Jules Hardouin-Mansart was a French architect whose work is generally considered to be the apex of French Baroque architecture, representing the power and grandeur of Louis XIV. Hardouin-Mansart was one of the most important European architects of the seventeenth century and he learned from Libéral Bruant, architect of the royal veterans hospital in Paris known as Les Invalides. Hardouin-Mansart served as Louis XIVs chief architect, first enlarging the royal château of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and he became the surintendant des Bâtiments du Roi. Outside the château proper, he built the Grand Trianon and the Orangerie, as well as subsidiary royal dwellings not far away, most of these works still set their stamp on the character of Paris and can be seen by a modern-day tourist. A traditional French touch is the modest pedimented entrance flanked by projecting pavilions. Behind, the axis is extended between the former parterres, now grass. The park with formally shaped water was out by André Le Nôtre.
The small scale makes it easier to compare to the approximately contemporary Het Loo and he died at Marly-le-Roi in 1708. 17th-century French art Herbermann, Charles, ed. Jules Mansard
The stater was an ancient coin used in various regions of Greece. The term is used for similar coins, imitating Greek staters. The stater, as a Greek silver currency, first as ingots, the earliest known stamped stater is an electrum turtle coin, struck at Aegina that dates to about 700 BC. It is on display at the Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris, the silver stater minted at Corinth of 8.6 grams weight was divided into three silver drachmas of 2.9 grams, but was often linked to the Athenian silver didrachm coin weighing 8.6 grams. In comparison, the Athenian silver tetradrachm was weighing 17.2 grams. There existed a gold stater, but it was minted in some places, and was mainly an accounting unit worth 20–28 drachmas depending on place and time. The use of gold staters in coinage seems mostly of Macedonian origin, the best known types of Greek gold staters are the 28 drachmas Kyzikenos from Cyzicus. Celtic tribes brought the concept to Western and Central Europe after obtaining it while serving as mercenaries in north Greece.
Gold staters were minted in Gaul by Gallic chiefs modeled after those of Philip II of Macedonia, some of these staters in the form of the Gallo-Belgic series were imported to Britain on a large scale. These went on to influence a range of staters produced in Britain, british Gold staters generally weighed between 6.5 and 4.5 grams. Celtic staters were minted in present-day Czech Republic and Poland. The conquests of Alexander extended Greek culture east, leading to the adoption of staters in Asia, Gold staters have been found from the ancient region of Gandhara from the time of Kanishka
Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones. One troy ounce equals 31.1034768 grams exactly, there are only 12 troy ounces per troy pound, rather than the 16 ounces per pound found in the more common avoirdupois system. However, the pound has 7000 grains whereas the troy pound has only 5760 grains. Both systems use the same grain defined by the international yard, therefore the troy ounce is 480 grains, compared with the avoirdupois ounce, which is 437.5 grains. So the troy ounce is about 10% heavier than the avoirdupois ounce, although troy ounces are still used to weigh gold and gemstones, troy weight is no longer used in most other applications. One troy ounce of gold is denoted with the ISO4217 currency code XAU, troy weight probably takes its name from the French market town of Troyes in France where English merchants traded at least as early as the early 9th century. The name troy is first attested in 1390, describing the weight of a platter, the word troni refers to markets.
Watson finds the dialect word troi, meaning a balance in Wrights Dialect Dictionary, troy weight referred to the tower system, the earliest reference to the modern troy weights is in 1414. Many aspects of the weight system were indirectly derived from the Roman monetary system. The Romans used bronze bars of varying weights as currency, an aes grave weighed 1 pound. One twelfth of an aes grave was called an uncia, or in English an ounce, before the adoption of the metric system, many systems of troy weights were in use in various parts of Europe, among them Holland troy, Paris troy, etc. Their values varied from one another by up to several percentage points, troy weights were first used in England in the 15th century, and were made official for gold and silver in 1527. The British Imperial system of weights and measures was established in 1824, the troy ounce in use today is essentially the same as the British Imperial troy ounce, adopted as an official weight standard for United States coinage by Act of Congress on May 19,1828.
The British Imperial troy ounce was based on, and virtually identical with, the pre-1824 British troy ounce, the English troy ounce was officially adopted for coinage in 1527. Troy ounces have been used in England since about 1400, before that, various sorts of troy ounces were in use on the continent. The troy ounce and grain were part of the apothecaries system and this was long used in medicine, but has now been largely replaced by the metric system. The only troy weight in widespread use today is the British Imperial troy ounce, both are currently based on a grain of 0.06479891 gram, with 480 grains to a troy ounce. The British Empire abolished the 12-ounce troy pound in the 19th century, the origin of the troy weight system is unknown
Rue de Richelieu
Rue de Richelieu is a long street of Paris, starting in the south of the 1st arrondissement, ending in the 2nd arrondissement. Parallel with it, is the Rue Vivienne and they are both pleasant streets, especially the former, which is much longer, and is rendered more striking by containing some of the finest hotels in Paris. Hosiers, artificial flower makers, clock-makers, and jewellers, are the principal tradesmen in the Rue de Richelieu, but it has no similarity with Bond-street. The Rue Vivienne is comparatively short, but it is pleasing, from the number of flowers, shrubs, is it because some few hundred thousand printed volumes are deposited therein. Today it is most notable for scattered coin dealers and currency changers, the name comes from Cardinal de Richelieu, Prime minister of King Louis XIII. The street was originally called Rue Royale, rue de Richelieu soon after, the name was changed to Rue de la Loi during the French Revolution, its name was given back in 1806. The famous firearms played a role to the French Revolution by distributing arms to the people in 1789.
