Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer and literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories his tales of mystery and the macabre, he is regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and of American literature as a whole, he was one of the country's earliest practitioners of the short story. He is considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre and is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction, he was the first well-known American writer to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career. Poe was born in the second child of actors David and Elizabeth "Eliza" Arnold Hopkins Poe, his father abandoned the family in 1810, his mother died the following year. Thus orphaned, the child was taken in by Frances Allan of Richmond, Virginia, they never formally adopted him. Tension developed as John Allan and Poe clashed over debts, including those incurred by gambling, the cost of Poe's secondary education.
He left after a year due to lack of money. Poe quarreled with Allan over the funds for his education and enlisted in the Army in 1827 under an assumed name, it was at this time that his publishing career began with the anonymous collection Tamerlane and Other Poems, credited only to "a Bostonian". Poe and Allan reached a temporary rapprochement after the death of Frances Allan in 1829. Poe failed as an officer cadet at West Point, declaring a firm wish to be a poet and writer, he parted ways with John Allan. Poe switched his focus to prose and spent the next several years working for literary journals and periodicals, becoming known for his own style of literary criticism, his work forced him to move among several cities, including Baltimore and New York City. He married Virginia Clemm in his 13-year-old cousin. In January 1845, Poe published his poem "The Raven" to instant success, but Virginia died of tuberculosis two years after its publication. Poe planned for years to produce his own journal The Penn.
He died in Baltimore on October 7, 1849, at age 40. Poe and his works influenced literature around the world, as well as specialized fields such as cosmology and cryptography, he and his work appear throughout popular culture in literature, music and television. A number of his homes are dedicated museums today; the Mystery Writers of America present an annual award known as the Edgar Award for distinguished work in the mystery genre. He was born Edgar Poe in Boston on January 19, 1809, the second child of English-born actress Elizabeth Arnold Hopkins Poe and actor David Poe Jr, he had a younger sister Rosalie Poe. Their grandfather David Poe Sr. had immigrated from County Cavan, Ireland around 1750. Edgar may have been named after a character in William Shakespeare's King Lear which the couple were performing in 1809, his father abandoned the family in 1810, his mother died a year from consumption. Poe was taken into the home of John Allan, a successful merchant in Richmond, Virginia who dealt in a variety of goods, including tobacco, wheat and slaves.
The Allans served as a foster family and gave him the name "Edgar Allan Poe", though they never formally adopted him. The Allan family had Poe baptized in the Episcopal Church in 1812. John Allan alternately spoiled and aggressively disciplined his foster son; the family sailed to Britain in 1815, Poe attended the grammar school for a short period in Irvine, Scotland before rejoining the family in London in 1816. There he studied at a boarding school in Chelsea until summer 1817, he was subsequently entered at the Reverend John Bransby's Manor House School at Stoke Newington a suburb 4 miles north of London. Poe moved with the Allans back to Richmond, Virginia in 1820. In 1824, he served as the lieutenant of the Richmond youth honor guard as Richmond celebrated the visit of the Marquis de Lafayette. In March 1825, John Allan's uncle and business benefactor William Galt died, said to be one of the wealthiest men in Richmond, leaving Allan several acres of real estate; the inheritance was estimated at $750,000.
