A cable modem is a type of network bridge that provides bi-directional data communication via radio frequency channels on a hybrid fibre-coaxial and radio frequency over glass infrastructure. Cable modems are used to deliver broadband Internet access in the form of cable Internet, taking advantage of the high bandwidth of a HFC and RFoG network, they are deployed in Australia, Europe and America. Internet Experiment Note. From pages 2 and 3 of IEN 96: The Cable-Bus System The MITRE/Washington Cablenet system is based on a technology developed at MITRE/Bedford. Similar cable-bus systems are in operation at a number of government sites, e.g. Walter Reed Army Hospital, the NASA Johnson Space Center, but these are all standalone, local-only networks; the system uses standard Community Antenna Television coaxial cable and microprocessor based Bus Interface Units to connect subscriber computers and terminals to the cable.... The cable bus consists of one inbound and the other outbound; the inbound cable and outbound cable are connected at one end, the headend, electrically terminated at their other ends.
This architecture takes advantage of the well developed unidirectional CATV components. The topology is dendritic.... The BIUs contain Radio Frequency modems which modulate a carrier signal to transmit digital information using 1 MHz of the available bandwidth in the 24 MHz frequency range; the remainder of the 294 MHz bandwidth can be used to carry other communication channels, such as off-the-air TV, FM, closed circuit TV, or a voice telephone system, or, other digital channels. The data rate of our test-bed system is 307.2 kbps. The IEEE 802 Committee defined 10BROAD36 in 802.3b-1985 as a 10 Mbit/s IEEE 802.3/Ethernet broadband system to run up to 3,600 metres over CATV coax network cabling. The word broadband as used in the original IEEE 802.3 specifications implied operation in frequency-division multiplexed channel bands as opposed to digital baseband square-waveform modulations, which begin near zero Hz and theoretically consume infinite frequency bandwidth. In the market 10BROAD36 equipment was not developed by many vendors nor deployed in many user networks as compared to equipment for IEEE 802.3/Ethernet baseband standards such as 10BASE5, 10BASE2, 10BASE-T, etc.
The IEEE 802 Committee specified a broadband CATV digital networking standard in 1989 with 802.7-1989. However, like 10BROAD36, 802.7-1989 saw little commercial success. Hybrid Networks developed and patented the first high-speed, asymmetrical cable modem system in 1990. A key Hybrid Networks insight was that in the nascent days of the Internet, data downloading constitutes the majority of the data traffic, this can be served adequately with a asymmetrical data network; this allowed CATV operators to offer high speed data services without first requiring an expensive system upgrade. Key was that it saw that the upstream and downstream communications could be on the same or different communications media using different protocols working in each direction to establish a closed loop communications system; the speeds and protocols used in each direction would be different. The earliest systems used the public switched telephone network for the return path since few cable systems were bi-directional.
Systems used CATV for the upstream as well as the downstream path. Hybrid's system architecture is used for most cable modem systems today. LANcity was an early pioneer in cable modems, developing a proprietary system, deployed in the U. S. LANcity, led by the Iranian-American engineer Rouzbeh Yassini, was acquired by Nortel, which spun the cable modem business off as ARRIS. ARRIS CMTS equipment compliant with the DOCSIS standard. Zenith offered a cable modem technology using its own protocol which it introduced in 1993, being one of the first cable modem providers; the Zenith Cable Modem technology was used by several cable television systems in the United States and other countries, including Cox Communications San Diego, Knology in the Southeast United States, Ameritech's Americast service, Cogeco in Hamilton Ontario and Cablevision du Nord de Québec in Val-d'Or. Zenith Homeworks used BPSK modulation to achieve 500 Kbit/sec in 4 Mbit/sec in 6 MHz. Com21 was another early pioneer in cable modems, quite successful until proprietary systems were made obsolete by the DOCSIS standardization.
