Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and their predominant religion is Christianity, Portuguese people were a key factor to the Age of Exploration, discovering several lands unknown to the Europeans in the Americas, Africa and Oceania, helping to pave the way for Globalization. There are around 10 million native Portuguese in Portugal, out of a population of 10.34 million. A small minority of about 15,000 speak the Mirandese language, in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, all of the speakers are bilingual with Portuguese. An even smaller minority of no more than 2,000 people speak Barranquenho, some people from the former colonies have been migrating to Portugal since the 1900s. More recently, a number of Slavs, especially Ukrainians, Moldovans and Russians. There is a Chinese minority, in addition, there is a small minority Gypsies of about 40,000 people, Muslims about 34,000 people and an even smaller minority of Jews of about 5,000 people.
Between 1886 and 1966, Portugal lost to more than any West European country except Ireland. From the middle of the 19th century to the late 1950s, about 40 million Brazilians have relatively recent Portuguese background, due to massive immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. About 1.2 million Brazilian citizens are native Portuguese, significant verified Portuguese minorities exist in several countries. Portuguese Sephardic Jews are in Israel, the Netherlands, the United States, Venezuela, Brazil, in Brazil many of the colonists were originally Sephardic Jews, converted, were known as New Christians. In the United States, there are Portuguese communities in New Jersey, the New England states, in the Pacific, Hawaii has a sizable Portuguese element that goes back 150 years and New Zealand have Portuguese communities. Canada, particularly Ontario and British Columbia, has developed a significant Portuguese community since 1940, argentina and Uruguay had Portuguese immigration in the early 20th century.
So has Chile where an estimated 50,000 descendants live, an estimated 800,000 Portuguese returned to Portugal as the countrys African possessions gained independence in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution, while others moved to Brazil and South Africa. Vincent and the Grenadines and Tobago, Equatorial Guinea, in 1989 some 4,000,000 Portuguese were living abroad, mainly in France, Brazil, the United Kingdom, South Africa, Canada and the United States. Portuguese constitute 13% of the population of Luxembourg, in areas such as Thetford and the crown dependencies of Jersey and Guernsey, the Portuguese form the largest ethnic minority groups at 30% of the population, 20% and 3% respectively. The British capital London is home to the largest number of Portuguese people in the UK, with the majority being found in the boroughs of Kensington and Chelsea and Westminster. The Portuguese diaspora communities still are very attached to their language, their culture and their national dishes, in colonial times, over 700,000 Portuguese settled in Brazil, and most of them went there during the gold rush of the 18th century
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Old Point Loma Lighthouse
The original Point Loma Lighthouse is a historic lighthouse located on the Point Loma peninsula at the mouth of San Diego Bay in San Diego, California. It is situated in the Cabrillo National Monument and it is no longer in operation as a lighthouse but is open to the public as a museum. On September 28,1850, just 19 days after admitting California to the Union, a second appropriation of $59,434 was made in 1854 to complete the job. Lighthouses were designated for Alcatraz Island, Point Conception, Battery Point, Farallon Island, Point Pinos, a site was chosen in 1851 near the summit of Point Loma. The contract was given to the Washington, D. C. company Gibbon, the local supervisor was William J. Timanus. Construction was begun in April 1854, when a shipment of materials arrived from San Francisco, the lantern and lens had to be ordered from Paris and arrived in August 1855. The lighthouse was completed by October 1855 and was lighted for the first time at sunset November 15,1855 and it was designated light number 355, of the Twelfth United States Lighthouse District.
When the lighthouse was constructed, a small structure was built next to it. This building was used as a storehouse for oil, wood. However, in 1875 part of it was converted into an apartment for the assistant lighthouse keeper. It was built with lumber and the inside was lined with cloth and paper. This thin lining was replaced with tongue and groove boards. More repairs must have made in 1880 for the structure was still being used as a living space for the assistant. Today this building has changed once again, and now serves as a museum. It holds the lens of the New Point Loma lighthouse as well as maps and more information about Point Loma. While in operation the lighthouse had the highest elevation of any lighthouse in the United States, the location on top of a 400-foot cliff meant that fog and low clouds often obscured the light from the view of ships. On foggy nights the lighthouse keeper would sometimes discharge a shotgun to warn ships away, on March 23,1891, the flame was permanently extinguished and the light was replaced by the New Point Loma lighthouse at a lower elevation.
