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Cache (computing)

In computing, a cache is a hardware or software component that stores data so that future requests for that data can be served faster. A cache hit occurs when the requested data can be found in a cache, while a cache miss occurs when it cannot. Cache hits are served by reading data from the cache, faster than recomputing a result or reading from a slower data store. To be cost-effective and to enable efficient use of data, caches must be small. Caches have proven themselves in many areas of computing, because typical computer applications access data with a high degree of locality of reference; such access patterns exhibit temporal locality, where data is requested, requested and spatial locality, where data is requested, stored physically close to data, requested. There is an inherent trade-off between size and speed but a tradeoff between expensive, premium technologies vs cheaper mass-produced commodities; the buffering provided by a cache benefits both latency and throughput: A larger resource incurs a significant latency for access – e.g. it can take hundreds of clock cycles for a modern 4 GHz processor to reach DRAM.

This is mitigated by reading in large chunks, in the hope that subsequent reads will be from nearby locations. Prediction or explicit prefetching might guess where future reads will come from and make requests ahead of time; the use of a cache allows for higher throughput from the underlying resource, by assembling multiple fine grain transfers into larger, more efficient requests. In the case of DRAM circuits, this might be served by having a wider data bus. For example, consider a program accessing bytes in a 32-bit address space, but being served by a 128-bit off-chip data bus. Reading larger chunks reduces the fraction of bandwidth required for transmitting address information. Hardware implements cache as a block of memory for temporary storage of data to be used again. Central processing units and hard disk drives use a cache, as do web browsers and web servers. A cache is made up of a pool of entries; each entry has associated data, a copy of the same data in some backing store. Each entry has a tag, which specifies the identity of the data in the backing store of which the entry is a copy.

Tagging allows simultaneous cache-oriented algorithms to function in multilayered fashion without differential relay interference. When the cache client needs to access data presumed to exist in the backing store, it first checks the cache. If an entry can be found with a tag matching that of the desired data, the data in the entry is used instead; this situation is known as a cache hit. For example, a web browser program might check its local cache on disk to see if it has a local copy of the contents of a web page at a particular URL. In this example, the URL is the tag, the content of the web page is the data; the percentage of accesses that result in cache hits is known as the hit rate or hit ratio of the cache. The alternative situation, when the cache is checked and found not to contain any entry with the desired tag, is known as a cache miss; this requires a more expensive access of data from the backing store. Once the requested data is retrieved, it is copied into the cache, ready for the next access.

During a cache miss, some other existing cache entry is removed in order to make room for the newly retrieved data. The heuristic used to select the entry to replace is known as the replacement policy. One popular replacement policy, "least used", replaces the oldest entry, the entry, accessed less than any other entry. More efficient caching algorithms compute the use-hit frequency against the size of the stored contents, as well as the latencies and throughputs for both the cache and the backing store; this works well for larger amounts of data, longer latencies, slower throughputs, such as that experienced with hard drives and networks, but is not efficient for use within a CPU cache. When a system writes data to cache, it must at some point write that data to the backing store as well; the timing of this write is controlled by. There are two basic writing approaches: Write-through: write is done synchronously both to the cache and to the backing store. Write-back: writing is done only to the cache.

The write to the backing store is postponed until the modified content is about to be replaced by another cache block. A write-back cache is more complex to implement, since it needs to track which of its locations have been written over, mark them as dirty for writing to the backing store; the data in these locations are written back to the backing store only when they are evicted from the cache, an effect referred to as a lazy write. For this reason, a read miss in a write-back cache will require two memory accesses to service: one to write the replaced data from the cache back to the store, one to retrieve the needed data. Other policies may trigger data write-back


Coiled-coil domain-containing 78 is a protein in humans encoded by the CCDC78 gene. It has several aliases including C16orf25, FLJ34512, CNM4, JFP10, it is located on the strand on chromosome 16. Its gene neighborhood includes NARFL, HAGHL, FAM173A, METRN; the CCDC78 gene is 10,892 base pairs long, the protein contains 438 amino acids. The protein weighs 4.852 KDal. There are several isoforms, including one indicated with a unique congenital myopathy. Several expression profiles show. Although no paralogs exist several orthologs do; the function of this gene is unknown. There is evidence; this is supported by structural similarities by localization assays. CCDC78's predicted; the gene product is found in the perinuclear region, the sarcolemmal membrane, in the reticular pattern of the sarcoplasm. However, localization assays predict it to be found in the cytoplasm. General Properties: Genomic DNA length: 10,892 bp Most common translated mRNA length: 1,317 bp 5' Untranslated region: 447 bp 3' Untranslated region: 2188 bpTranscript Variants: There are 13 known alternative splicing patterns.