The Com21 system used a ComController as central bridge in CATV network head-ends, the ComPort cable modem in various models and the NMAPS management system using HP OpenView as platform. They introduced a return path multiplexer to overcome noise problems when combining return path signals from multiple areas; the proprietary protocol was based on Asynchronous Transfer Mode. The central ComController switch was a modular system offering one downstream channel and one management module; the remaining slots could be used for upstream receivers, dual Ethernet 10BaseT and also Fast-Ethernet and ATM interfaces. The ATM interface became the most popular, as it supported the increasing bandwidth demands and supported VLANs. Com21 developed a DOCSIS modem; the DOCSIS C
Cable television headend
A cable television headend is a master facility for receiving television signals for processing and distribution over a cable television system. The headend facility is unstaffed and surrounded by some type of security fencing and is a building or large shed housing electronic equipment used to receive and re-transmit video over the local cable infrastructure. One can find head ends in power-line communication substations and Internet communications networks. Most cable TV systems carry local over-the-air television stations for distribution. Since each terrestrial channel represents a defined frequency, a dedicated commercial-grade receiving antenna is needed for each channel that the cable company wishes to receive and distribute. Smaller systems may use a broadband antenna to share several channels; these antenna are built into a single tower structure called a master antenna television structure. Commercial TV pre-amplifiers strengthen the weakened terrestrial TV signals for distribution.
Some cable TV systems receive the local television stations' programming by dedicated coaxial, microwave link or fiber-optic line, installed between the local station and the headend. A device called a modulator at the local station's facilities feed their programming over this line to the cable TV headend, which in turn receives it with another device called a demodulator, it is distributed through the cable TV headend to subscribers. This is more reliable than receiving the local stations' broadcasts over the air with an antenna. However, off-air reception is used as a backup by the headend in case of failure. In some cases systems receive local channels by satellite. Other sources of programming include those delivered via fiber optics, telephone wires, the Internet, microwave towers and local public-access television channels that are sent to the cable headend on an upstream frequency over the cable system itself, or via a dedicated line set up by the cable company, as mentioned earlier for reception of local television stations' programming by the headend.
Once a television signal is received, it must be processed. For digital satellite TV signals, a dedicated commercial satellite receiver is needed for each channel, to be distributed by the cable system, they output stereo audio signals as well as a digital signal for digital plants. Analog terrestrial TV signals require a processor, a RF receiver that outputs video and audio. In some cases the processor will include a built-in modulator. Digital terrestrial TV signals require a special digital processor. Digital channels are received on an L band QAM stream from a satellite, which uses multiplexing. Using special receivers such as the Motorola MPS, the signal can be demultiplexed or "Demuxed" to extract specific channels from the multiplexed signal. At this point, local insertion may be performed to add content targeted to the local geographic area. Cable television signals are mixed in accordance with the cable system's channel numbering scheme using a series of cable modulators, in turn fed into a frequency multiplexer or signal combiner.
The mixed signals are sent into a broadband amplifier sent into the cable system by the trunk line and continuously re-amplified as needed. Modulators take an input signal and attach it to a specific frequency. For example, in North America, NTSC standards dictate that CH2 is a 6 MHz wide channel with its luminance carrier at 55.25 MHz, so the modulator for channel 2 will impose the appropriate input signal on to the 55.25 MHz frequency to be received by any TV tuned to Channel 2. Digital channels are modulated as well. Using QAM, a CATV operator can place up to eight subchannels on each channel so channel 2 may be carrying channels 1 - 8 in a viewer's city. Set-top boxes or CableCards are required to receive these digital signals and are provided by the cable operator themselves. Many modern cable systems are now "all digital" meaning analog video signals have been discontinued in order to reuse spectrum; the RF channels analog used to occupy are now open for a cable system to reuse most as High Speed Data channels to increase subscriber download/upload internet speeds.
Analog video removal essentially eliminates cable theft since analog signals were transmitted unencrypted. Most digital video signals are compressed to MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 formats in order to combine multiple video streams into a QAM making the most efficient use of spectrum which a customer cable set top box receives, demodulates, de-encrypts and displays as a virtual channel number that the viewer recognizes. In many cases the same TV network may appear multiple times in a local channel lineup as a different channel the viewer sees this is due to previous generations of channel lineups kept in service and intended to not confuse viewers who are familiar with the network appearing on a number they are used to. Although a channel may be in a line up multiple times the RF QAM it is combined or "muxed" into is modulated and compressed just once. A set top box tunes to that same QAM. Virtual channeling allows the cable operator to change the physical frequency a QAM is on without the viewer noticing the channel number changing in their lineup.
