2009 European Parliament election in Greece
The European Parliament election of 2009 in Greece for the election of the delegation from Greece to the European Parliament in 2009 took place on 7 June 2009. The election system used in Greece is party-list proportional representation with a 3% threshold for any party; the number of seats allocated to Greece declined from 24 to 22, as a result of new member states joining the European Union. Consistent with EU-wide rules, Greek citizens resident in another of the 26-member states were permitted to vote in the place where they reside. On 24 May, the Greek Court of Cassation, the country's supreme court, accepted the applications of 27 of the 33 parties which applied to contest the elections; the court banned six parties from participating: Alternative Ecologists Party of Responsible Citizenship Dimokratiki Party of Uprising Pensioners of Greece Panagriarian Workers Movement Political Greek-European Animal-Loving Movement Animal-Loving Ecologists of Greece In addition, the court ruled that the following parties could not participate as part of the Coalition of the Radical Left: Democratic Social Movement Movement of Active Citizens Movement for the United in Action Left Kokkino Xekinima Ecosocialists Greece Group Rosa A judicial dispute ensued, when Drasi filed a petition before the Council of State to annul the ministerial decision, through which the time for political advertising spots on the radio and television would be allocated, since it disproportionately favoured established parties.
A preliminary ruling sent the dispute to the Council of State's plenary session, which will hear the petition for annulment on 25 September 2009. Gemenis, Kostas. Election Report—Winning Votes and Weathering Storms: The 2009 European and Parliamentary Elections in Greece. Democracy in Theory and Practice. Routledge. Pp. 99–108
Elections in Greece
Elections in Greece gives information on elections and election results in Greece. The Greek Parliament has 300 members, elected for a four-year term by a system of'reinforced' proportional representation in 56 constituencies, 48 of which are multi-seat and 8 single-seat. Seats are determined by constituency voting, voters may select the candidate or candidates of their choice by marking their name on the party ballot. However, the party receiving the largest number of votes receives a 50-seat premium, filled by candidates of that party not declared elected on the lower rungs. Greek citizens aged 17 and over on the year of the election are eligible to vote, at the age of 25 and over are eligible to be elected to Parliament. Women's suffrage was adopted in 1930. Constituencies in Greece have traditionally been multi-seat, they coincide with prefectures; the number of seats is adjusted once every ten years, following the decennial population census. Prefecture constituencies may not be deprived of representation, nor may they be merged with another prefecture.
Population changes have left eight prefectures with a single parliamentary seat each, whereas some urban or suburban constituencies have seen large increases in their seat allotment over the years. For example, the "Athens B" constituency encompasses 15% of the country's electorate and elects 42 members of parliament; the "Athens A" constituency elects 17 MPs, "Thessaloniki A" elects 16, Attica elects 12, the remaining constituencies elect single-digit numbers of MPs. Polling takes place in school buildings on a Sunday, a festive occasion for students who are given a four-day weekend off; the procedure is run by a presiding judge or attorney-at-law appointed by the local Bar association, secretarially assisted by local citizens selected by lot in a process resembling jury duty. Local police are available too. Local party representatives are allowed to monitor tallying. Traditionally, voting takes place "from sunrise to sunset" but times are rounded to the nearest "top of the hour". Individual precincts may prolong voting time at the judge's discretion, if there are still voters queueing up to vote.
Voters identify themselves by their ID cards and are given the full number of ballot papers for the constituency plus a blank ballot paper and an empty envelope. They withdraw to a secluded cubicle equipped with a lectern and waste basket, where they select the ballot paper of their choice, if any, mark the candidate of their choice, if any. Voters may select specific candidates within the party list of their choice by marking a cross next to the candidate name or names; the maximum allowable number of crosses on the ballot paper depends on the number of seats contested. Signs other than crosses next to a candidate name may mark the ballot as invalid during tallying, as such findings may be construed to violate voting secrecy. Ballot papers with more crosses than the maximum number allowed, or without any cross, are counted in the total party tally but are disqualified during the second part of tallying, i.e. the determination of which individual candidate is elected to a seat won by the candidate's party.
Once on-the-spot tallying is over and the tallies reported the ballots are sealed and transported to the Central Election Service of the Interior Ministry. There ballots are recounted in order to ascertain the validity or invalidity of the few ambiguously marked ballot papers. Any unresolved matters following this recount are referred to the specially convened Eklogodikeion, which adjudicates and officially publishes the names of elected MPs, so that the new Parliament may convene; the Court of Election may reconvene at any time in order to discuss appeals by candidates who failed to be elected, to fill seats that become vacant in the case of death or abdication of an MP. Such seats are filled by going down the preference tally of the party list that won the seat in the first place. Greek citizens permanently living in European Union countries are allowed to vote in European Parliament elections; the Greek electoral system was codified for the first time by Presidential Decree in 2012. The current system is called "reinforced proportionality" in Greece, is a form of semi-proportional representation with a 50-seat majority bonus for the party that wins a plurality of the vote.