These can be seen in the adjacent image. One of these is indicated in disease. General Properties: Contains two coiled-coil domains Molecular Weight: 4.852 KDal Isoelectric Point: 8.27 When looking at EST profiles in humans, CCDC78 seems to show ubiquitous expression at moderate levels. Predicted post-translational modification: Phosphorylation of several serine residues has been predicted by using tools at ExPasy. Secondary structure of CCDC78 was predicted using the protein secondary structure prediction tool PELE; as would be expected with a coiled-coil domain containing protein, there are several α-helices. The model was predicted to be 98% accurate to 65% of the protein; the predicted image can be seen below. This predicted model is related to tropomyosin - a contractile protein. Only one protein has been found to interact with CCDC78. An analysis performed from IntAct showed an interaction between CCDC78 and dAK1_1 in Yersinia pestis. CCDC78 has no known paralogs in the human genome. However, it has several orthologs in other organisms.

Orthologs can be found throughout the animal kingdom. CCDC78 is conserved in mammals; the coiled-coil domain is conserved throughout all orthologs, demonstrating the importance of these domains. A mutation in this gene has been shown to cause a unique congenital myopathy; this mutation is caused by alternative splicing - a 222 bp in-frame insertion. A group of researchers from the University of Michigan analyzed a family with a dominantly inherited congenital myopathy. After linkage analysis followed by whole-exome capture and next-generation sequencing, they found CCDC78 to be present in affected individuals and absent in >10,000 controls. They successfully modeled this congenital myopathy in zebrafish. CCDC78 has been associated with an immune response to Hepatitis B

Palmer, Nebraska

Palmer is a village in Merrick County, United States. The population was 472 at the 2010 census, it is part of Nebraska Micropolitan Statistical Area. Palmer had its start in the 1880s by the building of the Lincoln and Black Hills Railroad through that territory, it was named for a railroad official. Palmer is located at 41°13′18″N 98°15′28″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.53 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 472 people, 171 households, 115 families residing in the village; the population density was 890.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 192 housing units at an average density of 362.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 95.6% White, 0.8% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 2.3% from other races, 0.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.7% of the population. There were 171 households of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.7% were non-families.

27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.94. The median age in the village was 40.5 years. 21.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 49.6 % female. As of the census of the year 2000, there were 472 people, 189 households, 122 families residing in the village; the population density was 891.8 people per square mile. There were 202 housing units at an average density of 381.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.94% White, 0.21% Asian, 0.64% from other races, 0.21% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.69% of the population. There were 189 households out of which 30.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.4% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.98. In the village the population was spread out with 26.1% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 22.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.6 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the village was $33,676, the median income for a family was $37,969. Males had a median income of $25,673 versus $19,000 for females; the per capita income for the village was $16,589. About 9.3% of families and 8.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.9% of those under age 18 and 8.5% of those age 65 or over. Village of Palmer Site profile of Palmer, NE

Andrés Nocioni

Andrés Marcelo Nocioni is an Argentine-Italian retired professional basketball player. Early in his career he played as a small forward, but spent the latter years of his career as a power forward, he was a two-time All-EuroLeague selection before spending eight seasons in the National Basketball Association, from 2004 to 2012. Nocioni won a EuroLeague title in 2015. Nocioni was a member of Argentina's gold medal-winning team at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, as well as the Argentina squads that won the bronze medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics and the silver medal at the 2002 FIBA World Championship in Indianapolis, his jersey number 13 was retired by the Argentinian Basketball Confederation. Andrés was the second son of Pedro José "Pilo" Nocioni and Ángela Palmira Roux, both siblings born in Santa Fe although the family lived in Gálvez, 80 km south of Santa Fe, where Andrés attended school. Andrés and his wife, fellow Argentine Paula Raquel Aimonetto, have two sons and Benicio. Nocioni is known as "Chapu" after the children's TV series El Chapulín Colorado, popular in Argentina.