Most digital cable systems enc
Coaxial cable, or coax is a type of electrical cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield. Many coaxial cables have an insulating outer sheath or jacket; the term coaxial comes from the outer shield sharing a geometric axis. Coaxial cable was invented by English engineer and mathematician Oliver Heaviside, who patented the design in 1880. Coaxial cable is a type of transmission line, used to carry high frequency electrical signals with low losses, it is used in such applications as telephone trunklines, broadband internet networking cables, high speed computer data busses, carrying cable television signals, connecting radio transmitters and receivers to their antennas. It differs from other shielded cables because the dimensions of the cable and connectors are controlled to give a precise, constant conductor spacing, needed for it to function efficiently as a transmission line. Coaxial cable is used as a transmission line for radio frequency signals.
Its applications include feedlines connecting radio transmitters and receivers to their antennas, computer network connections, digital audio, distribution of cable television signals. One advantage of coaxial over other types of radio transmission line is that in an ideal coaxial cable the electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists only in the space between the inner and outer conductors; this allows coaxial cable runs to be installed next to metal objects such as gutters without the power losses that occur in other types of transmission lines. Coaxial cable provides protection of the signal from external electromagnetic interference. Coaxial cable conducts electrical signal using an inner conductor surrounded by an insulating layer and all enclosed by a shield one to four layers of woven metallic braid and metallic tape; the cable is protected by an outer insulating jacket. The shield is kept at ground potential and a signal carrying voltage is applied to the center conductor; the advantage of coaxial design is that electric and magnetic fields are restricted to the dielectric with little leakage outside the shield.
Conversely and magnetic fields outside the cable are kept from interfering with signals inside the cable. Larger diameter cables and cables with multiple shields have less leakage; this property makes coaxial cable a good choice for carrying weak signals that cannot tolerate interference from the environment or for stronger electrical signals that must not be allowed to radiate or couple into adjacent structures or circuits. Common applications of coaxial cable include video and CATV distribution, RF and microwave transmission, computer and instrumentation data connections; the characteristic impedance of the cable is determined by the dielectric constant of the inner insulator and the radii of the inner and outer conductors. In radio frequency systems, where the cable length is comparable to the wavelength of the signals transmitted, a uniform cable characteristic impedance is important to minimize loss; the source and load impedances are chosen to match the impedance of the cable to ensure maximum power transfer and minimum standing wave ratio.
Other important properties of coaxial cable include attenuation as a function of frequency, voltage handling capability, shield quality. Coaxial cable design choices affect physical size, frequency performance, power handling capabilities, flexibility and cost; the inner conductor might be stranded. To get better high-frequency performance, the inner conductor may be silver-plated. Copper-plated steel wire is used as an inner conductor for cable used in the cable TV industry; the insulator surrounding the inner conductor may be solid plastic, a foam plastic, or air with spacers supporting the inner wire. The properties of the dielectric insulator determine some of the electrical properties of the cable. A common choice is a solid polyethylene insulator, used in lower-loss cables. Solid Teflon is used as an insulator; some coaxial lines have spacers to keep the inner conductor from touching the shield. Many conventional coaxial cables use braided copper wire forming the shield; this allows the cable to be flexible, but it means there are gaps in the shield layer, the inner dimension of the shield varies because the braid cannot be flat.
Sometimes the braid is silver-plated. For better shield performance, some cables have a double-layer shield; the shield might be just two braids, but it is more common now to have a thin foil shield covered by a wire braid. Some cables may invest in more than two shield layers, such as "quad-shield", which uses four alternating layers of foil and braid. Other shield designs sacrifice flexibility for better performance; those cables cannot be bent as the shield will kink, causing losses in the cable. When a foil shield is used a small wire conductor incorporated into the foil makes soldering the shield termination easier. For high-power radio-frequency transmission up to about 1 GHz, coaxial cable with a solid copper outer conductor is available in sizes of 0.25 inch upward. The outer conductor is corrugated like a bellows to permit flexibility and the inner conductor is held in position by a plastic spiral to approximate an air dielectric. One brand name for such cable is Heliax. Coaxial cables require an internal structure of an insulating material to maintain the spacing between the center conductor and shield.
