was completed, the interior rooms were rebuilt; the modern-day White House complex includes the Executive Residence, West Wing, East Wing, the Eisenhower Executive Office Building—the former State Department, which now houses offices for the President's staff and the Vice President—and Blair House, a guest residence.
The Executive Residence is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, Third Floor, as well as a two-story basement. The property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the President's Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of "America's Favorite Architecture". Following his April 1789 inauguration, President George Washington occupied two executive mansions in New York City: the Samuel Osgood House at 3 Cherry Street, the Alexander Macomb House at 39–41 Broadway. In May 1790, New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it; the national capital moved to Philadelphia in December 1790. The July 1790 Residence Act named Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a 10-year period while the Federal City was under construction; the City of Philadelphia rented Robert Morris's city house at 190 High Street for Washington's presidential residence.
The first U. S. President occupied the Market Street mansion from November 1790 to March 1797 and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House; as part of a futile effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away, but Washington declined to occupy it. President John Adams occupied the Market Street mansion from March 1797 to May 1800. On Saturday, November 1, 1800, he became the first president to occupy the White House; the President's House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in 1832, while the unused presidential mansion became home to the University of Pennsylvania. The President's House was a major feature of Pierre Charles L'Enfant's' plan for the newly established federal city, Washington, D. C.. The architect of the White House was chosen in a design competition which received nine proposals, including one submitted anonymously by Thomas Jefferson. President Washington visited Charleston, South Carolina in May 1791 on his "Southern Tour", saw the under-construction Charleston County Courthouse designed by Irish architect James Hoban.
He is reputed to have met with Hoban then. The following year, he summoned the architect to Philadelphia and met with him in June 1792. On July 16, 1792, the President met with the commissioners of the federal city to make his judgment in the architectural competition, his review is recorded as being brief, he selected Hoban's submission. The building has classical inspiration sources, that could be found directly or indirectly in the Roman architect Vitruvius or in Andrea Palladio styles; the building Hoban designed is verifiably influenced by the upper floors of Leinster House, in Dublin, which became the seat of the Oireachtas. Several other Georgian-era Irish country houses have been suggested as sources of inspiration for the overall floor plan, details like the bow-fronted south front, interior details like the former niches in the present Blue Room; these influences, though undocumented, are cited in the official White House guide, in White
White House china
The White House china refers to the various patterns of china used for serving and eating food in the White House, home of the president of the United States. Different china services have been used by different presidential administrations; the White House collection of china is housed in the White House China Room. Not every administration created its own service, but portions of all china services created for the White House are now in the China Room collection; some of the older china services are used for small private dinners in the President's Dining Room on the Second Floor. In 1817 in Paris, Dagoty-Honoré manufactured the china of James Monroe, the first White House china for presidential use, designed for an American president. A dinner service of thirty place-settings and a matching dessert service were purchased for US$1,167.23. A Napoleonic eagle was in the center of the plates, popular at the time in both France and America; the eagle carried a red and blue banner reading "E Pluribus Unum", the national motto.
There are five vignettes inside the dark red border, representing agriculture, commerce and arts. The china was criticized by the press at the time for being foreign goods. Though Congress soon passed a law mandating all furniture for the White House be made in America, when it came to manufacturing china, it would take the country nearly another one hundred years to compete with the fine works produced in England and France; the White House needed a new china service by the time the Polks took up residence in 1845. The same company which produced the Monroe china service, Dagoty-Honoré of Paris, made their state dinner service; the dinner and dessert services were ordered in 1846. The service included a plain white design and gold trim, which made it a popular service with administrations; the simplicity of the china made it well suited to mix with other depleted services when the occasion arose. The dessert service, rather than being plain, features polychrome flowers; the Lincoln china is the first service, chosen by a First Lady.
Mary Todd Lincoln felt that it was important to maintain a proper appearance in the White House so that foreigners would perceive America as strong and her husband’s administration as in control. As a result, the Lincoln administration was active amid the Civil War. Mrs. Lincoln selected china with a purple-red border called "Solferino" known as the "Royal Purple" set, in 1861 from E. V. Haughwout and Company in New York City; the service had been produced by Company in Limoges, France. The American bald eagle is above a shield with the national motto spread throughout clouds; the Coat of Arms of the United States is centered in the service. The order of the Hayes china service came about by chance. First Lady Lucy Hayes met with artist Theodore R. Davis. While in the White House conservatory with Mrs. Hayes, Davis suggested that the china include the flora and fauna of North America as decoration. Davis produced 130 designs for Mrs. Hayes, many unique; the order cost $3,120. It was first used during a dinner for his family.