He holds Italian citizenships. Nocioni's professional career began in the Argentine basketball league in the 1995–96 season, in 1998–99 he was named Best Sixth Man. In 2001, Nocioni went to Vitoria-Gasteiz, where he spent three seasons as a refuerzo with Spain's TAU Cerámica of the top-tier level ACB Spanish professional league, he was the league's 2004 Most Valuable Player, his stellar play earned him an All-EuroLeague Second Team selection in 2003 and 2004. After winning the gold medal at the 2004 Olympics, Nocioni was signed as an undrafted rookie free-agent by the Chicago Bulls. Two of his countrymen, Manu Ginóbili and Carlos Delfino, were in the NBA at the time, he played in 81 games during his rookie season and posted averages of 8.3 ppg, 4.8 rpg, 1.5 apg and 23.4 mpg. Nocioni's physical style of defense created controversy around the league, he was suspended for one game after a hard foul to Detroit Pistons' Tayshaun Prince. Nocioni had committed a hard foul on the Miami Heat's Dwyane Wade and was shoved past photographers and into the first row of spectators by Udonis Haslem.

A spectator tossed a drink at Nocioni, similar to the incident that triggered Pacers–Pistons brawl at The Palace of Auburn Hills. The fan was ejected by security. For the incident, Nocioni received a technical. Haslem received an ejection. While giving a teleconference interview with, Nocioni spoke about the hard fouls and his suspension, "First, the one with Wade was my fault. It was a bad reaction on my part. If I had received any penalties because of it, it would be a fair sanction. However, the sanction set after the game against the Pistons is unfair. I see it as a real play taken out of context in the game — nothing happened, it was an accidental blow. Without purposely trying to, I hit him. I apologized on the court. I asked Carlos Delfino to give my apologies to him, so I don't understand why there is a sanction for something normal in a game." In Nocioni's first NBA playoff game, he scored 25 points and grabbed 18 rebounds while playing all 48 minutes. Due to his outstanding play, the sold-out United Center crowd in Chicago chanted his name.

This game solidified Nocioni's status as a Chicago favorite. In Nocioni's second season with the Chicago Bulls, he averaged 13.0 ppg, 6.1 rpg, 1.4 apg, while playing in all 82 games, 43 of them starts. Nocioni was named the Chicago Bulls' Player of the Year for the 2005–06 season. In the playoffs Nocioni averaged 22.8 points, 9.6 rebounds, 1.6 assists including two double-doubles. In game two against the Miami Heat he scored 30 points shooting 13–15 overall from the field, including 3–3 in from the three-point line and 1–1 in free throws, with 6 rebounds and one steal in 40 minutes played. Nocioni scored 30 points again on November 19, during the 82–72 defeat against the L. A. Lakers, he scored a career high 31 points and grabbed 13 rebounds in the December 1st 111–108 road victory against the Hornets. Nocioni missed a third of the 2006–07 NBA season due to plantar fasciitis, he returned to action late in the season on April 2007, against Toronto. Nocioni became a restricted free-agent following the 2006–07 season.

On July 6, 2007, he agreed a 5-year deal with the Chicago Bulls worth a reported $38 million. Teams that were interested in Nocioni included the Memphis Grizzlies; the deal became official on July 18, 2007. In preparation for the 2008–09 NBA season, Nocioni admitted the knee tendinitis which had hampered his performance during the 2008 Olympics was still affecting him and he had hardly done anything in between winning the bronze medal and reporting for training camp. On February 18, 2009, Nocioni was traded to the Sacramento Kings along with Drew Gooden and Cedric Simmons for John Salmons and Brad Miller. Nocioni started for the Kings the last 23 games of the 2008 -- 09 season. Sacramento was in a rebuilding process however, Nocioni requested a trade following a decrease in playing time. After the season ended, on June 17, 2010, Nocioni was traded to the Philadelphia 76ers along with Spencer Hawes for Samuel Dalembert. On December 29, 2010, he scored a season-high 22 points to go along with 12 rebounds, in a 123-110 win over the Phoenix Suns.