There is an electoral threshold of 3% which all parties and individuals need to pass on a national level before being awarded any seats. These provisions are aimed at helping the largest party secure an absolute majority of parliamentary seats, enhancing governmental stability; the majority bonus of 50 seats was abolished in 2016, but will still be applied at the 2019 Greek legislative election because th
2019 Greek legislative election
The 2019 Greek legislative election will be held on or before 20 October 2019, in accordance with the Constitution of Greece. At stake will be all 300 seats in the Hellenic Parliament. Unless an early election is called before that date, it will be the first parliamentary session since the 2004 election which exhausted the parliamentary mandate of the previous election, it will be the first national election in Greece where the voting age will be lowered to 17, the number of parliamentary constituencies was increased from 56 to 59. Athens B, the largest constituency with 44 seats before the 2018 reform, was broken up into smaller constituencies, the largest of which has 18 seats. All voters are called up to vote, with registration voting being mandatory. However, none of the existing penalties or sanctions have been enforced. A number of changes to the electoral system were introduced since the September 2015 election. Greece lowered its voting age from 18 to 17 in July 2016, the 2019 election will be the first national election in which this law will take effect.
Additionally, the same law abolished the majority bonus system system, used in previous elections, which gave a 50-seat bonus to the largest party, replacing it with a simple proportional representation system in which all 300 seats are awarded proportionally. However, this law will not come into effect for the 2019 elections, as it was not approved with the required supermajority; the Syriza-led government expressed support for the introduction of the new system in the 2019 elections as well. The number of parliamentary constituencies was modified in December 2018, with Athens B being split into Athens B1, Athens B2, Athens B3, while Attica was split to East Attica and West Attica; the extension of the franchise to Greeks living outside of Greece is under discussion, but it is unclear if it will be approved in time for the 2019 election. In the 2019 elections, 250 seats will be distributed on the basis of proportional representation in the constituencies, with a threshold of 3% required for entry into parliament.
Blank and invalid votes, as well as votes cast for parties that fall short of the 3% threshold, will be disregarded for seat allocation purposes. 50 additional seats will be awarded as a majority bonus to the party that emerges with a plurality of votes, with coalitions in that regard not being counted as an overall party but having their votes counted separately for each party in the coalition, according to the election law. Parliamentary majority will be achieved by the party or coalition of parties that will command at least one half plus one of total seats; the next general election cannot be held than Sunday 20 October 2019. According to the Greek constitution, Members of Parliament are elected for terms of four years, with elections required within thirty days of their term's expiration. Alexis Tsipras, on 31st of December 2018, stated that he is searching for a date in October
President of Greece
The President of the Hellenic Republic, colloquially referred to in English as the President of Greece, is the head of state of Greece. The President is elected by the Hellenic Parliament, his role is ceremonial since the 1986 constitutional reform; the office was formally established by the Constitution of Greece in 1975, but has antecedents in the Second Hellenic Republic of 1924–1935 and the republic established by the Greek military junta in 1973–1974. The incumbent, since 2015, is Prokopis Pavlopoulos, serving his first term in office; the president is the nominal commander-in-chief of the Greek Armed Forces and occupies the first place in the country's order of precedence. Although the Greek Constitution of 1974 vested him with considerable powers on paper, in practice the president took a ceremonial role; the president's role was formally brought into line with actual practice by the 1986 constitutional amendment, which reduced his official powers. According to Article 32 the Greek Constitution, the President is elected for a five-year term by the Hellenic Parliament in a special session at least a month before the incumbent's term expires.
Voting takes place in two phases, each maximally of three ballots, separated by no more than five days. The first and second ballots require a supermajority of 200 out of the 300-strong body, dropping to 180 on the third. In the event of a non-election after the third ballot, the parliament is to be dissolved and a snap election to be called within ten days. After the new parliament convenes, the second phase begins, with the required majority at 180 votes in the fourth ballot and a simple majority of 151 votes in the fifth ballot; the sixth and last ballot is contested between the two candidates with the most votes and decided by a relative majority. Before taking office, the President must recite an oath before Parliament: "I swear in the name of the Holy and Indivisible Trinity to safeguard the Constitution and the laws, to ensure their faithful observance, to defend the national independence and territorial integrity of the Country, to protect the rights and liberties of the Greeks and to serve the general interest and the progress of the Greek People."
