Ansoain is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarra, northern Spain. ANSOAIN in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
The Ega is a river in the north of Spain. It is a tributary of the Ebro; the Ega flows through Navarre, but it originates in Álava, near Lagrán, flows through the town of Estella-Lizarra. List of rivers of Spain
Allo is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. It had a population of 1,075 in 2011. ALLO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Baztan is a municipality from the Chartered Community of Navarre, northern Spain. It is located 58 km from the capital of Navarre, it is the largest municipality in Navarre, with just over 8,000 inhabitants. The capital of the valley is Elizondo, includes 15 other villages, as follows: Amaiur-Maya Aniz Arraioz Almandoz Arizkun Azpilkueta Berroeta Elbete Erratzu Gartzain Irurita Lekaroz Erratzu Oronoz-Mugairi Ziga The territory of the Baztan valley extends over an area of 377 square km of which much is common land jointly owned by the residents of the Baztan valley and used as grazing ground for flocks of sheep and herds of semi-wild horses; the Baztan Valley borders with the French Basque regions of Lapurdi and Lower Navarre, accessed by the Izpegi Pass to the east of the valley and Dantxarinea to the north. This vicinity to France and its ties with its Basque neighbours has characterised the history of the Baztan people over the past centuries. In 2013, there were 7,974 people living in the Baztan Valley with 3489 people living in the capital of Elizondo.
The remaining population are spread out between the other 14 mountain villages. The Baztan Valley is sparsely populated with small-scale pastoral farming making use of the verdant pastures along the banks of the Baztan river. Orchards of apple, cherry and peach trees are common and more kiwis have been planted in the area; the mountain slopes are densely covered with oak, walnut and ash. The odd palm tree can sometimes be found in the grounds of the larger manor houses in the area and belies family links to the Americas where many Baztan people have emigrated since the 16th century. Around 1025 the duke of Gascony, Sancho VI William, gave part of the duchy to King Sancho III of Navarre. Sancho created a lordship for Ximen I Ochoaniz consisting of the Baztan Valley, his son Garcia Xemeniz became a viscount between 1055 and 1065, his grandson Ximen I Garciez donated land to the monastery of Leire in exchange for a pardon for assassinating his nephew. When his siblings assassinated King Sancho IV of Navarre in 1076, they colluded with the bishops of Bayonne.
The kings of Navarre were Ramiro I of Aragon and Navarre and his successor Sancho Ramirez, known as Sancho V of Navarre and Aragon. These Navarrese-Aragonese kings ruled the thinly-populated Aragon with less military strength than Alfonso VI of Castile, a nephew of Ramiro I of Aragon. Viscount Ximen II's daughter, married Fortun Enneconis de Los Cameros in 1085, they had Pedro I Fortunez, the following viscount. A son of Viscount Pedro II Pedriz of Baztan married around 1110 and had three sons: Sancho Pedriz de Baztan, Pedro Pedriz de Baztan and Ximen Pedriz de Baztan. At this time, the king of Navarre and Aragon was Sancho V Ramirez, his successor was his son by a second marriage to a French Nordic aristocrat, Félicia de Roucy: Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre. Alfonso besieged Bayonne for nearly a year in 1131 before conquering it, his successor was Garcia IV Ramirez. During the 1150s the fishing towns of the Gulf of Biscay between Bordeaux and Vigo, between the Duchy of Normandy and the new Iberian kingdom of Portugal, became trading hubs for iron, gold, glass and leather.
Garcia IV's grandson, Sancho VII of Navarre, was succeeded by the count of Champagne, Theobald I of Navarre. Theobald I of Navarre was succeeded by Theobald II of Navarre; the Navarrese crown passed to his youngest brother, Henry I of Navarre, who ruled for about three years. Joanna II of Navarre married Philip III of Navarre, killed in 1343, she died in 1349. France and Navarre were de facto independent kingdoms, their eldest son was Charles II of Navarre. His heir was King Charles III of Navarre, who ruled for about 38 years, his daughter was Queen Blanche I of Navarre, who ruled from 1425 to 1441. The Escors family, from Aquitaine, settled in the kingdom of Navarre in 1234 after the counts of Champagne inherited the throne; the family represented the kings of Navarre in governmental and military affairs from the 13th to the 15th centuries. Nicolás Ambrosio de Garro y Arizcun, became Marqués de las Hormazas in 1767. Juan de Goyeneche y Gastón, became the treasurer and financial adviser to the queen consorts of Spain around 1680, provided war materiel to the Spanish Army for over 30 years.