During the 2011 NBA lockout, Nocioni trained with Peñarol de Mar del Plata while waiting for the situation to resolve itself. With the announcement of the NBPA to dissolve the

B67 (New York City bus)

The Seventh Avenue Line is a public transit line in Brooklyn, New York City, United States. It serves the B67 bus of MTA Regional Bus Operations; the B67 is dispatched out of the Jackie Gleason Depot in Brooklyn. The B67 route starts at McDonald Avenue and Cortelyou Road in Kensington, near the Ditmas Avenue station on the New York City Subway's IND Culver Line; this terminus is shared with the B69. The two routes continue up McDonald Avenue passing the Church Avenue station, connecting with the B35. North of Albemarle Road, the Culver Line turns away from McDonald Avenue and runs to 20th Street, where it runs northwest on 20th Street to 7th Avenue. Here, buses run up the corridor. At Ninth Street there is a transfer to the Culver Line's Seventh Avenue station. Both routes continue up Seventh Avenue until Seventh Avenue meets Flatbush Avenue, at the Seventh Avenue station on the BMT Brighton Line. At this location, the B69 turns south towards Grand Army Plaza, while the B67 continues up Flatbush Avenue with the B41.

The line heads into Downtown Brooklyn, interchanging with the B45 at the Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center station by the Atlantic Terminal mall and adjacent LIRR station. All routes head past the Barclays Center, making no stops, until it reaches Livingston Street where buses turn onto Livingston to head into Downtown Brooklyn; the B67 serves the Jay Street -- MetroTech station. This stop is shared by the B62 buses, which split off from Jay Street at Tillary Street; the B67 continues along Jay Street, paralleling the IND Sixth Avenue Line to the York Street station, where it enters Dumbo. Once in Dumbo, B67 buses meander through several streets until it turns south onto Gold Street and east onto Sands Street; the line continues via Sands Street until it reaches the Brooklyn Navy Yard, where buses enter through its Sands Street gate. Once in the yard, buses travel via several streets, making two stops until it exits the yard at Clymer Street and Kent Avenue in Williamsburg, where it runs north to its terminus at Division Street and Wythe Avenue.

On weekdays, buses travel the full route from Kensington to Williamsburg, via the Brooklyn Navy Yard to serve Dumbo and Vinegar Hill. On weekends, the northern terminal of the line is at Jay Street and Sands Street, does not continue into Williamsburg. There is no overnight service. Seventh Avenue horse cars were replaced with electric trolleys on July 17, 1893; the route was a streetcar line until February 11, 1951, when the line was replaced with a bus route, designated "B-67". In June 2010, late night service was discontinued, the B69 bus was rerouted along Seventh Avenue south of the Brighton Line, all in part of the budget cuts. Service was reduced on both routes so the service on Seventh Avenue was similar to before. On September 9, 2013, the route was extended into South Williamsburg via the Brooklyn Navy Yard and Vinegar Hill to serve new economic activity. Along with Downtown Brooklyn, both Dumbo and the Brooklyn Navy Yard are part of the Brooklyn Tech Triangle, a cluster of economic activity occurring in Brooklyn

FK Viktoria Žižkov

FK Viktoria Žižkov is one of the oldest football clubs in the Czech Republic, from Žižkov. It plays in the second tier of football in the country; the club won the Czechoslovak First League title in the 1927–28 season. It has won two editions of the Czech Cup; the team was founded in 1903 in the town of Žižkov. Viktoria's main successes fall into the period between the world wars — until 1948 it was the third most successful Czechoslovak club, winning the Czechoslovak championship in 1928 and finishing as runners-up in 1929, it won the Czechoslovak Cup in 1913, 1914, 1916, 1921, 1929, 1933, 1940, came runners-up in 1919 and 1920. It successes gained international recognition as a result, giving the name to the Polish club Victoria Jaworzno. After the Second World War and the beginning of communism in 1948 the club descended to the lower leagues and they didn't rejoin the top flight until 1993. In the 1950s the club underwent several name changes as a result of which the club lost its historic name Viktoria.

