Living Desert Zoo and Gardens
Living Desert Zoo and Gardens the Living Desert Museum, is a desert botanical garden and a zoo located in Palm Desert, Riverside County, United States. They are in the Sonoran Desert of the Coachella Valley and Santa Rosa Mountains foothills near Palm Springs, California; the Living Desert Zoo and Gardens has been a member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums since 1983, is a member of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. It has participated in species reintroduction programs including the peninsular bighorn sheep to the local mountains and returning Arabian oryx to Oman; the gardens of the Low Desert – Colorado Desert were established in 1970 as a 360-acre wilderness preserve by several trustees of the Palm Springs Desert Museum. By 1974, the gardens housed a kit fox, tortoises and two bighorn sheep. In 1974–75 the Mojave Garden was built, a replica of the High Desert – Mojave Desert. Additional facilities have been constructed, including greenhouses, model trains, designed landscape gardens.
New animal introductions include: rhim gazelles. The'Amphibians on the Edge' exhibit shows a variety of different species of frogs and salamanders; the Endangered Species Carousel was constructed in fall 2009, the Peninsular Pronghorn Exhibit was constructed in fall 2010. The Living Desert features an attraction called Camel Rides which allows visitors to ride camels; the exhibit, Monarch of the Desert, was constructed on the North America Trail. Lion Ridge, the habitat for lions, is still incomplete; the Living Desert is one of six accredited private zoos in the United States and operates as a non-profit. The Living Desert Zoo and Gardens is a zoo and botanic garden combination dedicated to the deserts of the world; the programs provide environmental education, native wildlife rehabilitation, plant propagation and habitat restoration, captive breeding of African and Sonoran Desert species, including the area's iconic desert bighorn sheep. The North American desert gardens include re-creations of a variety of desert plant community ecosystems: Mojave Desert – Joshua tree habitat and Eastern Mojave Cima volcanic field habitat.
Chihuahuan Desert – Rio Grande-Big Bend and northern Mexican Plateau habitats. Sonoran Desert – Sonora, Mexico Madrean foothills habitat, Yuma Desert-southwest Arizona habitat and Vizcaíno Desert-Baja California Desert habitat gardens. Colorado Desert – desert mountains habitat of the indigenous 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation landscape, the Cahuilla Ethnobotanic Garden of the locally indigenous Cahuilla people, focus areas representing the Lower Colorado River Valley habitat and the Colorado-Sonoran Desert natural springs and riparian habitats. Specialized focus gardens include: Agave Garden – More than 100 species of Agaves from throughout the Western Hemisphere Aloe Garden – African aloes East African Garden – large collection of native East African plants and trees, one of the larger collections of African plant species in North America Euphorbia Garden – African Euphorbias Aviary Oasis – Coachella Valley native desert palm oasis, with California fan palms surrounding a walk in aviary Barrel Cactus Garden – Ferocactus species Hummingbird Garden – plants that attract hummingbirds Johnston Cactus Garden – various specimen cacti on display Madagascar Garden – xeric plants endemic-unique to Madagascar Mallow Garden – small collection of desert mallows McDonald Butterfly and Wildflower Garden – nectar and'grazing' plants that attract migrating butterflies Mexican Columnar Cactus Garden – tall columnar cacti sculptural specimens Ocotillo Garden – nine of twelve known ocotillo species Opuntia Garden – various prickly pear and cholla plants Palm Garden – several hundred palm trees, of over fifty species from around the world Primitive Garden – plants from the Jurassic period – cycads and ferns Sage Garden – Salvia species of melliferous flower honey forage sage plants.