The former Royal Palace hôtel which opened in 1909 was located in the building as the Fauré Le Page store. Palais Royal - Ministry of Culture database Bibliothèque nationale - Ministry of Culture database
Great Cameo of France
The Great Cameo of France is a five-layered sardonyx cameo of c.23 AD. It appears to have come to France from the treasury of the Byzantine Empire and it was known as the Triumph of Joseph at the Court of the Pharaoh. It entered the Cabinet des Médailles on the order of Louis XVI on 1 May 1791, stolen during the French Revolution, it was recovered in Amsterdam but without its original gold frame, which was replaced by a bronze one that in turn was lost until 1912. It now resides in Paris at the Bibliothèque Nationale and it is the largest Roman imperial cameo to have survived. It is engraved with figures, divided into three levels. The general meaning and iconographic intent of the work are debated but generally clear, in the upper level are its deceased or deified members including Divus Augustus, surrounded by Drusus the Younger and Drusus the Elder flying on Pegasus. Agrippina the Youngers hairstyle confirms a date for the cameo between her marriage to Claudius in 49 and the accession of her son Nero as the emperor of Rome in 54.
In the lowest level are captive barbarians, catalogue des Camées antiques et modernes de la Bibliothèque Nationale. Paris, E. Leroux,1897, n°264, trésors de la Bibliothèque nationale de France, I, Mémoires et merveilles. Le grand camée de France, Paris,1998 Giuliani and Gerhard Schmidt, das Geheimnis des großen Kameo, Verlag C. H. Beck, Munich 2010. Jucker, HNA Der Grosse Pariser Kameo, Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts 91 211-50,1789, Le Patrimoine libéré,200 trésors entrés à la Bibliothèque nationale de 1789 à1799. Paris, Bibliothèque nationale,1989, n°83
Anne Claude de Caylus
Anne Claude de Tubières-Grimoard de Pestels de Lévis, comte de Caylus, marquis dEsternay, baron de Bransac, French antiquarian, proto-archaeologist and man of letters, was born at Paris. He was the eldest son of Lieutenant-General Anne de Tubières, comte de Caylus and his mother, Marthe-Marguerite de Villette de Mursay, comtesse de Caylus, was the daughter of vice-admiral Philippe, Marquis de Villette-Mursay. He was a cousin of Mme de Maintenon, who brought Marthe-Marguerite up like her own daughter, Marthe-Marguerite wrote valuable Souvenirs of the court of Louis XIV, these were edited by Voltaire, and by many editors. While a young man, Caylus distinguished himself in the campaigns of the French army, after the peace of Rastatt he spent some time in travelling in Italy, the Levant and Germany, and devoted much attention to the study and collection of antiquities. He became a member of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture. His Numismata Aurea Imperatorum Romanorum, treats only the gold coinage of the Roman emperors, who was no friend to Caylus, maintained that the proper method had been found by J. -B.
Caylus was an etcher, and copied many paintings of the great masters. His cultural interests were not confined to the arts of Classical Antiquity but extended to Gallic monuments, such as the megaliths of Aurille, diderot expressed this fact in an epigram in his Salon of 1765, La mort nous a délivré du plus cruel des amateurs. Caylus had quite another side to his character and he had a thorough acquaintance with the gayest and most disreputable sides of Parisian life, and left a number of more or less witty stories dealing with it. These were collected as his Œuvres badines complètes, the best of them is the Histoire de M. Guillaume, cocher. His Contes, hovering between French fairy tales and oriental fantasies, between conventional charm and moral satire, have collected and were published in 2005. The Souvenirs du comte de Caylus, published in 1805, is of doubtful authenticity. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Caylus. Comte de Caylus, Contes in series Sources classiques.
ISBN 2-7453-1198-0 Notice [Three of his essays were anthologized in Charles Harrison, art In Theory 1648-1815, An Anthology of Changing Ideas, On Drawings (1732, The Life of Antoine Watteau (1748, and On Composition
Eucratides I, sometimes called Eucratides the Great, was one of the most important Greco-Bactrian kings, descendants of dignitaries of Alexander the Great. He uprooted the Euthydemid dynasty of Greco-Bactrian kings and replaced it with his own lineage, Eucratides had a vast and prestigious coinage, suggesting a rule of considerable importance. Eucratides came to the throne by overthrowing the dynasty of Euthydemus I in Bactria, the king whom Eucratides dethroned in Bactria was probably Antimachus I. Laodice may have been a member of the Seleucid imperial house, having become master of Bactria, Eucratides conquered the western parts of the Indo-Greek kingdom. According to the remaining source, Roman historian Justin, Eucratides defeated Demetrius of India. Eucratides led many wars with great courage, while weakened by them, was put under siege by Demetrius, in any case, Eucratides advances into India are proved by his abundant bilingual coinage. Eucratides I is most likely the founder of Eucratideia, the seal of Da Afghanistan Bank features a Eucratides I-era coin.
