Center axle disconnect
A center axle disconnect system or CAD is an alternative to locking hubs. CAD systems are used in front drive axles on four wheel drive vehicles. A CAD system works by having an axle shaft split into two pieces. One piece is connected to the other connected to the wheel; this reduces drag on the axle by allowing only the spider and side gears to spin, while the differential carrier and drive shaft are at rest. The axle is engaged by connecting the two split axle shafts; the ends of the axles are splined and use a collar to connect the two shafts together by sliding over both shafts. Although a used system, this system is not as efficient as a system with locking hubs. A CAD system spins the axle shafts, spider gears, side gears in the carrier during normal driving. Locking hubs disengage the axle at the wheels, allowing all of the axle to be at rest during normal driving. A CAD system still makes for much less drag than having the axle locked in. Like locking hubs, the CAD system is designed to improve fuel efficiency of the vehicle.
Other debated, benefits of CAD systems are reduced vibration, axle wear, noise, as well as improved steering and drivability. Unlike locking hubs, CAD systems are automatic and engaged when the vehicle is placed in four wheel drive. Due to the lack of driver control over the CAD, it is not as well known to the public as manual locking hubs are. Locking hubs are obtrusive and damage can occur that can cause the four wheel drive system to fail — damage that would not be an issue in a CAD system; however CAD systems are vacuum controlled and damage can occur to the vacuum system and to the CAD itself. Rotting of vacuum lines will cause the four wheel drive system to fail — damage that would not be an issue with locking hubs. Ram Trucks used the CAD from 1994-2001. In 2002 it was phased out of the 3500, leaving some late models without a CAD system. Ram 2013 model year trucks began using a CAD system again, this time electronically controlled instead of vacuum. 4x4Wire: Center Axle Disconect Function and Trail Repair Explained.
G2 Axle & Gear: A Thru D on Gear & Axle-related products
Collision-induced dissociation known as collisionally activated dissociation, is a mass spectrometry technique to induce fragmentation of selected ions in the gas phase. The selected ions are accelerated by applying an electrical potential to increase the ion kinetic energy and allowed to collide with neutral molecules. In the collision some of the kinetic energy is converted into internal energy which results in bond breakage and the fragmentation of the molecular ion into smaller fragments; these fragment ions can be analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. CID and the fragment ions produced by CID are used for several purposes. Partial or complete structural determination can be achieved. In some cases identity can be established based on previous knowledge without determining structure. Another use is in achieving more sensitive and specific detection. By detecting a unique fragment ion, the precursor ion can be detected in the presence of other ions of the mass-to-charge ratio, reducing the background and increasing the limit of detection.
Low-energy CID is carried out with ion kinetic energies less than 1 kiloelectron volt. Low-energy CID is efficient in fragmenting the selected precursor ions, but the type of fragment ions observed in low-energy CID is dependent on the ion kinetic energy. Low collision energies favor ion structure rearrangement, the probability of direct bond cleavage increases as ion kinetic energy increases, leading to higher ion internal energies. High-energy CID is carried out in magnetic sector mass spectrometers or tandem magnetic sector mass spectrometers and in tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometers. High-energy CID involves ion kinetic energies in the kilovolt range. High-energy CID can produce some types of fragment ions that are not formed in low-energy CID, such as charge-remote fragmentation in molecules with hydrocarbon substructures or sidechain fragmentation in peptides. In a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer there are three quadrupoles; the first quadrupole termed "Q1" can act as a mass filter and transmits a selected ion and accelerates it towards "Q2", termed a collision cell.
The pressure in Q2 is higher and the ions collides with neutral gas in the collision cell and is fragmented by CID. The fragments are accelerated out of the collision cell and enter Q3 which scans through the mass range, analyzing the resulting fragments; this produces a mass spectrum of the CID fragments from which structural information or identity can be gained. Many other experiments using CID on a triple quadrupole exist such as precursor ion scans that determines where a specific fragment came from rather than what fragments are produced by a given molecule. Ions trapped in the ICR cell can be excited by applying pulsed electric fields at their resonant frequency to increase their kinetic energy; the duration and amplitude of the pulse determines the ion kinetic energy. Because a collision gas present at low pressure requires a long time for excited ions to collide with neutral molecules, a pulsed valve can be used to introduce a short burst of collision gas. Trapped fragment ions or their ion-molecule reaction products can be re-excited for multistage mass spectrometry.