The service design was well liked by the public and reproduced, though critics were less than satisfied. First Lady Caroline Harrison wanted new china that would be "symbolic and meaningful to Americans." An artist herself, the first lady placed the Coat of Arms of the United States in the center of the plates, designed a goldenrod and corn motif etched in gold around a wide band of blue. The corn represents Mrs. Harrison's home state of Indiana. 44 stars, one for each state in the Union at the time, made up the inner border. Mrs. Harrison directed a large-scale remodeling effort of the White House, added a china closet to display all past presidential china services. Caroline Harrison was not able to use the china she had ordered, as she died before it was delivered to the White House; the china arrived in December 1892. An extensive White House renovation was conducted in the early 1900s, during which the State Dining Room was enlarged to seat over 100 guests. A new set of china was needed due to the expanded size of the room.
First Lady Edith Roosevelt ordered 1,320 pieces of Wedgwood china. The china highlighted the Great Seal of the United States. Mrs. Roosevelt expanded upon Mrs. Harrison's efforts to gather china from previous administrations and displayed them in a specially made cabinet on the White House ground floor; the Wilsons entered the White House in 1913, at the time, the most ordered china was from the Theodore Roosevelt presidency, over ten years before. By 1918, new china was needed. First Lady Edith Wilson preferred ordering American-made china, chose Lenox after viewing a sample in a Washington, D. C. store. The Wilson pattern was designed by Lenox's chief designer, Frank Holmes, who chose a restrained theme; the china featured a deep ivory border surrounding a brighter ivory body and two bands of matte gold encrusted with stars and other motifs. The dinner plates have deep blue borders; each of the 1,700 pieces has the presidential seal in raised gold. It was the first presidential china to feature the arms of the presidential seal rather than the arms of the Great Seal of the United States.
The first shipment of the china was delivered to the White House between August and November 1918. A New York newspaper wrote, "The proud day has arrived when the White House dining service designed by an American artist, made at an American pottery... and decorated by American workmen." The china remained in use for the Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover administrations. By 1933, the Wils
Shades of green
Varieties of the color green may differ in hue, chroma or lightness, or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are called tints and shades, a tint being a green or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below. Green is common in nature in plants. Many plants are green because of a complex chemical known as chlorophyll, involved in photosynthesis. Many shades of green are related to plants. Due to varying ratios of chlorophylls, the plant kingdom exhibits many shades of green in both hue and value; the chlorophylls in living plants have distinctive green colors, while dried or cooked portions of plants are different shades of green due to the chlorophyll molecules losing their inner magnesium ion. Artichoke is a color, a representation of the color of a raw fresh uncooked artichoke. Another name for this color is artichoke green; the first recorded use of "artichoke green" as a color name in English was in 1905.
This is the color called artichoke green in Pantone. The source is Pantone 18-0125 TPX Asparagus is a tone of green, named after the vegetable. Crayola created this color in 1993 as one of the 16 to be named in the Name the Color Contest, it is the color of a wild asparagus plant blowing in the wind of the 1949 classic film Sands of Iwo Jima. Another name for this color is asparagus green; the first recorded use of "asparagus green" as a color name in English was in 1805. Avocado is a color, a representation of the color of the outer surface of an avocado; the color avocado is a dark yellow-green color. Avocado was a common color for metal surfaces, as well as the color harvest gold, during the whole decade of the 1970s, they were both popular colors for shag carpets. Both colors went out of style by the early 1980s. Dark green is a dark shade of green. A different shade of green has been designated as "dark green" for certain computer uses. Fern green is a color. A Crayola crayon named fern was created in 1998, a lighter shade of the top color shown on the right.