Sheep Food Garden – plants that are food sources for desert bighorn sheep Smoke Tree Garden – local native smoke trees in a natural desert wash setting Sonoran Arboretum – trees from the greater Sonoran Desert region in a designed garden setting Wortz Demonstration Garden – Southwest landscape design display garden Yucca Garden – Yucca species in a designed'strap foliage garden.' The Palo Verde Garden Center started when garden staff started propagating plants from the garden collection for sale to members, now sells those plants to the public. Many of the plants sold here may not be found anywhere else; the Zoo and Gardens features one of the world's largest LGB model railroad layouts, with about 3,000 feet of track. The world's longest wooden G-scale model trestle lets trains travel between the upper and lower portions of the wash in which it was built – an 2-foot drop; the trains started as part of the annual WildLights holiday program, ran only in the evenings. In 2001 the trains started running during the day.
The trains and track belong to the gardens. Moorten Botanical Garden and Cactarium List of botanical gardens in the United States Index: Flora of the California desert regions Media related to Living Desert Zoo and Gardens at Wikimedia Commons Official website U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Living Desert Reserve Organizational Profile – National Center for Charitable Statistics
A zoo is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, in which they may breed. The term "zoological garden" refers to zoology, the study of animals, a term deriving from the Greek'zoion, "animal," and logia, "study.". The abbreviation "zoo" was first used of the London Zoological Gardens, opened for scientific study in 1828 and to the public in 1857. In the United States alone, zoos are visited by over 180 million people annually; the London Zoo, which opened in 1826, was known as the "Gardens and Menagerie of the Zoological Society of London", it described itself as a menagerie or "zoological forest". The abbreviation "zoo" first appeared in print in the United Kingdom around 1847, when it was used for the Clifton Zoo, but it was not until some 20 years that the shortened form became popular in the song "Walking in the Zoo" by music-hall artist Alfred Vance; the term "zoological park" was used for more expansive facilities in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Washington, D.
C. and the Bronx in New York, which opened in 1847, 1891 and 1899 respectively. New terms for zoos coined in the late 20th century are "conservation park" or "biopark". Adopting a new name is a strategy used by some zoo professionals to distance their institutions from the stereotypical and nowadays criticized zoo concept of the 19th century; the term "biopark" was first coined and developed by the National Zoo in Washington D. C. in the late 1980s. In 1993, the New York Zoological Society changed its name to the Wildlife Conservation Society and rebranded the zoos under its jurisdiction as "wildlife conservation parks"; the predecessor of the zoological garden is the menagerie, which has a long history from the ancient world to modern times. The oldest known zoological collection was revealed during excavations at Hierakonpolis, Egypt in 2009, of a ca. 3500 BCE menagerie. The exotic animals included hippopotami, elephants and wildcats. King Ashur-bel-kala of the Middle Assyrian Empire created zoological and botanical gardens in the 11th century BCE.
In the 2nd century BCE, the Chinese Empress Tanki had a "house of deer" built, King Wen of Zhou kept a 1,500-acre zoo called Ling-Yu, or the Garden of Intelligence. Other well-known collectors of animals included King Solomon of the Kingdom of Israel and Judah, queen Semiramis and King Ashurbanipal of Assyria, King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia. By the 4th century BCE, zoos existed in most of the Greek city states; the Roman emperors kept private collections of animals for study or for use in the arena, the latter faring notoriously poorly. The 19th-century historian W. E. H. Lecky wrote of the Roman games, first held in 366 BCE: At one time, bear and a bull, chained together, rolled in fierce combat across the sand... Four hundred bears were killed in a single day under Caligula... Under Nero, four hundred tigers fought with elephants. In a single day, at the dedication of the Colosseum by Titus, five thousand animals perished. Under Trajan... lions, elephants, hippopotami, bulls, stags crocodiles and serpents were employed to give novelty to the spectacle.
Charlemagne had an elephant named Abul-Abbas, given to him by the Abbasid Caliph. Henry I of England kept a collection of animals at his palace in Woodstock which included lions and camels; the most prominent collection in medieval England was in the Tower of London, created as early as 1204 by King John I. Henry III received a wedding gift in 1235 of three leopards from Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1264, the animals were moved to the Bulwark, renamed the Lion Tower, near the main western entrance of the Tower, it was opened to the public during the reign of Elizabeth I in the 16th century. During the 18th century, the price of admission was three half-pence, or the supply of a cat or dog for feeding to the lions; the animals were moved to the London Zoo. Aztec emperor Moctezuma had in his capital city of Tenochtitlan a "house of animals" with a large collection of birds and reptiles in a garden tended by more than 600 employees; the garden was described by several Spanish conquerors, including Hernán Cortés in 1520.