If the excitation is not applied on the resonant frequency, but at a off-resonant frequency, the ions will alternately be excited and de-excited, permitting multiple collisions at low collision energy. Sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation is a CID technique used in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry which involves accelerating the ions in cyclotron motion in the presence of a collision gas. Higher-energy collisional dissociation is a CID technique specific to the orbitrap mass spectrometer in which fragmentation takes place external to the trap. HCD was known as higher-energy C-trap dissociation. In HCD, the ions pass through the C-trap and into the HCD cell, an added multipole collision cell, where dissociation takes place; the ions are returned to the C-trap before injection into the orbitrap for mass analysis. HCD does not suffer from the low mass cutoff of resonant-excitation and therefore is useful for isobaric tag–based quantification as reporter ions can be observed.
Despite the name, the collision energy of HCD is in the regime of low energy collision induced dissociation. Homolytic fragmentation is bond dissociation where each of the fragments retains one of the originally-bonded electrons. Heterolytic fragmentation is bond cleavage where the bonding electrons remain with only one of the fragment species. In CID, charge remote fragmentation is a type of covalent bond breaking that occurs in a gas phase ion in which the cleaved bond is not adjacent to the location of the charge; this fragmentation can be observed using tandem mass spectrometry. Electron-capture dissociation Electron-transfer dissociation Infrared multiphoton dissociation
Cold air damming, or CAD, is a meteorological phenomenon that involves a high-pressure system accelerating equatorward east of a north-south oriented mountain range due to the formation of a barrier jet behind a cold front associated with the poleward portion of a split upper level trough. A high-pressure system moves poleward of a north-south mountain range. Once it sloshes over poleward and eastward of the range, the flow around the high banks up against the mountains, forming a barrier jet which funnels cool air down a stretch of land east of the mountains; the higher the mountain chain, the deeper the cold air mass becomes lodged to its east, the greater impediment it is within the flow pattern and the more resistant it becomes to intrusions of milder air. As the equatorward portion of the system approaches the cold air wedge, persistent low cloudiness, such as stratus, precipitation such as drizzle develop, which can linger for long periods of time; the precipitation itself can create or enhance a damming signature, if the poleward high is weak.
If such events accelerate through mountain passes, dangerously accelerated mountain-gap winds can result, such as the Tehuantepecer and Santa Ana winds. These events are seen in the northern Hemisphere across central and eastern North America, south of the Alps in Italy, near Taiwan and Korea in Asia. Events in the southern Hemisphere have been noted in South America east of the Andes. Cold air damming happens in the mid-latitudes as this region lies within the Westerlies, an area where frontal intrusions are common; when the Arctic oscillation is negative and pressures are higher over the poles, the flow is more meridional, blowing from the direction of the pole towards the equator, which brings cold air into the mid-latitudes. Cold air damming is observed in the southern hemisphere to the east of the Andes, with cool incursions seen as far equatorward as the 10th parallel south. In the northern hemisphere, common situations occur along the east side of ranges within the Rocky Mountains system over the western portions of the Great Plains, as well as various other mountain ranges along the west coast of the United States.
The initial is caused by the poleward portion of a split upper level trough, with the damming preceding the arrival of the more equatorward portion. Some of the cold air damming events which occur east of the Rockies continue southward to the east of the Sierra Madre Oriental through the coastal plain of Mexico through the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Further funneling of cool air occurs within the Isthmus, which can lead to winds of gale and hurricane-force, referred to as a Tehuantepecer. Other common instances of cold air damming take place on the coastal plain of east-central North America, between the Appalachian Mountains and Atlantic Ocean. In Europe, areas south of the Alps can be prone to cold air damming. In Asia, cold air damming has been documented near the Korean Peninsula; the cold surges on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, New Zealand, eastern Asia differ from the cold air damming east of the Appalachians due to the wider mountain ranges, sloping terrain, lack of an eastern body of warm water.
The usual development of CAD is when a cool high-pressure area wedges in east of a north-south oriented mountain chain. As a system approaches from the west, a persistent cloud deck with associated precipitation forms and lingers across the region for prolonged periods of time. Temperature differences between the warmer coast and inland sections east of the terrain can exceed 36 degrees Fahrenheit, with rain near the coast and frozen precipitation, such as snow and freezing rain, falling inland during colder times of the year. In the Northern Hemisphere, two-thirds of such events occur between October and April, with summer events preceded by the passage of a backdoor cold front. In the Southern Hemisphere, they have been documented to occur between November. Cold air damming events which occur when the parent surface high-pressure system is weak, with a central pressure below 1,028.0 millibars, or remaining a progressive feature, can be enhanced by cloudiness and precipitation itself. Clouds and precipitation act to increase sea level pressure in the area by 1.5 to 2.0 mb.