The official residence of the President of Greece is the Presidential Mansion the New Royal Palace, in central Athens. The current Third Hellenic Republic was established in 1974 during the period of metapolitefsi, after the end of the Regime of the Colonels which had controlled Greece since the coup d'état of 21 April 1967. On 1 June 1973 the leader of the military junta and regent for the exiled King Constantine II, Georgios Papadopoulos, abolished the Greek monarchy and proclaimed himself President of the Republic. A staged referendum on 29 July 1973 confirmed the regime change, passed a new constitution which established a presidential republic; this attempt at controlled democratization was ended by Brigadier Dimitrios Ioannidis' overthrow of Papadopoulos in November 1973. The republic and its institutions were formally maintained, but was nothing more than a façade for the military regime. Lt. General Phaedon Gizikis was appointed President of the Republic, but power was in the hands of Ioannidis, who ruled behind the scenes.
After the fall of the junta and the return to civilian rule under Konstantinos Karamanlis in August 1974, the legal and constitutional acts of the military regime were deemed invalid, a new referendum was held on 8 December 1974, which confirmed the abolition of the monarchy. In the interim, remained in office as President. After the plebiscite, he was succeeded by Michail Stasinopoulos. A new constitution, promulgated on 11 June 1975, declared Greece a presidential parliamentary democracy; this constitution, revised in 1985, 2001, 2008, is still in force today. There are two living former Greek Presidents: List of heads of state of Greece List of Presidents of Greece by longevity
Prokopios Pavlopoulos, GColIH shortened to Prokopis, is the current President of Greece, in office since 2015. A lawyer, university professor and politician, he was Minister for the Interior from 2004 to 2009. On 18 February 2015, Pavlopoulos was elected by the Hellenic Parliament as President of Greece, with 233 votes in favour. Prokopis Pavlopoulos was born in Kalamata to high school principal and classics teacher Vasilios Pavlopoulos and grew up in the same city. After finishing school in his home town, he entered the Law School of the University of Athens in 1968. In 1975, on a government scholarship, he received his DEA from the Paris Panthéon-Assas University, followed by his PhD in 1977 on Public Law, he returned to Greece to serve his military service in the Hellenic Army. He was elected Lecturer at the University of Athens in 1980, he was promoted to Reader in 1981. In 1983 he became Assistant Professor and he was promoted to Associate Professor in 1986. In 1989, he was elected Professor of Administrative Law.
In 1986, Pavlopoulos was an adjunct faculty member at the Panthéon-Assas University. Pavlopoulos was secretary to the first President of the metapolitefsi, Michail Stasinopoulos, in 1974. From November 1989 to April 1990, he served as alternate Minister for the Presidency and government spokesman in the ecumenical government headed by Xenophon Zolotas, he served as head of the legal office to President Konstantinos Karamanlis from 1990 to 1995, political advisor to Miltiadis Evert chairman of New Democracy, from September 1995. He was elected as a State MP for the New Democracy party in the 1996 parliamentary election, in the 2000 parliamentary election he was elected as an MP for the Athens A constituency, he was appointed as New Democracy's Press and Information Spokesman by Evert on 20 April 1996. Pavlopoulos was successively re-elected for Athens A in the 2000, 2004, 2007, 2009 and 2012 elections. Following the March 2004 legislative election, won by New Democracy, Pavlopoulos became Minister for the Interior, Public Administration and Decentralisation in the new government of the Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis on 10 March 2004.
In the government appointed following New Democracy's victory in the September 2007 parliamentary election, the Interior Ministry was merged with the Ministry of Public Order, Pavlopoulous became Minister of the Interior and Public Order. He is a member of the Central Committee of New Democracy, on 29 July 2004 he was designated as a member of the party's Political Council as one of seven MP candidates. On 17 February, Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras nominated Pavlopoulos as the ruling SYRIZA–ANEL coalition's candidate for the post of President of Greece in the presidential election that had begun in December 2014. On 18 February 2015, backed by SYRIZA, ANEL and his own New Democracy party, Pavlopoulos was elected by the Greek Parliament as the new President of Greece with 233 votes in favour, he succeeded Karolos Papoulias after the end of the latter's term on 13 March 2015. Pavlopoulos is married to Vlassia Pavlopoulou-Peltsemi and together they have two daughters and Zoe, one son, Vasilis.