In 1984, the light was re-lit by the National Park Service for the first time in 93 years, more than 3,000 people attended the celebration, including more than 100 descendants of former lighthouse keepers Robert and Maria Israel
Oakland /ˈoʊklənd/ is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, United States. The city was incorporated in 1852, Oaklands territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, and north coastal scrub. Its land served as a resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the citys population, increasing its housing stock and it continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, and a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. Oakland is known for its sustainability practices, including a top-ranking for usage of electricity from renewable resources, in addition, due to a steady influx of immigrants during the 20th century, along with thousands of African-American war-industry workers who relocated from the Deep South during the 1940s.
Oakland is the most ethnically diverse city in the country. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians, who lived there for thousands of years, the Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, in 1772, the area that became Oakland was claimed, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio, the grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons, Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Maria and Vicente. The portion of the parcel that is now Oakland was called encinal—Spanish for oak grove—due to the oak forest that covered the area. In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, and Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland, on May 4,1852, the Town of Oakland incorporated.
Two years later, on March 25,1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, the city and its environs quickly grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, a number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century. The first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, at the time of incorporation, Oakland consisted of the territory that lay south of todays major intersection of San Pablo Avenue and Fourteenth Street. The city gradually annexed farmlands and settlements to the east and the north, Oaklands rise to industrial prominence, and its subsequent need for a seaport, led to the digging of a shipping and tidal channel in 1902. This resulted in the town of Alameda being made an island
The Kumeyaay, known as Tipai-Ipai, formerly Kamia or Diegueño, are Native American people of the extreme southwestern United States and northwest Mexico. They live in the states of California in the US and Baja California in Mexico, in Spanish, the name is commonly spelled Kumiai. The Kumeyaay consist of two related groups, the Ipai and Tipai, the two coastal groups traditional homelands were approximately separated by the San Diego River, the northern Ipai and the southern Tipai. Nomenclature and tribal distinctions are not widely agreed upon, the general scholarly consensus recognizes three separate languages, Kumeyaay proper, and Tipai in northern Baja California. Other authorities see only two and Tipai, the term Kumeyaay means those who face the water from a cliff. Both Ipai and Tipai mean people, some Kumeyaay in the southern areas refer to themselves as MuttTipi, which means people of the earth. Linguist Margaret Langdon is credited with doing much of the work on documenting the language.
Evidence of settlement, in what is today considered Kumeyaay territory,7000 BCE marked the emergence of two cultural traditions, the California Coast and Valley tradition and the Desert tradition. The Kumeyaay had land extending from the Pacific Ocean to present Ensenada, the Cuyamaca complex, a late Holocene complex in San Diego County is related to the Kumeyaay peoples. The Kumeyaay tribe used to inhabit what is now a state park. One view holds that historic Tipai-Ipai emerged around 1000 years ago, katherine Luomola suggests that the nucleus of Tipai-Ipai groups came together around AD1000. The Kumeyaay themselves believe that they have lived in San Diego for 12,000 years, at the time of European contact, Kumeyaay comprised several autonomous bands with 30 patrilineal clans. Spaniards entered Tipai-Ipai territory in the late 18th century, bringing with them non-native, invasive flora, and domestic animals, under the Spanish Mission system, bands living near Mission San Diego de Alcalá, established in 1769, were called Diegueños.