Cable modem termination system
A cable modem termination system or CMTS is a piece of equipment located in a cable company's headend or hubsite, used to provide high speed data services, such as cable Internet or Voice over Internet Protocol, to cable subscribers. A CMTS provides many of the same functions provided by the DSLAM in a DSL system. In order to provide high speed data services, a cable company will connect its headend to the Internet via high capacity data links to a network service provider. On the subscriber side of the headend, the CMTS enables the communication with subscribers' cable modems. Different CMTSs are capable of serving different cable modem population sizes—ranging from 4,000 cable modems to 150,000 or more, depending in part on traffic. A given headend may have between 1-12 CMTSs to service the cable modem population served by that headend or HFC hub. One way to think of a CMTS is to imagine a router with Ethernet interfaces on one side and coaxial cable RF interfaces on the other side; the RF/coax interfaces carry.
In fact, most CMTSs have both Ethernet interfaces as well as RF interfaces. In this way, traffic, coming from the Internet can be routed through the Ethernet interface, through the CMTS and onto the RF interfaces that are connected to the cable company's hybrid fiber coax; the traffic winds its way through the HFC to end up at the cable modem in the subscriber's home. Traffic from a subscriber's home system goes through the cable modem and out to the Internet in the opposite direction. CMTSs carry only IP traffic. Traffic destined for the cable modem from the Internet, known as downstream traffic, is carried in IP packets encapsulated according to DOCSIS standard; these packets are carried on data streams that are modulated onto a TV channel using either 64-QAM or 256-QAM versions of quadrature amplitude modulation. Upstream data is carried in Ethernet frames encapsulated inside DOCSIS frames modulated with QPSK, 16-QAM, 32-QAM, 64-QAM or 128-QAM using TDMA, ATDMA or S-CDMA frequency sharing mechanisms.
This is done at the "subband" or "return" portion of the cable TV spectrum, a much lower part of the frequency spectrum than the downstream signal 5 - 42 MHz in DOCSIS 2.0 or 5 - 60 MHz in EuroDOCSIS. A typical CMTS allows a subscriber's computer to obtain an IP address by forwarding DHCP requests to the relevant servers; this DHCP server returns, for the most part, what looks like a typical response including an assigned IP address for the computer, gateway/router addresses to use, DNS servers, etc. The CMTS may implement some basic filtering to protect against unauthorized users and various attacks. Traffic shaping is sometimes performed to prioritize application traffic based upon subscribed plan or download usage and to provide guaranteed Quality of service for the cable operator's own PacketCable-based VOIP service. However, the function of traffic shaping is more done by a Cable Modem or policy traffic switch. A CMTS may act as a bridge or router. A customer's cable modem cannot communicate directly with other modems on the line.
In general, cable modem traffic is routed to other cable modems or to the Internet through a series of CMTSs and traditional routers. However, a route could conceivably pass through a single CMTS. A CMTS can be broken down into Integrated CMTS or Modular. There are both cons to each type of architecture; the I-CMTS architecture consists of all components housed in a single chassis. The RF interface and IP Networking components are all integrated in a single device; this makes for much simpler RF combining in the headend. The benefits of an all-in-one solution are less single points of failure, lower costs and ease of deployment. In an M-CMTS solution the architecture is broken up into two components; the first part is the Physical Downstream component, known as the Edge QAM. The second part is the IP networking and DOCSIS MAC Component, referred to as the M-CMTS Core. There are several new protocols and components introduced with this type of architecture. One is the DOCSIS Timing Interface, which provides a reference frequency between the EQAM and M-CMTS Core via a DTI Server.