The first recorded use of fern green as a color name in English was in 1902. Forest green refers to a green color said to resemble the color of the trees and other plants in a forest; the first recorded use of forest green as the name of a color in the English language was in 1810. Displayed at right is the color green earth. Hooker's green is a dark green color created by mixing Prussian Gamboge, it is displayed on the right. Hooker's green takes its name from botanical artist William Hooker who first created a special pigment for leaves. Displayed at right is the color jungle green. In 1990, Crayola formulated this specific tone of jungle green; the first recorded use of jungle green as a name of a color in the English language was in 1926. Laurel green is a medium light hue of greenish lighter; the first recorded use of laurel green as a name of a color in the English language was in 1705. Light green is a light tint of green. Mantis is a color, a representation of the color of a praying mantis.
The first use of mantis as a color name in English was when it was included as one of the colors on the Xona.com color list, promulgated in 2001. Moss green is a tone of green; the first recorded use of moss green as a color name in English was in 1884. Myrtle green called myrtle, is a color, a representation of the color of the leaves of the myrtle plant; the first recorded use of myrtle green as a color name in English was in 1835. Myrtle is the official designation of the green stripes on Waterloo rugby club's shirts, the green of Hunslet rugby league club, the green stripes of the South Sydney Rabbitohs and the green of the blazers, sports kit and scarf of St. Aloysius' College, Glasgow, it is one of the school colors of Lane Technical College Prep High School in Chicago, the other being old gold. The baggy green, the cricket cap worn by Australian Test cricketers since around the turn of the twentieth century, is myrtle green in color. Pine green is a rich shade of spring green, it is an official Crayola color.
The first recorded use of pine tree as a color name in English was in 1923. Reseda green is a shade of greyish green in the classic range of colors of the German RAL colour standard, in which it is named "RAL 6011"; the name derives from the color of the leaves of Reseda odorata known as mignonette. Sap green is a green pigment, traditionally made of ripe buckthorn berries. However, modern colors marketed under this name are a blend of other pigments with a basis of Phthalocyanine Green G. Sap green paint was used on Bob Ross' TV show, The Joy of Painting. Shamrock green is a tone of green that represents the color of a symbol of Ireland; the first recorded use of shamrock as a color name in English was in the 1820s. This green is defined as Irish green Pantone 347; this green is used as the green on the national flag of the Republic of IrelandIt is customary in Ireland, New Zealand and the United States to wear this or any other tone of green on St. Patrick's Day, March 17; the State of California uses this shade of green of the grass under the bear on their state flag.
The Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association use this shade for their uniforms and other memorabilia. Tea g
The West Wing of the White House houses the offices of the President of the United States. The West Wing contains the Oval Office, the Cabinet Room, the Situation Room, the Roosevelt Room; the West Wing's four floors contain offices for the Vice President, White House Chief of Staff, the Counselor to the President, the Senior Advisor to the President, the White House Press Secretary, their support staffs. Adjoining the press secretary's office, in the colonnade between the West Wing and the Executive Residence is the James S. Brady Press Briefing Room along with work space for the White House press corps. Before construction of the West Wing, presidential staff worked on the western end of the second floor of what is now the Executive Residence. However, when Theodore Roosevelt became president, he found that the existing offices in the mansion were insufficient to accommodate his family of six children as well as his staff. A year in 1902, First Lady Edith Roosevelt hired McKim, Mead & White to separate the living quarters from the offices, to enlarge and modernize the public rooms, to re-do the landscaping, to redecorate the interior.
Congress approved over half a million dollars for the renovation. The West Wing was intended as a temporary office structure, built on the site of the extensive greenhouses and stables; the President's Office and the Cabinet Room took up the eastern third of the building closest to the Residence and attached colonnaded terrace. Roosevelt's rectangular office with adjacent Cabinet Room through a set of double doors, located where the Roosevelt Room is now near the center. In 1909, William Howard Taft expanded, he placed the first Oval Office at the center of the addition's south facade, reminiscent of the oval rooms on the three floors of the White House. At the outset of his presidency, Herbert Hoover rebuilt the West Wing, excavating a partial basement, supporting it with structural steel; the completed building however lasted less than seven months. On December 24, 1929, the West Wing was damaged by an electrical fire. Hoover rebuilt it, added air-conditioning; the fourth and final major reorganization was undertaken less than three years by Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Dissatisfied with the size and layout of President Hoover's West Wing, he engaged New York architect Eric Gugler to redesign it in 1933. To create additional space without increasing the apparent size of the building, Gugler excavated a full basement, added a set of subterranean offices under the adjacent lawn, built an unobtrusive "penthouse" story; the directive to wring the most office space out of the existing building was responsible for its narrow corridors and cramped staff offices. Gugler's most notable change was the addition to the east side containing a new Cabinet Room, Secretary's Office, Oval Office; the new office's location gave presidents greater privacy, allowing them to slip back and forth between the White House and the West Wing without being in full view of the staff. As the size of the president's staff grew over the latter half of the 20th century, the West Wing came to be seen as too small for its modern governmental functions. Today, most of the staff members of the Executive Office of the President are located in the adjacent Eisenhower Executive Office Building.