After the Aztec revolt against the Spanish rule, during the subsequent battle for the city, Cortés reluctantly ordered the zoo to be destroyed. The oldest zoo in the world still in existence is the Tiergarten Schönbrunn in Austria, it was constructed by Adrian van Stekhoven in 1752 at the order of the Holy Roman Emperor Francis I, husband of Maria Theresa of Austria, to serve as an imperial menagerie as part of Schönbrunn Palace. The menagerie was reserved for the viewing pleasure of the imperial family and the court, but was made accessible to the public in 1765. In 1775, a zoo was founded in Madrid, in 1795, the zoo inside the Jardin des Plantes in Paris was founded by Jacques-Henri Bernardin, with animals from the royal menagerie at Versailles for scientific research and education; the Kazan Zoo, the first zoo in Russia was founded in 1806 by the Professor of Kazan State University Karl Fuchs. Until the early 19th century, the function of the zoo was to symbolize royal power, like King Louis XIV's menagerie at Versailles.
The modern zoo that emerged in the early 19th century at Halifax, London and Dublin, was focused on providing educational exhibits to the public for entertainment and inspiration. A growing fascination for natural history and zoology, coupled with the tremendous expansion in the urbanization of London, led to a heightened demand for a greater variety of publ
San Diego Zoo Safari Park
The San Diego Zoo Safari Park named the San Diego Wild Animal Park until 2010, is an 1,800 acre zoo in the San Pasqual Valley area of San Diego, near Escondido. It is one of the largest tourist attractions in San Diego County; the park houses a large array of wild and endangered animals including species from the continents of Africa, Europe and South America, Australia. The park is in a semi-arid environment, one of its most notable features is the Africa Tram, which explores the expansive African exhibits; these free-range enclosures house such animals as antelopes, buffalo and rhinoceros. The park is noted for its California condor breeding program, the most successful such program in the United States; the park, visited by 2 million people annually, houses over 2,600 animals representing more than 300 species, as well as 3,500 plant species. Depending on the season, the park has about 400 to 600 employees; the park is Southern California's quarantine center for zoo animals imported into the United States through San Diego.
The park has the world's largest veterinary hospital. Next door to the hospital is the Institute for Conservation Research, which holds the park's Frozen Zoo. Both the park and the San Diego Zoo are run by the Zoological Society of San Diego; the park is 32 miles away from the zoo, at 15500 San Pasqual Valley Road, east of Escondido, along California State Route 78. Although the park is within the San Diego city limits, it has an Escondido address; the San Diego Zoological Society became interested in developing the Wild Animal Park in 1964. The idea of the park began as a supplementary breeding facility for the San Diego Zoo, which would allow ample space for large animals and ungulates; the development proposed would differ from that of a typical zoo in that animals would be exhibited in a natural environment rather than in cages. In 1964, the park was assessed financially and moved onto the next phase. There was an idea for a conservation farm, a game preserve, a natural environment zoo; the natural environment zoo development was chosen over the conservation farm and game preserve though it was the most expensive option.
The estimated initial cost was $1,755,430. The main purposes of this zoo were to be species conservation, breeding of animals for the San Diego Zoo as well as other zoos and providing areas where zoo animals could be conditioned; when it came to naming the park, five titles were considered: San Diego Animal Land, San Diego Safari Land, San Diego Wild Animal Safari, San Diego Wildlife Park and San Diego Wild Animal Park. The scheduled opening day of the park was set for April 1, 1972; the general layout of the park, designed by Charles Faust, included a large lagoon with a jungle plaza, an African fishing village, an aviary at the entrance of the park and 50,000 plants were to be included in the landscaping. Although the park was scheduled to open in three years from the time of the groundbreaking, the total development of the park was estimated to take ten years; the first two animals to arrive at the park were the nilgai, an antelope from the plains of North India, the black-and-white striped Grant's zebra, native to East Africa.