The second is the Downstream External PHY Interface. The DEPI protocol controls the delivery of DOCSIS frames from the M-CMTS Core to the EQAM devices Some of the challenges that entail an M-CMTS platform are increased complexity in RF combining and an increase in the number of failure points. One of the benefits of an M-CMTS architecture is that it is scalable to larger numbers of downstream channels. ARRIS Group C9 Networks Catapult Technologies Coaxial Networks Inc. Casa Systems Cisco Systems Chongqing Jinghong Damery sa Gainspeed WISI Communications GmbH Kathrein Suma Scientific Huawei Technologies Harmonic Inc. Teleste 3COM Broadband Access Systems ADC Telecommunications BigBand Networks Cadant Com21 RiverDelta Terayon Pacific Broadband Communications Juniper Networks Motorola Daphne sa DOCSIS
Dial-up Internet access
Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network to establish a connection to an Internet service provider by dialing a telephone number on a conventional telephone line. The user's computer or router uses an attached modem to encode and decode information into and from audio frequency signals, respectively. In 1979, Tom Truscott and Steve Bellovin, graduates of Duke University, created an early predecessor to dial-up Internet access called the USENET; the USENET was a UNIX based system that used a dial-up connection to transfer data through telephone modems. Dial-up Internet has been around since the 1980s via public providers such as NSFNET-linked universities and was first offered commercially in July 1992 by Sprint. Despite losing ground to broadband since the mid-2000s, dial-up is still used where other forms are not available or where the cost is too high, such as in some rural or remote areas. Dial-up connections to the Internet require no infrastructure other than the telephone network and the modems and servers needed to make and answer the calls.
Where telephone access is available, dial-up is the only choice available for rural or remote areas, where broadband installations are not prevalent due to low population density and high infrastructure cost. Dial-up access may be an alternative for users on limited budgets, as it is offered free by some ISPs, though broadband is available at lower prices in many countries due to market competition. Dial-up requires time to establish a telephone connection and perform configuration for protocol synchronization before data transfers can take place. In locales with telephone connection charges, each connection incurs an incremental cost. If calls are time-metered, the duration of the connection incurs costs. Dial-up access is a transient connection, because either the user, ISP or phone company terminates the connection. Internet service providers will set a limit on connection durations to allow sharing of resources, will disconnect the user—requiring reconnection and the costs and delays associated with it.
Technically inclined users find a way to disable the auto-disconnect program such that they can remain connected for more days than one. A 2008 Pew Research Center study stated that only 10% of US adults still used dial-up Internet access; the study found. Users cited lack of infrastructure as a reason less than stating that they would never upgrade to broadband; that number had fallen to 6% by 2010, to 3% by 2013. The CRTC estimated that there were 336,000 Canadian dial-up users in 2010. Broadband Internet access via cable, digital subscriber line, satellite and FTTx has replaced dial-up access in many parts of the world. Broadband connections offer speeds of 700 kbit/s or higher for two-thirds more than the price of dial-up on average. In addition broadband connections are always on, thus avoiding the need to connect and disconnect at the start and end of each session. Broadband does not require exclusive use of a phone line and so one can access the Internet and at the same time make and receive voice phone calls without having a second phone line.
However, many rural areas still remain without high speed Internet despite the eagerness of potential customers. This can be attributed to population, location, or sometimes ISPs' lack of interest due to little chance of profitability and high costs to build the required infrastructure; some dial-up ISPs have responded to the increased competition by lowering their rates and making dial-up an attractive option for those who want email access or basic web browsing. Dial-up Internet access has undergone a precipitous fall in usage, approaches extinction as modern users turn towards broadband. In contrast to the year 2000 when about 34% of the U. S. population used dial-up, this dropped to 3% in 2013. One contributing factor to the extinction of dial-up is the bandwidth requirements of newer computer programs, like antivirus software, which automatically download sizable updates in the background when a connection to the internet is first made; these background downloads can take several minutes or longer and, until all updates are completed, they can impact the amount of bandwidth available to other applications like web browsers.
Since an "always on" broadband is the norm expected by most newer applications being developed, this automatic upload trend in the background is expected to continue to eat away at dial-up's available bandwidth to the detriment of dial-up users' applications. Many newer websites now assume broadband speeds as the norm and when confronted with slower dial-up speeds may drop these slower connections to free up communication resources. On websites that are designed to be more dial-up friendly, use of a reverse proxy prevents dial-ups from being dropped as but can introduce long wait periods for dial-up users caused by the buffering used by a reverse proxy to bridge the different data rates. Modern dial-up modems have a maximum theoretical transfer speed of 56 kbit/s, although in most cases, 40–50 kbit/s is the norm. Factors such as phone line noise as well as the quality of the modem itself play a large part in determining connection speeds; some connections may be as low as 20 kbit/s in noisy environments, such as in a hotel room where the phone line is shared with many extensions, or in a rural area, many miles from the phone exchange.