From 1870 to 1910, American settlers seized lands, including arable, in 1875, President Ulysses Grant created reservations in the area, and additional lands were placed under trust patent status after the passage of the 1891 Act for the Relief of Mission Indians. The reservations tended to be small and lacked water supplies. Kumeyaay people supported themselves by farming and agricultural labor, however. For their common welfare, several formed the non-profit Kumeyaay. The colleges focus is on Kumeyaay History, Kumeyaay Ethnobotany and traditional Indigenous arts and it serves and relies on resources from the thirteen reservations of the Kumeyaay Nation situated in San Diego county
Charles Augustus Lindbergh, nicknamed Slim, Lucky Lindy, and The Lone Eagle, was an American aviator, military officer, inventor and environmental activist. At age 25 in 1927, he went from obscurity as a U. S. Air Mail pilot to instantaneous world fame by making his Orteig Prize–winning nonstop flight from Long Island, New York, to Paris. He covered the 33 1⁄2-hour,3,600 statute miles alone in a single-engine purpose-built Ryan monoplane and this was the first solo transatlantic flight, and the first non-stop flight between North America and mainland Europe. Lindbergh was an officer in the U. S. Army Air Corps Reserve, and he received the United States highest military decoration and his achievement spurred interest in both commercial aviation and air mail, and Lindbergh himself devoted much time and effort to promoting such activity. Lindberghs historic flight and instantaneous world fame led to tragedy, in March 1932, his infant son, Charles Jr. was kidnapped and murdered in what was widely called the Crime of the Century and described by H. L.
Mencken as the biggest story since the resurrection. The case prompted the United States Congress to upgrade kidnapping from a crime to a federal crime once the kidnapper had crossed state lines with his victim. By late 1935 the hysteria surrounding the case had driven the Lindbergh family into exile in Europe. Before the United States formally entered World War II, some people accused Lindbergh of being a fascist sympathizer, in his years, Lindbergh became a prolific prize-winning author, international explorer and environmentalist. Lindbergh had six children with his wife Anne Morrow Lindbergh, Lindbergh was born in Detroit, Michigan, on February 4,1902, and spent most of his childhood in Little Falls and Washington, D. C. Charles parents separated in 1909 when he was seven, congressman from 1907 to 1917, was one of the relatively few Congressmen to oppose the entry of the U. S. into World War I. Lindberghs mother was a teacher at Cass Technical High School in Detroit. Lindbergh attended over a dozen schools from Washington, D. C.
From an early age, Lindbergh had exhibited an interest in the mechanics of motorized transportation, including his familys Saxon Six automobile, and his Excelsior motorbike. By the time he started college as an engineering student, he had become fascinated with flying. A few days Lindbergh took his first formal flying lesson in that same machine and he briefly worked as an airplane mechanic at the Billings, Montana municipal airport. With the onset of winter, Lindbergh left flying, though Lindbergh had not touched an airplane in more than six months, he had already secretly decided he was ready to take to the air by himself. After a half-hour of dual time with a pilot who was visiting the field to pick up another surplus JN-4, Lindbergh flew solo for the first time in the Jenny he had just purchased for $500. After spending another week or so at the field to practice, Lindbergh took off from Americus for Montgomery, some 140 miles to the west and he went on to spend much of the rest of 1923 engaged in almost nonstop barnstorming under the name of Daredevil Lindbergh
Tijuana is the largest city in Baja California and on the Baja California Peninsula and center of the Tijuana metropolitan area, part of the international San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. As an industrial and financial center of Mexico, Tijuana exerts an influence on economics, culture, art. As the city has become a center in the country, so has the surrounding metropolitan area. Currently one of the fastest growing areas in Mexico, Tijuana maintains global city status. As of 2015, the city of Tijuana had a population of 1,696,923, Tijuana is located on the Gold Coast of Baja California, and is the municipal seat and cultural and commercial center of Tijuana Municipality. Tijuana covers 70% of the municipality but contains over 80% of its population, a dominant manufacturing center of the North American continent, the city maintains facilities of many multinational conglomerate companies. In the early 21st century, Tijuana became the medical-device manufacturing capital of North America, Tijuana is a growing cultural center and has been recognized as an important new cultural mecca.