Other animals to arrive at the park include the gemsbok, a type of oryx from Namibia, the sable antelope, a horse antelope from Central & South Africa, the greater kudu, a striped, spiral horned antelope from East & South Africa, the white rhinoceros, in danger of extinction, the Indian rhino, the one-horned rhino from northern India, & 10 cheetahs, the fastest land animal, who were brought to the park for breeding purposes. In the summer of 2003, the San Diego Zoological Society and Lowry Park Zoo orchestrated the capture of 11 wild African elephants from the Hlane Royal National Park in Swaziland; the zoos said. However, In Defense of Animals disputes this, claiming that new fencing costing many times less than the capture and transport would have ended the need to remove any elephants from Swaziland, that the Save Wild Elephants Coalition reported that there were three other sanctuaries in Africa that had offered to take the elephants. Five of these elephants are now at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, cumulatively they have produced thirteen babies as of 2013.
In March 2012 five elephants were moved to the Reid Park Zoo in Arizona, to form a new herd. A bull elephant, two cows, two baby bulls were moved and in return two cow elephants, together for years. Connie, an Asian elephant, Shaba, an African elephant, were sent to the San Diego Zoo. Connie died from cancer in July 2012 just five months after the move. Shaba was introduced into the herd in February 2013; the California wildfires that started on October 21, 2007, burned 600 acres of native habitat preserved in the park and caused it to temporarily close. The park moved many of their endangered animals out of danger; the fire did not reach any of the main enclosures, no animals were killed directly by the fire, although deaths of a clapper rail and kiang were attributed to indirect effects of the blaze. On June 30, 2010 the San Diego Zoo board of trustees voted to change the name of the park from the Wild Animal Park to the San Diego Zoo Safari Park to clarify what it offers, since some visitors were unclear as to the difference between the zoo proper and the "animal park".
The name "safari" is supposed to emphasize "the park's spacious enclosures of free-ranging animals", encouraging visits to both locations
Animal theme park
An animal theme park known as a zoological theme park, is a combination of a theme park and a zoological park for entertainment and commercial purposes. Many animal theme parks combine classic theme park elements, such as themed entertainment and amusement rides, with classic zoo elements such as live animals confined within enclosures for display. Many times, live animals are utilized and featured as part of amusement rides and attractions found at animal theme parks. Two examples of animal theme parks are Disney's Animal Kingdom in Orlando, Florida or Busch Gardens Tampa Bay in Tampa, Florida; these commercial parks are similar to open-range zoos and safari parks according to size, but different in intention and appearance, containing more entertainment and amusement elements. The term "animal theme park" can be used to describe certain marine mammal parks and more elaborate dolphinariums, such as SeaWorld, which offers amusement rides and additional entertainment attractions, are where marine animals such as whales are kept, put on display, are sometimes trained to perform in shows.