When the surface high moves offshore, the precipitation itself can cause the CAD event. ∇ 2 x = x 3 − x 2 d 2 − 3 − x 2 − x 1 d 1 − 2 1 2 This algorithm is used to identify the specific type of CAD events based on the surface pressure ridge, its associated cold dome, ageostrophic northeasterly flow which flows at a significant angle to the isobaric pattern. These values are calculated using hourly data from surface weather observations; the Laplacian of sea level pressure or potential temperature in the mountain-normal—perpendicular to the mountai
The simple-station CAD is part of the TransMilenio mass-transit system of Bogotá, opened in the year 2000. The station is located in western-downtown Bogotá on the Avenida NQS with entrances on Avenida de Las Américas and Calle 22B; this station opened in 2005 as part of the second line of phase two of TransMilenio construction, opening service to Avenida NQS. It serves the demand of the Clinca San Pedro Claver, the Centro Administrativo Distrital, the surrounding neighborhoods; the station is named CAD due to its proximity to the District Administrative offices. This station does not have connections to feeder routes; this station does not have inter-city service. Bogotá TransMilenio List of TransMilenio Stations
Rake (stock character)
In a historical context, a rake was a man, habituated to immoral conduct womanising. A rake was prodigal, wasting his fortune on gambling, wine and song, incurring lavish debts in the process. Comparable terms are "libertine" and "debauchee"; the Restoration rake was a carefree, sexually irresistible aristocrat whose heyday was during the English Restoration period at the court of Charles II. They were typified by the "Merry Gang" of courtiers, who included as prominent members the Earl of Rochester. At this time the rake featured as a stock character in Restoration comedy. After the reign of Charles II, after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the cultural perception of the rake took a dive into squalor; the rake became the butt of moralistic tales, in which his typical fate was debtor's prison, venereal disease, or, in the case of William Hogarth's A Rake's Progress, insanity in Bedlam. The defining period of the rake was at the court of Charles II in the late seventeenth century. Dubbed the "Merry Gang" by poet Andrew Marvell, their members included King Charles himself.
Following the tone set by the monarch himself, these men distinguished themselves in drinking and witty conversation, with the Earl of Rochester outdoing all the rest. Many of them were inveterate brawlers; some were duelists, but not to the approval of King Charles. Highlights of their careers include Sedley and the Earl of Dorset preaching naked to a crowd from an alehouse balcony in Covent Garden, as they simulated sex with each other, the lowlight was Buckingham's killing of Francis Talbot, 11th Earl of Shrewsbury in a duel for the latter's wife. In 1682 Thomas Wharton, 5th Baron Wharton, broke into a church at night and relieved himself against the communion table and in the pulpit. A group of aristocratic rakes were associated with the Hell Fire Club in the eighteenth century; these included John Wilkes. Other rakes include Colonel Charteris. On the whole, rakes may be subdivided into the penitent and persistent ones, the first being reformed by the heroine, the latter pursuing their immoral conduct.
Libertinistic attitudes, such as licentiousness, alcoholism and gaming, can be discerned in characters belonging to the satiric norm as well as to the satiric scene. However, only the degree of wit brings the rakish gentleman, the Truewit, closer to the satiric norm, whereas Falsewits are always exploded in the satiric scene; the motivation of a rake to change his libertinistic ways is either honest. In other words, penitent rakes among the falsewits only abandon their way of life for financial reasons, while penitent truewits so succumb to the charms of the witty heroine and, at least, go through the motions of vowing constancy. Another typology distinguishes between the "polite rake" and the "debauch", using criteria of social class and style. In this case, the young and well-bred male character, who dominates the drawing rooms, is in sharp contrast to a contemptible debauch, who indulges in fornication and hypocrisy. Still other assessments of the libertine concentrate on the kind and intensity of libertinistic demeanour.
Here, the rake falls into any one of three categories: extravagant libertine, vicious libertine, philosophical libertine. The extravagant rake is characterised by anti-normative conduct throughout though he settles down in matrimony. Between 1663 and 1668, examples are Wellbred in James Howard's The English Mounsieur, Philidor in James Howard's All Mistaken, Celadon in Dryden's Secret Love. In the 1690s, Sir Harry Wildair in George Farquhar's The Constant Couple represents this kind of gentlemanly rake; the extravagant rake is as promiscuous and impulsive as he is wild and frivolous, he finds his match in an extravagant and witty heroine. He is, above all, a self-aware character who "is what he wants to be", who delights in those qualities "with which he is endowed", who provides "carnival release". Thus, the extravagant rake is a comic figure, but he is never a comic fool. The vicious rake is invariably presented as a despicable, if wealthy person, who thrives on scheming and intrigue, he is married and abuses his wife.