The city is the most visited city in the globe. More than fifty million people cross the border between two cities every year. This metropolitan crossing makes the San Ysidro Port of Entry the busiest land-border crossing in the world and it is estimated that the two border crossing stations between the cities proper of San Diego and Tijuana account for 300,000 daily border crossings alone. Tijuana is the 40th largest city in the Americas and is the westernmost city in Mexico, Tijuana traces its modern history to the arrival of Spanish explorers in the 16th century who were mapping the coast of the Californias. As the American conquest of northern Mexico ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Tijuanas new international position on the border gave rise to a new economic, the city was founded in July 11,1889 as urban development began. Often known by its initials, T. J. and nicknamed Gateway to Mexico, Tijuana derives from the Kumeyaay word Tiwan, meaning by-the-sea. Common in regional folklore, a myth exists purporting that the name is a conjunction of Tia Juana, Tia Juana would provide food and a resting place to travelers on their journeys.
The story has become a myth with residents of the city and has particular resonance among those who like to imagine the city as a place of hospitality. In Spanish, the name is pronounced /tiˈxwana/ – with three syllables, and a fricative as represented by the sound written as j. In California, and particularly in Southern California, it is referred to as T. J. Baja Californians have adopted this pronunciation as Tiyei, in Spanish the demonym for someone from Tijuana is Tijuanense, while in English the demonym is Tijuanan
San Diego is a major city in California, United States. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, approximately 120 miles south of Los Angeles and immediately adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,394,928 as of July 1,2015, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California. It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the US and a country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. San Diego has been called the birthplace of California, historically home to the Kumeyaay people, San Diego was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, the Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, in 1850, California became part of the United States following the Mexican–American War and the admission of California to the union.
The city is the seat of San Diego County and is the center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diegos main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San Dieguito, the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was Portuguese-born explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo sailing under the flag of Castile, sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, and named the site San Miguel. In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast, in May 1769, Gaspar de Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River. It was the first settlement by Europeans in what is now the state of California, in July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Junípero Serra.
By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in, Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks, in 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, and San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began attempting to extend its authority over the territory of Alta California. The fort on Presidio Hill was gradually abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1833, the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, and Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote
Alta California, founded in 1769 by Gaspar de Portolà, was a polity of New Spain and after the Mexican War of Independence in 1822, a territory of Mexico. The region included all of the states of California and Utah. Large areas east of the Sierra Nevada and San Gabriel Mountains were claimed to be part of Alta California, to the southeast, beyond the deserts and the Colorado River, lay the Spanish settlements in Arizona. The areas formerly comprising Alta California were ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War in 1848, two years later, California joined the union as the 31st state. Other parts of Alta California became all or part of the U. S. states of Arizona, Utah and Wyoming. The Spanish explored the area of Alta California by sea beginning in the 16th century. During the following two centuries there were plans to settle the area, none of which were effectively carried out. Ultimately, New Spain did not have the resources nor population to settle such a far northern outpost.
To ascertain the Russian threat a number of Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest were launched, the Spanish Crown funded the construction and subsidized the operation of the missions, with the goal that the relocation and enforced labor of Native people would bolster Spanish rule. The first Alta California mission and presidio were established by the Franciscan friar Junípero Serra, the following year,1770, the second mission and presidio were founded in Monterey. In 1773 a boundary between the Baja California missions and the Franciscan missions of Alta California was set by Francisco Palóu, the missionary effort coincided with the construction of presidios and pueblos, which were to be manned and populated by Hispanic people. The first pueblo founded was San José in 1777, followed by Los Ángeles in 1781, by law, mission land and property were to pass to the indigenous population after a period of about ten years, when the natives would become Spanish subjects. In the interim period, the Franciscans were to act as mission administrators who held the land in trust for the Native residents, the transfer of property never occurred under the Franciscans.