In 2010 the practice of keeping animals as trained show performers in theme parks was criticized when a trainer was killed by an orca whale at SeaWorld Orlando in Florida. Bellewaerde in Zonnebeke, Belgium Busch Gardens Tampa Bay in Tampa Bay, Florida Busch Gardens Williamsburg in Williamsburg, Virginia Chessington World Of Adventures in Surrey, England Disney's Animal Kingdom in Lake Buena Vista, Florida Flamingo Land in North Yorkshire, England Gatorland in Orlando, Florida Happy Hollow Park & Zoo in San Jose, California Hersheypark in Hershey, Pennsylvania Kalahari Resorts in Sandusky, Ohio Le Pal in Saint-Pourçain-sur-Besbre, France Lion Country Safari in Loxahatchee, Florida Parc Safari in Hemmingford, Quebec Six Flags Discovery Kingdom in Vallejo, California Six Flags Great Adventure in Jackson, New Jersey Taman Safari in Bogor, Indonesia Tobu Zoo in Miyashiro, Saitama Wild Adventures in Valdosta, Georgia Wildlands Adventure Zoo Emmen in Emmen, Netherlands Wildlife World Zoo in Litchfield Park, Arizona York's Wild Kingdom in York Beach, Maine Aquatica in Orlando, Chula Vista and San Antonio, Texas Boudewijn Seapark in Sint-Michiels, Belgium Discovery Cove in Orlando, Florida Epcot in Walt Disney World, Lake Buena Vista, Florida MarineLand in Niagara Falls, Canada Ocean Park Hong Kong in Hong Kong, China Sea World in Gold Coast, Australia SeaWorld San Antonio in San Antonio, Texas SeaWorld San Diego in San Diego, California SeaWorld Orlando in Orlando, Florida Bali Safari and Marine Park in Bali, Indonesia Most zoos have a Carousel and/or Safari Train but some zoos have more amusement attractions than that.
Bronx Zoo in New York City, New York- Features a Monorail attraction, Motion Simulator experience, rideable miniature railway. Columbus Zoo and Aquarium in Powell, Ohio- Features a Carousel, Boat Ride, North American Wilderness Train, Camel Ride, Pony Ride, 2 Kids' Playground Areas, it is combined with Zoombezi Bay and Jungle Jack's Landing Granby Zoo in Granby, Quebec- Features a Pony Ride, Camel Ride, Monorail, 3D Cinema, Ferris Wheel, Roller Coaster, Pirate Ship, Bumper Cars, Indoor Kids' Playground Area, Water Park Indianapolis Zoo in Indianapolis, Indiana- Features a Jungle Carousel, Safari Train, Family Roller Coaster, Safari Sky Ride Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, Florida- Features a log flume, a carousel, a small roller coaster, miscellaneous rides for small children. Metro Richmond Zoo in Chesterfield County, Virginia- Features a Safari Sky Ride, Jungle Carousel, Safari Train, Kids' Playground Area, Zip Line Oakland Zoo in Oakland, California- Features a Jungle Carousel, Doughnut Ride, Plane Ride, Safari Jeep Ride, Sky Ride, Outback Train, Family Roller Coaster, Kids' Playground Area Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania- Features a Carousel, Log Ride, Safari Train, Kids' Playground Area San Diego Zoo in San Diego, California- Features a "Sky Safari" attraction, Motion Simulator experience, Double Decker Bus Tour San Diego Zoo Safari Park in Escondido, California- Features a Safari Vehicular Tour, Hot Air Balloon Experience, And Zip Line Adventure.
Singapore Zoo in Singapore- Features a Vehicular Tour, Jungle Carousel, Pony Ride, Horse Carriage Ride, Water Park Drusillas Zoo Park near to Alfriston, in East Sussex, UK.- Features the Eden's Eye maze, The Flying Cheetahs ride, the Hippopotobus ride, a Hello Kitty car ride, a tea cup ride, a "reach for the sky" hopper ride, an adventure play area separated for different age groups, an indoor soft play centre, the Safari Express train ride
Sea Life Centres
Sea Life Centres are a chain of commercial sealife-themed aquarium attractions. As of April 2017 there are 53 Sea Life attractions around the world; the chain is owned by Merlin Entertainments. Sea Life Centres aim to combine modern display technology, biological expertise, entertainment to provide themed journeys through European and tropical waters; this provides close encounters with sealife, from shrimps and starfish, to seahorses and stingrays. Sea Life Centres claim to champion the cause of marine conservation through education, awareness and, wherever possible, direct action. Sea Life Sanctuaries and Seal Sanctuaries operate from three centres in the United Kingdom as well as one location in Australia; the United Kingdom locations include the Cornish Seal Sanctuary in Cornwall. Manly Sea Life Sanctuary operates in Australia; the Hunstanton facility operates penguin sanctuaries as well as a seal hospital. Since 2001 all Sea Life Centre conservation and campaigning work has come under the SOS scheme, an acronym for "Save Our Seas."