The philosophical rake, the most attractive libertine figure, is characterised by self-control and refined behaviour as well as by a capacity for manipulating others. His pronounced libertinistic leanings are not supposed to contribute anything to the comic development of the plot. Rather, his libertinism is serious, thus reflecting the philosophical principles of the pleasure-seeking, cynical Court Wits, it is this kind of libertinism that has secured the notoriety of, William Wycherley's The Country Wife, George Etherege's The Man of Mode, Sir Charles Sedley's Bellamira: or, The Mistress. Not only characters like Horner and Dorimant spring to mind but Rodophil and Palamede in Dryden's Marriage-a-la-Mode and Bruce in Shadwell's The Virtuoso and the eponymous heroine in Sedley'
Computer-aided dispatch called computer-assisted dispatch, is a method of dispatching taxicabs, field service technicians, mass transit vehicles or emergency services assisted by computer. It can either be used to send messages to the dispatchee via a mobile data terminal and/or used to store and retrieve data. A dispatcher may announce the call details to field units over a two-way radio; some systems communicate using a two-way radio system's selective calling features. CAD systems may send text messages with call-for-service details to alphanumeric pagers or wireless telephony text services like SMS; the central idea is that persons in a dispatch center are able to view and understand the status of all units being dispatched. CAD provides displays and tools so that the dispatcher has an opportunity to handle calls-for-service as efficiently as possible. CAD consists of a suite of software packages used to initiate public safety calls for service and maintain the status of responding resources in the field.
It is used by emergency communications dispatchers, call-takers, 911 operators in centralized, public-safety call centers, as well as by field personnel utilizing mobile data terminals or mobile data computers. CAD systems consist of several modules that provide services at multiple levels in a dispatch center and in the field of public safety; these services include call input, call dispatching, call status maintenance, event notes, field unit status and tracking, call resolution and disposition. CAD systems include interfaces that permit the software to provide services to dispatchers and field personnel with respect to control and use of analog radio and telephone equipment, as well as logger-recorder functions. Computer-assisted dispatch systems use one or more servers located in a central dispatch office, which communicate with computer terminals in a communications center or with mobile data terminals installed in vehicles. There are a multitude of CAD programs that suit different department needs, but the fundamentals of each system are the same.
They include: Log on/off times of police personnel Generating and archiving incidents that begin with a phone call from a citizen or originate from personnel in the field Assigning field personnel to incidents Updating Incidents and logging those updates Generating case numbers for incidents that require an investigation Timestamping every action taken by the dispatcher at the terminalIn an ideal setting, a call is received by a call-taker and information about the call is inputted into the CAD template. Location, reporting party and incident are the main fields that have to be populated by type-codes. For example, if there was a burglary in progress, the type-code for that incident could be "BURG". If the location was at the 1400 block of Madison, the type-code could be "14MAD." The reporting party information would be populated by the call-taker including last name, first name, call-back number, etc. A typical CAD printout looks something like this based on the example above: ----------------------------------- LOCATION - 1400 Madison RP - Doe, John, 555-5555, 1404 Madison INCIDENT - BURGLARY SYNOPSIS - "Caller reports a possible burglary in progress based on seeing individuals inside the residence/Caller advises 2 persons inside the location and call advises the current residents are on vacation."
----------------------------------- Again, granted as it can be seen that the fields are spelled out, the call-taker uses those abbreviations that are predetermined in order to gather and transmit the information. The dispatcher receives the call from the call-taker and is able dispatch the call to those available; the dispatcher's screen would show the available personnel. A typical setting can be exemplified by this: ----------------------------------- INCIDENT # - 110001 LOCATION - 1400 Madison RP - Doe, John, 555-5555 INCIDENT - BURGLARY SYNOPSIS - "Caller reports a possible burglary in progress based on seeing individuals inside the residence/Caller advises 2 persons inside the location and call advises the current residents are on vacation." UNITS - 746, 749 ----------------------------------- Units available - Units out of service - 745 - Avail. 746 - Not Avail. Inc # 554121 747 - Avail. 748 - Avail. 749 - Not Avail. Inc # 554122 ----------------------------------- Everything, gathered and disposed is stored in a central server in which the type codes reside, or another server.
All of these calls which have incident numbers attached to them can be recalled by an internal search engine. For example, a request for a printout of all calls to Madison in the past hour could be gathered by querying the CAD program by location: Search by: Location LOCATION --- Result: Search by: Location LOCATION --- Result: Incidents CAD can be used in a multitude of ways, whether it is for radio logs, call logs or statistical analysis. Typical of local government dispatching facilities, the Denver RTD's facility is one example of a transit dispatch center. Communications consoles are mounted in desk-style electronics racks. Features include multi-line telephones. Modern facilities include a variety of computing systems for operational and administrative purposes. Consoles connect to push-to-talk dispatch radio systems. Audio from all channels is processed through audio level compression circuits and is routed to two separate