David Davis, son of the Katherine, Crown Princess of Yugoslavia, are Godchildren of President Prokopis Pavlopoulos. Grand Master and Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer - 13 March 2015 Grand Master of the Order of Honour Grand Master of the Order of the Phoenix Grand Master of the Order of BeneficencePavlopoulos was awarded the following foreign order: Grand Cross of the Order of the Legion of Honour - 22 October 2015 Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic - 23 November 2015 Grand Collar of the Order of Prince Henry - 27 January 2017 Knight of the Order of the White Eagle - 18 November 2017 Media related to Prokopis Pavlopoulos at Wikimedia Commons Terms of office of Prokopis Pavlopoulos at the Hellenic Parliament
January 2015 Greek legislative election
The January 2015 Greek legislative election was held in Greece on Sunday, 25 January, to elect all 300 members to the Hellenic Parliament in accordance with the constitution. The election was held earlier than scheduled due to the failure of the Greek parliament to elect a new president on 29 December 2014.21 parties, 4 party coalitions and 1 independent candidate applied for participation in the elections. The supreme court decided that 4 party coalitions could participate; the Coalition of the Radical Left, SYRIZA, won a legislative election for the first time securing 149 out of the 300 seats, 2 seats short of an absolute majority. On the other hand and then-ruling New Democracy lost 53 seats and obtained its worst result in terms of seats won. Social-democratic PASOK, ND's coalition partner, was reduced to just 13 seats, falling to 7th place and becoming the last party to surpass the 3% threshold. Golden Dawn lost some support and was reduced by one seat to 17, yet became the 3rd political force in Greece thanks to the loss of support by both PASOK and the nationalist conservative Independent Greeks party, ANEL.
Stavros Theodorakis' newly-created To Potami party entered parliament with 17 seats and 6.1% of the vote. The Communist Party of Greece won 15 seats, 3 more than it had won in June 2012. DIMAR, a former coalition partner until June 2013, failed to enter parliament after winning a mere 0.5% of the vote, insufficient to be eligible for seats. Alexis Tsipras was sworn in as Prime Minister of Greece on 26 January 2015, after reaching a coalition agreement with ANEL. Greece suffered three distinct economic recessions in the turmoil of the Global Financial Crisis, with private markets becoming inaccessible as a lending source since May 2010, leaving the state to choose between accepting conditional bailout funding from the Troika, or the path of a sovereign default along with being forced to leave the euro; the outgoing government chose to accept the offered conditional bailout funding, outlining a certain level of economic reforms and austerity to be achieved throughout the programme period from May 2010 until March 2016.
In return, Greece was scheduled to receive: €245.6 billion of long-term bailout loans, Greece was rewarded by private creditors accepting a debt restructuring deal - cutting of the debt burden of the state by €127.1 billion in 2012 - while transforming the remaining debt pile from short-term bonds with high interest rates to long-term bonds with low interest rates. The incumbent government was formed after the June 2012 election by New Democracy, Panhellenic Socialist Movement, Democratic Left. Antonis Samaras of New Democracy was Prime Minister. PASOK and DIMAR declined to participate in Samaras' cabinet, thus composed of New Democracy members and independents. By April 2013, the government held 167 seats, down from 179 elected in the 2012 election. Of those, nine were expelled for voting against austerity packages, three left voluntarily. On 21 June 2013, DIMAR chose to withdraw from the governing coalition in protest of the unilateral closure of the state-owned Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation, ten days before.
DIMAR's withdrawal left the government with a slim three seat majority of 153 seats. Antonis Manitakis, the Minister of Administrative Reform, Antonis Roupakiotis, the Minister of Justice, both independents submitted their resignation to the government. DIMAR said that while they would still work with the government on a case-by-case basis, following another election the party could work with a SYRIZA-led government. In an interview with Bild on 10 February 2014, Samaras insisted that Greece did not need a new bailout, despite reports in Germany that the Greek Finance Ministry was working on a plan for one; the German Finance Ministry estimated that a third bailout would have a size between 10 and 20 billion euros. Both of the latest bailout programme audit reports, released independently by the European Commission and IMF in June 2014, revealed that after transfer of the scheduled bailout funds and full implementation of the agreed adjustment package in 2012, there was a new forecast financing gap of: €5.6bn in 2014, €12.3bn in 2015, €0bn in 2016.
The new forecast financing gaps, were needed either to be covered by the government's additional lending from private capital markets - or a third additional bailout loan, but could alternatively be countered by additional fiscal improvements through expenditure reductions, revenue hikes or increased amount of privatizations. Due to an improved outlook for the Greek economy, with achievement of a sustained government structural surplus since 2012 - along with both a decline of the unemployment rate and return of positive real GDP growth in 2014, it was possible for the Greek government to return to the bond market during the course of 2014 - for the purpose to fund its new extra financing gaps by additional private capital. A total of €6.1bn was raised from the sale of three-year and five-year bonds in 2014, the outgoing ND led government planned to cover its forecast financing gap for 2015 by a continued additional sale of seven-year and ten-year bonds in 2015. During the second half of 2014, the Greek government again negotiated with the Troika.
The negotiations were this time about how to comply with the programme requirements, to ensure activation of the payment of its last scheduled eurozone bailout tranche in December 2014, about a p
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So