His palace in Madrid is now the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Juan Francisco de Goyeneche Irigoyen was the Marqués de Ugena. Francisco Miguel de Goyeneche y Balzá, Conde de Saceda, received his title from King Felipe V on 17 December 1743. Miguel Gastón de Iriarte y Elizacoechea built the family palace in Baztan. Agustín de Jáuregui y Aldecoa, was Royal Governor of Chile from 1772 to 1780 and Viceroy of Peru from 1780 to 1784. Martín de Ursúa Arizmendi y Aguirre, Conde de Lizárraga, was governor of the Philippines from 25 August 1709 until his death; the large detached farmhouses which characterise the Baztan valley are built in typical Basque style with solid wooden frames and eaves and wooden balconies decorated with geranium
Bogotá Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D. C. and known as Santafé/Santa Fé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although erroneously thought of as part of Cundinamarca. Bogotá is a territorial entity of the first order, with the same administrative status as the departments of Colombia, it is the political, economic and industrial center of the country. Bogotá was founded as the capital of the New Kingdom of Granada on August 6, 1538, by Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada after a harsh expedition into the Andes conquering the Muisca; the Muisca were the indigenous inhabitants of the region and called the settlement where Bogotá was founded Bacatá, which in the Chibcha language means "The Lady of the Andes." Further, the word'Andes' in the Aymara language means "shining mountain," thus rendering the full lexical signification of Bogotá as "The Lady of the shining mountain." After the Battle of Boyacá on August 7, 1819, Bogotá became the capital of the independent nation of Gran Colombia.
Since the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire and during the formation of present-day Colombia, Bogotá has remained the capital of this territory. The city is located in the center of Colombia, on a high plateau known as the Bogotá savanna, part of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense located in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes, it is the third-highest capital in South America and in the world after Quito and La Paz, at an average of 2,640 metres above sea level. Subdivided into 20 localities, Bogotá has an area of 1,587 square kilometres and a cool climate, constant through the year; the city is home to central offices of the executive branch, the legislative branch and the judicial branch of the Colombian government. Bogotá stands out for its economic strength and associated financial maturity, its attractiveness to global companies and the quality of human capital, it is the financial and commercial heart of Colombia, with the most business activity of any city in the country.
The capital hosts the main financial market in Colombia and the Andean natural region, is the leading destination for new foreign direct investment projects coming into Latin America and Colombia. It has the highest nominal GDP in the country, responsible for a quarter of the nation's total; the city's airport, El Dorado International Airport, named after the mythical El Dorado, handles the largest cargo volume in Latin America, is third in number of people. Bogotá is home to the largest number of universities and research centers in the country, is an important cultural center, with many theaters and museums, of which the Museo del Oro is the most important. Bogotá ranks 52nd on the Global Cities Index 2014, is considered a global city type "Alpha −" by GaWC; the area of modern Bogotá was first populated by groups of indigenous people who migrated south based on the relation with the other Chibcha languages. The civilisation built by the Muisca, who settled in the valleys and fertile highlands of and surrounding the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, was one of the four great civilisations in the Americas.
The name Muisca Confederation has been given to a loose egalitarian society of various chiefs who lived in small settlements of maximum 100 bohíos. The agriculture and salt-based society of the people was rich in goldworking and mummification; the religion of the Muisca consisted of various gods related to natural phenomena as the Sun and his wife, the Moon. Their complex luni-solar calendar, deciphered by Manuel Izquierdo based on work by Duquesne, followed three different sets of years, where the sidereal and synodic months were represented, their astronomical knowledge is represented in one of the few extant landmarks of the architecture of the Muisca in El Infiernito outside Villa de Leyva to the north of Bogotá. The first populations inhabiting the present-day Metropolitan Area of Bogotá, were hunter-gatherer people in the late Pleistocene; the oldest dated evidence thus far has been discovered in El Abra, north of Zipaquirá. Dated excavations in a rock shelter southwest of the city in Soacha provided ages of ~11,000 BP.