Other factors such as long loops, loading coils, pair gain, electric fences, digital loop carriers can slow con
An access network is a type of telecommunications network which connects subscribers to their immediate service provider. It is contrasted with the core network; the access network may be further divided between feeder plant or distribution network, drop plant or edge network. An access network referred to as an outside plant, refers to the series of wires and equipment lying between a consumer/business telephone termination point and the local telephone exchange; the local exchange contains banks of automated switching equipment which direct a call or connection to the consumer. The access network is one of the oldest assets a telecoms operator would own. In 2007–2008 many telecommunication operators experienced increasing problems maintaining the quality of the records which describe the network. In 2006, according to an independent Yankee Group report, globally operators experience profit leakage in excess of $17 billion each year; the access network is perhaps the most valuable asset an operator owns, since this is what physically allows them to offer a service.
Access networks consist of pairs of copper wires, each traveling in a direct path between the exchange and the customer. In some instances, these wires may consist of aluminum, used in the 1960s and 1970s following a massive increase in the cost of copper; as it happened, the price increase was temporary, but the effects of this decision are still felt today as electromigration within the aluminum wires can cause an increase in on-state resistance. This resistance causes degradation which can lead to the complete failure of the wire to transport data. Access is essential to the future profitability of operators who are experiencing massive reductions in revenue from plain old telephone services, due in part to the opening of nationalized companies to competition, in part to increased use of mobile phones and voice over IP services. Operators offered additional services such as xDSL based IPTV to guarantee profit; the access network is again the main barrier to achieving these profits since operators worldwide have accurate records of only 40% to 60% of the network.
Without understanding or knowing the characteristics of these enormous copper spider webs, it is difficult, expensive to'provision' new customers and assure the data rates required to receive next generation services. Access networks around the world evolved to include more optical fiber technology. Optical fibre makes up the majority of core networks and will start to creep closer and closer to the customer, until a full transition is achieved, delivering value added services over fiber to the home; the process of communicating with a network begins with an access attempt, in which one or more users interact with a communications system to enable initiation of user information transfer. An access attempt. An access attempt ends either in successful access or in access failure - an unsuccessful access that results in termination of the attempt in any manner other than initiation of user information transfer between the intended source and destination within the specified maximum access time.
Access failure can be the result of access outage, user blocking, incorrect access, or access denial. Access denial can include: Access failure caused by the issuing of a system blocking signal by a communications system that does not have a camp-on busy signal feature. Access failure caused by exceeding the maximum access time and nominal system access time fraction during an access attempt. An access charge is a charge made by a local exchange carrier for use of its local exchange facilities for a purpose such as the origination or termination of network traffic, carried to or from a distant exchange by an interexchange carrier. Although some access charges are billed directly to interexchange carriers, a significant percentage of all access charges are paid by the local end users. GERAN UTRAN E-UTRAN CDMA2000 GSM UMTS 1xEVDO voLTE Wi-Fi in* WiMAX A passive optical distribution network uses single mode optical fibre in the outside plant, optical splitters and optical distribution frames, duplexed so that both upstream and downstream signals share the same fibre on separate wavelengths.
Faster PON standards support a higher split ratio of users per PON, but may use reach extenders/amplifiers where extra coverage is needed. Optical splitters creating a point to multipoint topology are the same technology regardless of the type of PON system, making any PON network upgradable by changing the optical network terminals and optical line terminal terminals at each end, with minimal change to the physical network. Access networks also must support point-to-point technologies such as Ethernet, which bypasses any outside plant splitter to achieve a dedicated link to the telephone exchange; some PON networks use a "home run" topology where roadside cabinets only contain patch panels so that all splitters are located centrally. While a 20% higher capital cost could be expected, home run networks may encourage a more competitive wholesale market since providers' equipment can achieve higher use. Internet access IP Connectivity Access Network Local loop Passive Optical Network "The Network Story".