SOS supports the work of wildlife charities and campaign groups including Greenpeace, the Worldwide Fund for Nature, the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, the British Divers Marine Life Rescue. Each centre has a headline campaign which changes periodically. Past campaigns have advocated increased protection for loggerhead sea turtles, restrictions on the practice of shark finning. Centres are located in Germany at Berlin, Cuxhaven, Königswinter, Munich, Speyer, Timmendorfer Strand, Hanover; the largest Sea Life Centre of Germany is at the CentrO park in Oberhausen - it was the home of Paul, the psychic octopus who predicted the German national football team's results at the world cup of 2010, until his death in October 2010. Birmingham - National Sea Life Blackpool - Sea Life Brighton - Sea Life Great Yarmouth - Sea Life Gweek - Cornish Seal Sanctuary Hunstanton - Sea Life Loch Lomond - Loch Lomond Aquarium London - London Aquarium Manchester - Sea Life Trafford Centre Oban - Scottish Sea Life Sanctuary Scarborough - Sea Life Sanctuary Weymouth - Sea Life Adventure ParkA former site in St. Andrews has now been sold and is now running separately as "St. Andrews' Aquarium".
Sea Life Centres at resort theme parks: Alton Towers Resort - Sharkbait Reef by Sea Life Chessington World of Adventures - Chessington Sea Life Centre Legoland Windsor Resort - Atlantis Submarine Voyage Other European Sea Life Centres are at Blankenberge, Belgium. Related ` theme-park' resorts are at Denmark. American centres are located at: Sea Life Arizona Sea Life Minnesota Aquarium Sea Life Grapevine Sea Life Kansas City Sea Life Charlotte-Concord Sea Life Michigan Sea Life Orlando Sea Life East Rutherford There is a related'theme park' at Carlsbad, California, at Legoland California Resort. Centres are located in Australia at Manly Sea Life Sanctuary, Sea Life Melbourne, Sea Life Mooloolaba and Sea Life Sydney AquariumNew Zealand has Kelly Tarlton's Sea Life Aquarium, Auckland. Centres are located at Sea Life Busan and Sea Life Shanghai. In November 2015, Merlin Entertainments announced that over the next 10 years it will be investing £50 million in India, some of which will be used to open Sea Life Centres.
In January 2017, Merlin Entertainments Indian subsidiary stated that it was in discussion with real estate firms to open Sea Life Centres in multiple cities in India. Sea Life Centres have been criticized over animal welfare, with the Marine Conservation Society calling a 30% mortality rate "disturbing." The charity Freedom for Animals has criticized Sea Life over their conservation claims, for the presence of Beluga whales at attractions. Media related to Sea Life at Wikimedia Commons Official website
San Diego Zoo
The San Diego Zoo is a zoo in Balboa Park, San Diego, housing over more than 3,500 animals of more than 650 species and subspecies. Its parent organization, San Diego Zoo Global, is one of the largest zoological membership associations in the world, with more than 250,000 member households and 130,000 child memberships, representing more than a half million people; the San Diego Zoo was a pioneer in the concept of open-air, cageless exhibits that re-create natural animal habitats. It is one of the few zoos in the world that houses, breeds the giant panda. In 2013, the zoo added a new Australian Outback exhibit, providing an updated Australian animal experience. Another new exhibit, called Africa Rocks, opened in 2017, it is moderated by the nonprofit San Diego Zoo Global on 100 acres of Balboa Park leased from the City of San Diego. The San Diego Zoo is an accredited member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and the American Alliance of Museums, a member of the Zoological Association of America and the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums.