The successors to Eucratides were Eucratides II and Heliocles I, who was the last Greek king to reign in Bactria, once the Yuezhi tribes overpowered Heliocles, the Greco-Bactrians lost control of the provinces north of the Hindu Kush. Two other members of the dynasty were Plato of Bactria and probably Demetrius II, full account of Justin on Eucratides, Almost at the same time that Mithridates ascended the throne among the Parthians, Eucratides began to reign among the Bactrians, both of them being great men. Having accordingly escaped, after a five months’ siege, he reduced India under his power, Heliocles I The Shape of Ancient Thought. Coins of Eucratides More coins of Eucratides Catalogue of the Coins of Eucratides I
Charles V of France
Charles V, called the Wise, was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1364 to his death. In 1349, as a prince, Charles received from his grandfather King Philip VI the province of Dauphiné to rule. This allowed him to bear the title Dauphin until his coronation, after 1350, all heirs apparent of France bore the title of Dauphin until their coronation. Charles became regent of France when his father John II was captured by the English at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356. With the help of talented advisers known as the Marmousets, his management of the kingdom allowed him to replenish the royal treasury. He established the first permanent army paid with regular wages, which liberated the French populace from the companies of routiers who regularly plundered the country when not employed. Furthermore, the French Navy, led by Jean de Vienne and he was succeeded by his son Charles VI the Mad, whose disastrous reign allowed the English to regain control of large parts of France.
Charles was born at the Château de Vincennes outside of Paris, the future king was highly intelligent but physically weak, with pale skin and a thin, ill-proportioned body. This made a sharp contrast to his father, who was tall, strong, as neither the pope nor the emperor wanted to buy, the transaction was concluded with Philip VI. Under the Treaty of Romans, the Dauphiné of Viennois was to be held by a son of the future king John the Good, so it was Charles, the eldest son of the latter, who became the first Dauphin. At the age of twelve, he was confronted with the exercise of power while staying in Grenoble. A few days after his arrival, the people of Grenoble were invited to the Place Notre-Dame, young Charles took his place next to Bishop John of Chissé and received the oath of allegiance of the people. On April 8,1350 at Tain-lHermitage, the Dauphin married his cousin Joanna of Bourbon at the age of 12, the prior approval of the pope was obtained for this consanguineous marriage. The marriage was delayed by the death of his mother Bonne of Luxembourg and his grandmother Joan the Lame, the dauphin himself had been seriously ill from August to December 1349.
Gatherings were limited to slow the spread of the raging in Europe. Despite his young age, the applied to be recognized by his subjects. Charles was recalled to Paris at the death of his grandfather Philip VI, the legitimacy of John the Good, and that of the Valois in general, was not unanimous. His father, Philip VI, had lost all credibility with the disasters of Crecy, the ravages of the plague, the royal clan had to cope with opposition from all sides in the kingdom
13th arrondissement of Paris
The 13th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. The neighborhood features a concentration of ethnic Chinese and Vietnamese businesses. The 13th arrondissement hosts the Bibliothèque François Mitterrand and the newly built district of Paris Rive Gauche. The 13th arrondissement is still growing in population, mainly because of an influx of Asian immigrants, during the late 1970s and early 1980s, the first wave of Vietnamese refugees from the Vietnam War settled in the arrondissement, largely concentrated near Masséna Boulevard. Later waves of refugees and Asian immigrants transitioned from being exclusively ethnic Vietnamese to include ethnic Chinese from Vietnam and these migrants largely settled in the southern area of the arrondissement, creating an Asian quarter and establishing a commercial district and community institutions. Teochew, Vietnamese and Khmer are spoken by residents in the community. At the last census in 1999, the population was 171,533, the 13th arrondissement is rapidly growing in business activity, thanks to the new business district of Paris Rive Gauche.
In 1999, the arrondissement contained 89,316 jobs, the head office of Accor, including the companys executive management, is in the Immeuble Odyssey in the 13th arrondissement. This facility is the registered office. Ubisoft has its business office in the arrondissement, the teaching and learning center is settled at the number 151. Pariss main Asian district, the Quartier Asiatique, called la Triangle de Choisy or la petite Asie, is located in the southeast of the arrondissement. The following can be found in area, Les Olympiades, Super-Italie and various other towers among the tallest in Paris Tang Frères and Paristore Asian supermarkets. Chinese community in Paris Vietnamese community in Paris 13th arrondissement travel guide from Wikivoyage