By summer 1825, Allan celebrated his expansive wealth by purchasing a two-story brick home named Moldavia. Poe may have become engaged to Sarah Elmira Royster before he registered at the University of Virginia in February 1826 to study ancient and modern languages; the university was in its infancy, established on the ideals of its founder Thomas Jefferson. It had strict rules against gambling, guns and alcohol, but these rules were ignored. Jefferson had enacted a system of student self-government, allowing students to choose their own studies, make their own arrangements for boarding, report all wrongdoing to the faculty; the unique system was still in chaos, there was a high dropout rate. During his time there, Poe lost touch with Royster and became estranged from his foster father over gambling debts, he claimed that Allan had not given him sufficient money to register for classes, purchase texts, procure and furnish a dormitory. Allan did send additional money and clothes, he gave up on the university after a year but did not feel welco
The Raven (1963 film)
The Raven is a 1963 American independent B movie/horror-comedy film produced and directed by Roger Corman. The film stars Vincent Price, Peter Lorre, Boris Karloff as a trio of rival sorcerers; the supporting cast features a young Jack Nicholson as Lorre's character's son. It was the fifth in the so-called Corman-Poe cycle of eight films featuring adaptations of Edgar Allan Poe stories produced by Roger Corman and released by AIP; the film was written by Richard Matheson, based on references to Poe's poem "The Raven". Three decades earlier, Karloff had appeared in another film with the same title, Lew Landers's 1935 horror film The Raven with Bela Lugosi. Set during the 15th century, the sorcerer Dr. Erasmus Craven has been mourning the death of his wife Lenore for over two years, much to the chagrin of his daughter Estelle. One night he is visited by a raven, who happens to be Dr. Bedlo. Together they brew a potion. Bedlo explains he had been transformed by the evil Dr. Scarabus in an unfair duel, both decide to see Scarabus, Bedlo to exact revenge and Craven to look for his wife's ghost, which Bedlo saw at Scarabus' castle.
After fighting off the attack of Craven's coachman, who acted under the influence of Scarabus, they set out to the castle, joined by Craven's daughter Estelle and Bedlo's son Rexford. At the castle, Scarabus greets his guests with false friendship, Bedlo is killed as he conjures a storm in a last act of defiance against his nemesis. At night, Rexford finds hiding in the castle. Craven, meanwhile, is visited and tormented by Lenore, revealed to be alive and well too, having faked her death two years before to move away with Scarabus; as Craven, Estelle and Bedlo try to escape the castle, Scarabus stops them, they are imprisoned. Bedlo begs Scarabus to turn him back into a raven rather than torture him. Craven is forced to choose between surrendering his magical secrets to Scarabus or watching his daughter be tortured. Bedlo secretly returns, frees Rexford, together they aid Craven. Craven and Scarabus engage in a magic duel. After a lengthy performance of attacks and insults, during which Scarabus sets the castle on fire, Craven defeats Scarabus.
Lenore tries to reconcile with him, claiming that she had been bewitched by Scarabus, but Craven rejects her. Craven, Bedlo and Rexford escape the burning castle just as it collapses on Scarabus and his mistress; the miscreants survive. In a final "pun", Bedlo tries to convince Craven to again restore his human form. Craven tells him to shut his beak, says, "Quoth the raven – nevermore." Vincent Price as Dr. Erasmus Craven Peter Lorre as Dr. Adolphus Bedlo Boris Karloff as Dr. Scarabus Hazel Court as Lenore Craven Olive Sturgess as Estelle Craven Jack Nicholson as Rexford Bedlo Connie Wallace as Maid William Baskin as Grimes Aaron Saxon as Gort Roger Corman and Richard Matheson had both enjoyed making the comic "The Black Cat" episode of Tales of Terror and wanted to try an comic Poe feature."After I heard they wanted to make a movie out of a poem, I felt, an utter joke, so comedy was the only way to go with it," said Matheson. The movie was shot in 15 days. Roger Corman said that although they kept to the structure and story script, "We did more improvisation on that film than any of the others."
The improvisation was in bits of business from the actors. During shooting, Peter Lorre ad-libbed a number of famous lines in the film including: "How the hell should I know?", after Vincent Price asks "shall I see the rare and radiant Lenore again?" "Where else?" after Vincent Price says "I keep her here." "Hard place to keep clean."Roger Corman says that Lorre's improvisations confused both Vincent Price and Boris Karloff, but Price adapted to it well while Karloff struggled. Corman: Overall I would say we had as good a spirit on The Raven as any film I've worked on, except for a couple of moments with Boris. There was a slight edge to it, because Boris came in with a worked out preparation, so when Peter started improvising lines, it threw Boris off from his preparation. Corman says the hostility between Jack Nicholson and Peter Lorre as father and son came from the actors rather than the script. Vincent Price recalled about the final duel: Boris hated being strung up in the air on those chairs.