San Diego Zoo Global operates the San Diego Zoo Safari Park and the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research. The San Diego Zoo grew out of exotic animal exhibitions abandoned after the 1915 Panama-California Exposition. Dr. Harry M. Wegeforth founded the Zoological Society of San Diego, meeting October 2, 1916, which followed precedents set by the New York Zoological Society at the Bronx Zoo, he served as president of the society until 1941. A permanent tract of land in Balboa Park was set aside in August 1921; the zoo began to move in the following year. In addition to the animals from the Exposition, the zoo acquired a menagerie from the defunct Wonderland Amusement Park. Ellen Browning Scripps financed a fence around the zoo so that it could begin charging an entrance fee to offset costs; the publication ZooNooz commenced in early 1925. Animal collector Frank Buck went to work as director of the San Diego Zoo on June 13, 1923, signed to a three-year contract by Wegeforth. William T. Hornaday, director of the Bronx Zoo, had recommended Buck for the job, but Buck clashed with the strong-willed Wegeforth and left the zoo after three months to return to animal collecting.
After several other short-lived zoo directors, Wegeforth appointed the zoo's bookkeeper, Belle Benchley, to the position of executive secretary, in effect zoo director. She served as zoo director from 1925 until 1953. For most of that time she was the only female zoo director in the world, she was succeeded as director by Dr. Charles Schroeder; the San Diego Zoo was a pioneer in building "cageless" exhibits. Wegeforth was determined to create moated exhibits from the start, the first lion area at the San Diego Zoo without enclosing wires opened in 1922; until the 1960s, admission for children under 16 was free regardless of whether they were accompanied by a paying adult. The zoo's Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species was founded in 1975 at the urging of Kurt Benirschke, who became its first director. CRES was renamed the division of Conservation and Research for Endangered Species in 2005 to better reflect its mission. In 2009 CRES was expanded to become the Institute for Conservation Research.
An orangutan named Ken Allen was reported in several newspapers in the summer of 1985 for escaping from the escape-proof orangutan enclosure. The world's only albino koala in a zoological facility was born September 1, 1997, at the San Diego Zoo and was named Onya-Birri, which means "ghost boy" in an Australian Aboriginal language; the San Diego Zoo has the largest number of koalas outside of Australia. In 2014, a colony of African penguins arrived for the first time in the zoo since 1979, they have since moved into Africa Rocks when it opened in 2017. In 2016, the last pangolin on display in North America at the time, died at the zoo; the San Diego Zoo has had a number of notable escapees through the years, the most noteworthy of them is Ken Allen, a Bornean orangutan who came to be known as "the hairy Houdini," for his many escapes. In early 2015, two Wolf guenons monkeyed around outside of their Ituri Forest enclosure. One of the monkeys neared a fence line off of Route 163, but was brought back to safety without injury.
In 2014, a koala named Mundu escaped to a neighboring tree just outside its Koalafornia Australia Outback enclosure. Zookeepers lured him down the tree. In March 2013, the zoo, hosting a private party at the time, had to initiate a lockdown when two striped hyenas somehow got past their barriers, before they were "darted with a sedative and taken to the veterinary care clinic." The zoo offers a guided tour bus. There is an overhead gondola lift called providing an aerial view of the zoo; the Skyfari was built in 1969 by the Von Roll tramway company of Switzerland. The San Diego Zoo Skyfari is a Von Roll type 101. Exhibits are designed around a particular habitat; the same exhibit features many different animals that can be found side-by-side in the wild, along with native plant life. Exhibits range from tundra in the summertime; some of the largest free-flight aviaries in existence are here. Many exhibits are "natural" with invisible wires and darkened blinds, pools and open-air moats; the San Diego Zoo operates the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, which displays animals in a more expansive
Birch Aquarium at Scripps is an aquarium and the public outreach center for Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego. Accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, Birch Aquarium at Scripps has an annual attendance of more than 439,000, including more than 40,000 school children, features more than 3,000 animals representing 380 species; the hilltop site provides views of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography campus and the Pacific Ocean. The mission of the aquarium reads: "At Birch Aquarium at Scripps, we connect understanding to protecting our ocean planet"; the aquarium was established in 1903 after the Marine Biological Association of San Diego was created to conduct marine research in the local waters of the Pacific Ocean. The founders built and maintained a small public aquarium and museum to communicate their discoveries to the world; the researchers outgrew their modest laboratory in the boathouse of the Hotel del Coronado and moved to a small laboratory at La Jolla Cove in 1905.