In 1993 Viktoria was promoted again to the highest league as a result of the Velvet Divorce and the Slovak clubs walking away to form their own league. Viktoria was successful between 1993 and 2003, competing in four European cups. Žižkov has won the national knock-out cup for the eighth time in 1994 and finished as runners-up in 1995. In 2001 Viktoria Žižkov won their ninth cup in history followed by knocking Scottish team Rangers out of the UEFA Cup in 2002, going through on the away goals rule after extra time at Ibrox; the team finished third in the league on two more occasions, in 2002 and 2003. In 2004, after a string of poor results and a corruption scandal, the team was relegated again to the second league. In 2007 the team made it back to the Czech First League, finishing the season as runaway champions of the 2nd league. After finishing mid-table in their first season back in the top flight, in 2009 they were relegated back to the second league after struggling all season, bouncing back to the top flight by again gaining promotion from the 2nd league, this time as Runners-up, two seasons later.

Žižkov's first season back in the Czech First League proved to be one of successful consolidation, the team finishing in a creditable 10th place, whilst reaching the quarter final stage of the knock out cup. One of the highlights of the season was a 3–0 away win at Slavia, inflicting their only home defeat on the eventual champions. A 1–1 pre-Christmas home draw with Slavia was just as important however, the point being gained with a last minute Richard Kalod goal. Žižkov's home form was the mainstay of their season, indeed they won 5 of their 7 post-Christmas matches. The final game of the season saw them gain a 1–0 victory over Mladá Boleslav, with another Kalod goal, thereby gaining their only double of the season, having gained a 1–0 win against Boleslav on the opening day of the season. Top scorer for the season was Petr Švancara. Petr Švancara won Czech Television's goal of 2008, with his stunning individual effort to open the scoring in Žižkov's 4–2 home victory against FK Bohemians Prague.

This proved to be one of the few highlights in a disappointing season that saw Žižkov finish bottom of the league and hence relegated to the 2nd league once more. During the season three different managers were employed, which did not help continuity; however the departure of good quality younger players, such as Ondřej Kušnír to Sparta Prague, at the start of the season, to be replaced by older, players was a major factor. Žižkov gained promotion from the 2nd league by finishing as runners-up to FK Dukla Prague. The main strength of their promotion push turned out to be away performances, which were by far the best in the league; some poor early season home performances threatened to unship the promotion push but these picked up in the latter part of the season, a 1–0 win over MFK Karviná, with a late goal by team captain Tomáš Procházka being hailed as a critical victory. Star player of the season was undoubtedly Czech U21 goalkeeper Tomáš Vaclík. Of note were the performances of Miroslav Marković who finished as the club's top scorer for the season and second in the league overall, who departed after the end of the season.

Žižkov parted company with coach Martin Pulpit on 23 November with the club having scored just seven points from the opening 14 rounds of the 2011–12 Czech First League. In January, with the club bottom of the league, it was revealed that only ten players from the first half of the season were still at the club. A particular loss was goalkeeper Tomáš Vaclík moving to Sparta Prague. Žižkov finished bottom of the league with 19 points, were relegated to the second division. 1903 – Sportovní kroužek Viktoria Žižkov 1904 – SK Viktoria Žižkov 1950 – Sokol Viktoria Žižkov 1951 – Sokol ČSAD Žižkov 1952 – TJ Slavoj Žižkov 1965 – TJ Viktoria Žižkov 1973 – TJ Viktoria Žižkov Strojimport 1982 – TJ Viktoria Žižkov PSO 1992 – FK Viktoria Žižkov Viktoria's ground, FK Viktoria Stadion, is situated on Seifertova třída, just a short walk from Prague's main railway station. It has a capacity of 5,037. In 2007 the club opened a fanshop at the ground for the sale of club mementos; as of 11 January 2020. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.

Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one