He was crippled, we were both floating in the air on these wires. It wasn't a pleasant feeling! And I hated having that snake wrapped around my neck for two hours... I hate snakes. Boris Karloff said he was annoyed at having to wear the heavy cape. Bosley Crowther of The New York Times panned the film as "comic-book nonsense... Strickly a picture for the kiddies and the bird-brained, quote the critic." Variety wrote that while Poe "might turn over in his crypt at this nonsensical adaptation of his immortal poem," Corman "takes this premise and develops it expertly as a horror-comedy." The Chicago Tribune called it "fairly thin fare, made up of camera tricks, some obviously false scenery, but Peter Lorre's performance is mildly entertaining. Youngsters may find it fun." A positive review in The Monthly Film Bulletin wrote that the film "starts off with the inestimable advantage of a script which not only makes it amply clear from the outset, cheerfully and wholeheartedly sending himself up, but manages to do it
"Jabberwocky" is a nonsense poem written by Lewis Carroll about the killing of a creature named "the Jabberwock". It was included in his 1871 novel Through the Looking-Glass, What Alice Found There, the sequel to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland; the book tells of Alice's adventures within the back-to-front world of Looking-Glass Land. In an early scene in which she first encounters the chess piece characters White King and White Queen, Alice finds a book written in a unintelligible language. Realizing that she is travelling through an inverted world, she recognises that the verses on the pages are written in mirror-writing, she holds a mirror to one of the poems and reads the reflected verse of "Jabberwocky". She finds the nonsense verse as puzzling as the odd land she has passed into revealed as a dreamscape."Jabberwocky" is considered one of the greatest nonsense poems written in English. Its playful, whimsical language has given English nonsense words and neologisms such as "galumphing" and "chortle".
A decade before the publication of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and the sequel Through the Looking-Glass, Carroll wrote the first stanza to what would become "Jabberwocky" while in Croft on Tees, close to Darlington, where he lived as a child. It was printed in 1855 in Mischmasch, a periodical he wrote and illustrated for the amusement of his family; the piece was titled "Stanza of Anglo-Saxon Poetry" and read: Carroll wrote the letter-combination ye throughout the poem instead of the word the, using the letter Y in place of the letter þ in combination with the superscript E, as in þe, a common abbreviation for the word the in middle and early modern English to create a pseudo-archaic impression. The rest of the poem was written during Carroll's stay near Sunderland; the story may have been inspired by the local Sunderland area legend of the Lambton Worm, the tale of the Sockburn Worm while writing in Croft on Tees and Whitburn in Sockburn. The concept of nonsense verse was not original to Carroll, who would have known of chapbooks such as The World Turned Upside Down and stories such as "The Great Panjandrum".
Nonsense existed in Shakespeare's work and was well-known in the Brothers Grimm's fairytales, some of which are called lying tales or lügenmärchen. Roger Lancelyn Green suggests that "Jabberwocky" is a parody of the old German ballad "The Shepherd of the Giant Mountains" in which a shepherd kills a griffin, attacking his sheep; the ballad had been translated into English in blank verse by Carroll's cousin Menella Bute Smedley in 1846, many years before the appearance of the Alice books. Historian Sean B. Palmer suggests that Carroll was inspired by a section from Shakespeare's Hamlet, citing the lines: "The graves stood tenantless, the sheeted dead/Did squeak and gibber in the Roman streets" from Act I, Scene i. John Tenniel reluctantly agreed to illustrate the book in 1871, his illustrations are still the defining images of the poem; the illustration of the Jabberwock may reflect the contemporary Victorian obsession with natural history and the fast-evolving sciences of palaeontology and geology.