As the number of Spanish settlers grew in Alta California, the boundaries, conflicts between the Crown and the Church and between Natives and settlers arose. State and ecclesiastical bureaucrats debated over authority of the missions and they advocated that the Natives owned property and had the right to defend it. Governor Diego de Borica is credited with defining Alta and Baja Californias official borders, Mexico won independence in 1822, and Alta California became a territory of Mexico. The Spanish and Mexican governments rewarded retired soldados de cuera with large grants, known as ranchos, for the raising of cattle. Hides and tallow from the livestock were the primary exports of California until the mid-19th century, the construction and domestic work on these vast estates was primarily done by Native Americans, who had learned to speak Spanish and ride horses
Coastal artillery is the branch of the armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications. The advent of 20th-century technologies, especially aviation, naval aviation, jet aircraft, and guided missiles, reduced the primacy of cannon, battleships. In countries where coastal artillery has not been disbanded, these forces have acquired amphibious capabilities, in littoral warfare, mobile coastal artillery armed with surface-to-surface missiles still can be used to deny the use of sea lanes. Land-based guns benefited in most cases from the protection of walls or earth mounds. The Martello tower is an excellent example of a widely used coastal fort which mounted defensive artillery, during the 19th century China built hundreds of coastal fortresses in an attempt to counter Western naval threats. Coastal artillery could be part of the Navy, or part of the Army, in English-speaking countries, certain coastal artillery positions were sometimes referred to as Land Batteries, distinguishing this form of artillery battery from for example floating batteries.
In the United Kingdom, in the 19th and earlier 20th Centuries, following the Spanish–American War and the report of the Endicott Board, U. S. harbor defenses were greatly strengthened and provided with new, rifled artillery and minefield defenses. Shortly thereafter, in 1907, Congress split the field artillery, the first decade of the 20th Century, the United States Marine Corps established the Advanced Base Force. The force was used for setting up and defending advanced bases, during the Siege of Port Arthur, Japanese forces had captured the vantage point on 203 Meter Hill overlooking Port Arthur harbor. The battleship Sevastopol, although hit 5 times by 11-inch shells, after 3 weeks, the Sevastopol was still afloat, having survived 124 torpedoes fired at her while sinking two Japanese destroyers and damaging six other vessels. The Japanese had meanwhile lost the cruiser Takasago to a mine outside the harbor, the Blücher had entered the narrow waters of the Oslofjord, carrying 1,000 soldiers and leading a German invasion fleet.
The first salvo from the Norwegian defenders, fired from Oscarsborg Fortress about 1 mile distant, disabled Blüchers main battery, fire from the smaller guns swept her decks and disabled her steering, and she received several torpedo hits before the fires reached her magazines and doomed her. Singapore was defended by its famous large-caliber coastal guns, which included one battery of three 15-inch guns and one with two 15-inch guns, AP shells were designed to penetrate the hulls of heavily armoured warships and were ineffective against personnel. The Japanese defended the island of Betio in the Tarawa atoll with numerous 203 mm coastal guns, in 1943, these were knocked out early in the battle with a combined USN naval and aerial bombardment. Nazi Germany fortified its conquered territories with the Atlantic Wall, the intent was to destroy the Allied landing craft before they could unload. During the Normandy Landings in 1944, shore bombardment was given a high importance, using ships from battleships to destroyers, for example, the Canadians at Juno beach had fire support many times greater than they had had for the Dieppe Raid in 1942.
In addition, there were modified landing-craft, eight Landing Craft Gun, twenty-four Landing Craft Tank carried Priest self-propelled howitzers which fired while they were on the run-in to the beach. Similar arrangements existed at other beaches, on June 25,1944 the American battleship Texas engaged German shore batteries on the Cotentin Peninsula
John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was the 30th President of the United States. A Republican lawyer from Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics and his response to the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight and gave him a reputation as a man of decisive action. Soon after, he was elected as the 29th vice president in 1920, elected in his own right in 1924, he gained a reputation as a small-government conservative, and as a man who said very little, although having a rather dry sense of humor. Coolidge restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessors administration, as a Coolidge biographer wrote, He embodied the spirit and hopes of the middle class, could interpret their longings and express their opinions. That he did represent the genius of the average is the most convincing proof of his strength, Coolidges retirement was relatively short, as he died at the age of 60 in January 1933, less than two months before his immediate successor, Herbert Hoover, left office.