Since around 0 AD, the Muisca domesticated part of their meat diet. The people inhabiting the Bogotá savanna in the late 15th century were the Muisca, speaking Muysccubun, a member of the Chibcha language family. Muisca means "person", making "Muisca people", how they are called, a tautology. At the arrival of the conquerors, the population was estimated to be half a million indigenous people on the Bogotá savanna of up to two million in the Muisca Confederation, they occupied the highland and mild climate flanks between the Sumapaz Mountains to the southwest and Cocuy's snowy peak to the northeast, covering an approximate area of 25,000 km2, comprising Bogotá's high plain, the current Boyacá department portion and a small Santander region. Trade was the most important activity of the Muisca with other Chibcha-speaking neighbours, such as the Guane, Lache and U'wa and with Cariban groups as the Muzo or "Emerald People", their knowledge of salt pro
Viceroyalty of New Granada
The Viceroyalty of New Granada was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. The territory corresponding to Panama was incorporated in 1739, the provinces of Venezuela were separated from the Viceroyalty and assigned to the Captaincy General of Venezuela in 1777. In addition to these core areas, the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada included Guyana, southwestern Suriname, parts of northwestern Brazil, northern Peru. Nearly two centuries after the establishment of the New Kingdom of Granada in the 16th century, whose governor was dependent upon the Viceroy of Peru at Lima, an audiencia at Santa Fé de Bogotá, the slowness of communications between the two capitals led to the creation of an independent Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. Other provinces corresponding to modern Ecuador, the eastern and southern parts of today's Venezuela, Panama came together in a political unit under the jurisdiction of Bogotá, confirming that city as one of the principal administrative centers of the Spanish possessions in the New World, along with Lima and Mexico City.
Sporadic attempts at reform were directed at increasing efficiency and centralizing authority, but control from Spain was never effective. The rough and diverse geography of northern South America and the limited range of proper roads made travel and communications within the viceroyalty difficult; the establishment of an autonomous Captaincy General in Caracas in 1777 and the preservation of the older Audiencia of Quito, nominally subject to the Viceroy but for most purposes independent, was a response to the necessities of governing the peripheral regions. Some analysts consider that these measures reflected a degree of local traditions that contributed to the differing political and national differences among these territories once they became independent in the nineteenth century and which the unifying efforts of Simón Bolívar could not overcome; the Wayuu had never been subjugated by the Spanish. The two groups were in a less permanent state of war. There had been rebellions in 1701, 1727, 1741, 1757, 1761 and 1768.
In 1718, Governor Soto de Herrera called them "barbarians, horse thieves, worthy of death, without God, without law and without a king". Of all the Indians in the territory of Colombia, the Wayuu were unique in having learned the use of firearms and horses. In 1769 the Spanish took 22 Wayuus captive, in order to put them to work building the fortifications of Cartagena; the reaction of the Wayuus was unexpected. On 2 May 1769, at El Rincón, near Riohacha, they set their village afire, burning the church and two Spaniards who had taken refuge in it, they captured the priest. The Spanish dispatched an expedition from El Rincón to capture the Wayuus. At the head of this force was José Antonio de Sierra, a mestizo who had headed the party that had taken the 22 Guajiro captives; the Guajiros recognized him and forced his party to take refuge in the house of the curate, which they set afire. Sierra and eight of his men were killed; this success was soon known in other Guajiro areas, more men joined the revolt.
According to Messía, at the peak there were 20,000 Wayuus under arms. Many had firearms acquired from English and Dutch smugglers, sometimes from the Spanish; this enabled the rebels to take nearly all the settlements of the region. According to the authorities, more than 100 Spaniards were killed and many others taken prisoner. Many cattle were taken by the rebels; the Spaniards took refuge in Riohacha and sent urgent messages to Maracaibo, Santa Marta and Cartagena, the latter responding by sending 100 troops. The rebels themselves were not unified. Sierra's relatives among the Indians took up arms against the rebels to avenge his death. A battle between the two groups of Wayuus was fought at La Soledad; that and the arrival of the Spanish reinforcements caused the rebellion to fade away, but not before the Guajiro had regained much territory. New Granada was estimated to have 4,345,000 inhabitants in 1819. By population The territories of the viceroyalty gained full de facto independence from Spain between 1819 and 1822 after a series of military and political struggles, uniting in a republic now known as Gran Colombia.
With the dissolution of Gran Colombia, the states of Ecuador and the Republic of New Granada were created. The Republic of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá, lasted from 1831 to 1856; the name "Colombia" reappeared in the "United States of Colombia". The use of the term "New Granada" survived such as among ecclesiastics; as is typical in Spanish, older adjectives of places are used as demonyms for people from those areas. Today, it is typical in Spanish to refer to Colombians as neogranadinos in neighboring Venezuela. History of the Americas History of Colombia History of Ecuador History of Venezuela List of Viceroys of New Granada Spanish Empire Fisher, John R. Allan J. Keuthe and Anthony McFarlane, eds. Reform and Insurrection in Bourbon New Granada and Peru. Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1990. ISBN 978-0-8071-1654-8 Kuethe, Alan J. Military Reform and Society in New Granada, 1773-1808. Gainesville, University Presses of Florida, 1978. ISBN 978-0-8130-0570-6 McFarlane, Anthony.
Ablitas is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarra, northern Spain. From:INE Archiv ABLITAS in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Ablitas Website