British Telecom. 2005. Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Interactive presentation introducing the technology and design of access networks
Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals and other devices. Internet access is sold by Internet service providers delivering connectivity at a wide range of data transfer rates via various networking technologies. Many organizations, including a growing number of municipal entities provide cost-free wireless access. Availability of Internet access was once limited, but has grown rapidly. In 1995, only 0.04 percent of the world's population had access, with well over half of those living in the United States, consumer use was through dial-up. By the first decade of the 21st century, many consumers in developed nations used faster broadband technology, by 2014, 41 percent of the world's population had access, broadband was ubiquitous worldwide, global average connection speeds exceeded one megabit per second; the Internet developed from the ARPANET, funded by the US government to support projects within the government and at universities and research laboratories in the US – but grew over time to include most of the world's large universities and the research arms of many technology companies.
Use by a wider audience only came in 1995 when restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic were lifted. In the early to mid-1980s, most Internet access was from personal computers and workstations directly connected to local area networks or from dial-up connections using modems and analog telephone lines. LANs operated at 10 Mbit/s, while modem data-rates grew from 1200 bit/s in the early 1980s, to 56 kbit/s by the late 1990s. Dial-up connections were made from terminals or computers running terminal emulation software to terminal servers on LANs; these dial-up connections did not support end-to-end use of the Internet protocols and only provided terminal to host connections. The introduction of network access servers supporting the Serial Line Internet Protocol and the point-to-point protocol extended the Internet protocols and made the full range of Internet services available to dial-up users. Broadband Internet access shortened to just broadband, is defined as "Internet access, always on, faster than the traditional dial-up access" and so covers a wide range of technologies.
Broadband connections are made using a computer's built in Ethernet networking capabilities, or by using a NIC expansion card. Most broadband services provide a continuous "always on" connection. Broadband provides improved access to Internet services such as: Faster world wide web browsing Faster downloading of documents, photographs and other large files Telephony, radio and videoconferencing Virtual private networks and remote system administration Online gaming massively multiplayer online role-playing games which are interaction-intensiveIn the 1990s, the National Information Infrastructure initiative in the U. S. made broadband Internet access a public policy issue. In 2000, most Internet access to homes was provided using dial-up, while many businesses and schools were using broadband connections. In 2000 there were just under 150 million dial-up subscriptions in the 34 OECD countries and fewer than 20 million broadband subscriptions. By 2004, broadband had grown and dial-up had declined so that the number of subscriptions were equal at 130 million each.
In 2010, in the OECD countries, over 90% of the Internet access subscriptions used broadband, broadband had grown to more than 300 million subscriptions, dial-up subscriptions had declined to fewer than 30 million. The broadband technologies in widest use are ADSL and cable Internet access. Newer technologies include VDSL and optical fibre extended closer to the subscriber in both telephone and cable plants. Fibre-optic communication, while only being used in premises and to the curb schemes, has played a crucial role in enabling broadband Internet access by making transmission of information at high data rates over longer distances much more cost-effective than copper wire technology. In areas not served by ADSL or cable, some community organizations and local governments are installing Wi-Fi networks. Wireless and satellite Internet are used in rural, undeveloped, or other hard to serve areas where wired Internet is not available. Newer technologies being deployed for fixed and mobile broadband access include WiMAX, LTE, fixed wireless, e.g. Motorola Canopy.
Starting in 2006, mobile broadband access is available at the consumer level using "3G" and "4G" technologies such as HSPA, EV-DO, HSPA+, LTE. In addition to access from home and the workplace Internet access may be available from public places such as libraries and Internet cafes, where computers with Internet connections are available; some libraries provide stations for physically connecting users' laptops to local area networks. Wireless Internet access points are available in public places such as airport halls, in some cases just for brief use while standing; some access points may provide coin-operated computers. Various terms are used, such as "public Internet kiosk", "public access terminal", "Web payphone". Many hotels have public terminals fee based. Coffee shops, shopping malls, other venues offer wireless access to computer networks, referred to as hotspots, for users who bring their own wireless-enabled devices such as a laptop or PDA; these services may be free to all, free to customer