Though his reputation underwent a renaissance during the Ronald Reagan administration, John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was born in Plymouth Notch, Windsor County, Vermont, on July 4,1872, the only U. S. president to be born on Independence Day. He held various offices, including justice of the peace and tax collector. Coolidges mother was the daughter of a Plymouth Notch farmer and she was chronically ill and died, perhaps from tuberculosis, when Coolidge was twelve years old. His younger sister, Abigail Grace Coolidge, died at the age of fifteen, probably of appendicitis, Coolidges father remarried in 1891, to a schoolteacher, and lived to the age of eighty. Coolidges family had roots in New England, his earliest American ancestor, John Coolidge, emigrated from Cottenham, England, around 1630 and settled in Watertown. Another ancestor, Edmund Rice, arrived at Watertown in 1638, Coolidges great-great-grandfather, named John Coolidge, was an American military officer in the Revolutionary War and one of the first selectmen of the town of Plymouth Notch.
His grandfather, Calvin Galusha Coolidge, served in the Vermont House of Representatives, many of Coolidges ancestors were farmers, and numerous distant cousins were prominent in politics. Coolidge attended Black River Academy and Amherst College, where he distinguished himself in the class, as a senior joined the fraternity Phi Gamma Delta. While there, Coolidge was profoundly influenced by philosophy professor Charles Edward Garman, the only hope of perfecting human relationships is in accordance with the law of service under which men are not so solicitous about what they shall get as they are about what they shall give. Yet people are entitled to the rewards of their industry, what they earn is theirs, no matter how small or how great. But the possession of property carries the obligation to use it in a larger service, at his fathers urging after graduation, Coolidge moved to Northampton, Massachusetts to become a lawyer. To avoid the cost of law school, Coolidge followed the practice of apprenticing with a local law firm, Hammond & Field.
John C. Hammond and Henry P. Field, both Amherst graduates, introduced Coolidge to law practice in the county seat of Hampshire County, in 1897, Coolidge was admitted to the bar, becoming a country lawyer
San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay is a natural harbor and deepwater port located in San Diego County, California near the U. S. –Mexico border. The highly urbanized land adjacent to the bay includes the city of San Diego and four cities, including National City, Chula Vista, Imperial Beach. Considered to be one of the best natural harbors on the west coast of North America, San Diego Bays commercial port has two container ship facilities and a cruise ship terminal. A second cruise terminal opened in December 2010. The port handles more than 3 million metric tons of cargo yearly, San Diego International Airport is adjacent to the bay, across Harbor Drive from the Coast Guard Station. The bay is spanned by the San Diego–Coronado Bridge, built in 1969, the bridge curves and rises to a height of 200 feet above the water so that Navy ships can pass under it. The bridge was originally a bridge, toll collection was discontinued in 2002. Americas Cup Harbor has several boat yards and marinas for private sailing yachts, numerous resorts and the San Diego Convention Center are adjacent to the Bay.
Several parks and nature preserves are found at locations along the shoreline. Sightseeing boats depart from the downtown area, commercial sport fishing and whale watching tours depart from Shelter Island. Ten museum ships call San Diego Bay home and they include the USS Midway, an aircraft carrier museum, and the Star of India, the oldest iron-hulled merchant ship afloat and the worlds oldest active sailing ship. In the northern part of the bay there are two islands called Harbor Island and Shelter Island. They were built up from former sand bars and now hold hotels, restaurants and public parkland. Small boat sailing is extremely popular, and the bay is lined by dozens of marinas and nine yacht clubs, an inlet of the bay was renamed Americas Cup Harbor to commemorate that occasion. An annual fireworks display called the Big Bay Boom is held on the Fourth of July over the waters of the Bay, fireworks are launched simultaneously from four barges in the Bay as well as from a pier in Imperial Beach.
It is one of the largest annual fireworks displays in the United States and is viewed by half a million each year. The Parade of Lights is a parade of more than 80 small boats with holiday decorations, the parade has been held annually since 1972. The parade starts off Shelter Island and proceeds past Harbor Island and Downtown, a one-time special event was the Parade of Flight in February 2011, celebrating the 100th anniversary of naval aviation