Several years the association purchased 174 acres at La Jolla Shores for $1,000 at a public auction from the city of San Diego. The first permanent building at the new site was constructed in 1910. Today the Old Scripps Building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1915, the first building devoted to an aquarium was built on the Scripps campus; the small, wooden structure contained 19 tanks ranging in size from 96 to 228 U. S. gallons. The oceanographic museum was located in a nearby building; the institution's name changed to Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1925 to recognize the growing faculty's widened range of studies. The Scripps Aquarium-Museum opened in 1951 and named to honor former institution director T. Wayland Vaughan; the three-story facility served the institution for more than 40 years. A ring of 18 tanks, the largest at 2,000 U. S. gallons, surrounded a central museum of glass exhibit cases displaying Scripps research projects. Within a month of its opening, visitors from all 48 states had signed the guest book.
In 1985, the Stephen and Mary Birch Foundation started a fund-raising effort for a new aquarium by donating $6 million. JCJ Architecture of San Diego was selected as the design architect and in 1992, the current $14 million Birch Aquarium at Scripps opened its doors. UC San Diego donated the land. Birch Aquarium at Scripps celebrated its 20th anniversary in September 2012 by introducing a new visual identity. At 64,157 square feet, Birch Aquarium at Scripps is designed around a central lobby with entrances to exhibit areas. Display tanks contain 175,000 U. S. gallons of seawater. Hall of Fishes features more than 60 tanks of Pacific invertebrates; the path along the Hall of Fishes follows the currents of the North Pacific Gyre, starting with tanks inspired by the Pacific Northwest tanks with organisms from California, followed by tanks with organisms from Mexico and Baja California, ending with tanks inspired by the Indo-Pacific. The largest habitat is a 70,000-U. S.-gallon kelp forest tank. The tank can be viewed live online through the Kelp Cam.
Just past the Boundless Energy courtyard, is ElasmoBeach. ElasmoBeach is a sandy bottomed outside tank based on the sea floor of La Jolla; this tank features various rays, including leopard sharks and pacific angelsharks. Tide-Pool Plaza features three living tide pools where visitors can touch and learn about tide-pool animals with docents. Windows in the habitats provide up-close views of starfish, hermit crabs, sea cucumbers and other animals local to San Diego's tide pools; the tide pool overlooks the Pacific Ocean. There's Something About Seahorses features more than a dozen seahorse species and their relatives, a special seahorse nursery, hands-on activities for all ages about seahorse biology. Birch Aquarium at Scripps is a world leader in seahorse propagation, reducing the need for other zoos and aquariums to collect from the wild; this is an outdoor playground that celebrates the innovative ways we can use natural forces to power our lives. Interactive stations explore ways to harness renewable energy from the sun, the wind, ocean motion.
Visitors can expend their own "boundless energy" at a play area for kids in which stationary bikes, hand cranks, a seesaw powers a whimsical water sculpture. Summer 2014 San Diegans vote Birch Aquarium at Scripps the Best Museum in San Diego in the annual A-List poll for the fourth year in a row. Summer 2013 San Diegans vote Birch Aquarium at Scripps the Best Museum in San Diego in the annual A-List poll for the third year in a row. Summer 2012 San Diegans vote Birch Aquarium at Scripps the Best Museum in San Diego in the annual A-List poll for the second year in a row. Fall 2011 San Diegans vote Birch Aquarium at Scripps the Best Museum in San Diego in the annual 10News.com A-List poll. The aquarium was voted the #2 museum in 2008, 2009, 2010. Official website Scripps Institution of Oceanography Website University of California, San Diego