Richard Nixon renamed the room called by Franklin Roosevelt the "Fish Room" in honor of the two Presidents Roosevelt: Theodore, who first built the West Wing, Franklin, who built the current Oval Office. By tradition, a portrait of Franklin Roosevelt hangs over the mantel of the Roosevelt Room during the administration of a president from the Democratic Party and a portrait of Theodore Roosevelt hangs during the administration of a Republican president. In the past, the portrait not hanging over the mantel hung on the opposite wall. However, during the first term of George W. Bush, an audio-visual cabinet was placed on the opposite wall providing secure audio and visual conference capabilities across the hall from the Oval Office. During the 1930s, the March of Dimes constructed a swimming pool so that Franklin Roosevelt could exercise, as therapy for his polio-related disability. Richard Nixon had the swimming pool covered over to create the Press Briefing Room, where the White House Press Secretary gives daily briefings.
The journalists and others who are part of the White House press corps have offices near the press briefing room. The West Wing ground floor is the site of a small dining facility staffed by Naval culinary specialists and called the White House Mess, it is located underneath the Oval Office, was established by President Truman on June 11, 1951. In 1999, The West Wing television series brought greater public attention to the workings of the presidential staff, as well as to the location of those working in the West Wing; the show followed the working lives of a fictional U. S. president, Josiah Bartlet, his senior staff. When asked whether the show captured the working environment in 2003, Press Secretary Scott McClellan commented that the show portrayed more foot traffic and larger rooms than in the real West Wing. White House Museum: West Wing, with floorplan and historical images West Wing Interactive, from National Journal Magazine
George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government, he has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington allied with France, in the defeat of the British at Yorktown. Once victory for the United States was in hand in 1783, Washington resigned his commission. Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections.
He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington utilized slave labor and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River.
George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler; the family moved to Little Hunting Creek to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and surveying, he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.
He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley, he owned 2,315 acres by 1752. In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts; the British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.
Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia. Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London. In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia R
White House Office of the Curator
The White House Office of the Curator is charged with the conservation and study of the collection of fine art and decorative objects used to furnish both the public and private rooms of the White House as an official residence and as an accredited historic house museum. The office began in 1961 during the administration of President John F. Kennedy while First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy oversaw the restoration of the White House; the office is located in the ground floor of the White House Executive Residence. The office, headed by the Curator of the White House, includes an Associate Curator, an Assistant Curator, a Curatorial Assistant; the office works with the Chief Usher, the Committee for the Preservation of the White House and the White House Historical Association. The most recent White House Curator was William G. Allman, appointed by President George W. Bush in 2002 and retired in June, 2017; the Curator of the White House, or less formally White House Curator, is head of the White House Office of the Curator, charged with the conservation and study of the collection of fine art and decorative objects used to furnish both the public and private rooms of the White House.
The position was begun during the administration of President John F. Kennedy while First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy oversaw the restoration of the White House; the first Curator of the White House was Lorraine Waxman Pearce, appointed in March 1961. Pearce was a graduate of the preservation program at the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum. To date seven curators have served in the White House. Designing Camelot: The Kennedy White House Restoration. Van Nostrand Reinhold: 1998. ISBN 0-442-02532-7. Garrett, Wendell. Our Changing White House. Northeastern University Press: 1995. ISBN 1-55553-222-5. Monkman, Betty C; the White House: The Historic Furnishing & First Families. Abbeville Press: 2000. ISBN 0-7892-0624-2; the White House: An Historic Guide. White House Historical Association and the National Geographic Society: 2001. ISBN 0-912308-79-6. White House website biography of curator William G. Allman