Stephen Prickett notes that in the context of Darwin and Mantell's publications and vast exhibitions of dinosaurs, such as those at the Crystal Palace from 1854, it is unsurprising that Tenniel gave the Jabberwock "the leathery wings of a pterodactyl and the long scaly neck and tail of a sauropod." Many of the words in the poem are playful nonce words of Carroll's own invention, without intended explicit meaning. When Alice has finished reading the poem she gives her impressions: "It seems pretty," she said when she had finished it, "but it's rather hard to understand!" "Somehow it seems to fill my head with ideas—only I don't know what they are! However, somebody killed something: that's clear, at any rate." This may reflect Carroll's intention for his readership. In writings he discussed some of his lexicon, commenting that he did not know the specific meanings or sources of some of the words. In Through the Looking-Glass, the character of Humpty Dumpty, in response to Alice's request, explains to her the non-sense words from the first stanza of the poem.
For example, following the poem, a "rath" is described by Humpty as "a sort of green pig". Carroll's notes for the original in Mischmasch suggest a "rath" is "a species of Badger" that "lived chiefly on cheese" and had smooth white hair, long hind legs, short horns like a stag; the appendices to certain Looking Glass editions, state that the creature is "a species of land turtle" that lived on swallows and oysters. Critics added their own interpretations of the lexicon without reference to Carroll's own contextual commentary. An extended analysis of the poem and Carroll's commentary is given in the book The Annotated Alice by Martin Gardner. In 1868 Carroll asked his publishers, Macmillan, "Have you any means, or can you find any, for printing a page or two in the next volume of Alice in reverse?" It may be. Macmillan responded that it would cost a great deal more to do, this may have dissuaded him. In the author's note to the Christmas 1896 edition of Through the Looking-Glass Carroll writes, "The new words, in the poem Jabberwocky, have given rise to some differences of opinion as to their pronunciation, so it may be well to give instructions on that point also.
Pronounce'slithy' as if it were the two wor
Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of Eighty is a historical novel by British novelist Charles Dickens. Barnaby Rudge was one of two novels that Dickens published in his short-lived weekly serial Master Humphrey's Clock. Barnaby Rudge is set during the Gordon Riots of 1780. Barnaby Rudge was the fifth of Dickens' novels to be published, it had been planned to appear as his first, but changes of publisher led to many delays, it first appeared in serial form in the Clock from February to November 1841. It was Dickens' first historical novel, his only other is the much A Tale of Two Cities set in revolutionary times. It is one of his less popular novels and has been adapted for film or television; the last production was a 1960 BBC production. Gathered round the fire at the Maypole Inn, in the village of Chigwell, on an evening of foul weather in the year 1775, are John Willet, proprietor of the Maypole, his three cronies. One of the three, Solomon Daisy, tells an ill-kempt stranger at the inn a well-known local tale of the murder of Reuben Haredale which had occurred 22 years ago that day.
Reuben had been the owner of the Warren, a local estate, now the residence of Geoffrey, the deceased Reuben's brother, Geoffrey's niece, Reuben's daughter Emma Haredale. After the murder, Reuben's gardener and steward were suspects in the crime. A body was found and identified as that of the steward, so the gardener was assumed to be the murderer. Joe Willet, son of the Maypole proprietor, quarrels with his father because John treats 20-year-old Joe as a child. Having had enough of this ill treatment, Joe leaves the Maypole and goes for a soldier, stopping to say goodbye to the woman he loves, Dolly Varden, daughter of London locksmith Gabriel Varden. Meanwhile, Edward Chester is in love with Emma Haredale. Both Edward's father, John Chester, Emma's uncle, the Catholic Geoffrey Haredale – these two are sworn enemies – oppose the union after Sir John untruthfully convinces Geoffrey that Edward's intentions are dishonourable. Sir John intends to marry Edward to a woman with a rich inheritance, to support John's expensive lifestyle and to pay off his debtors.
Edward leaves home for the West Indies. Barnaby Rudge, a simpleton, wanders out of the story with his pet raven, Grip. Barnaby's mother begins to receive visits from the ill-kempt stranger, whom she feels compelled to protect, she gives up the annuity she had been receiving from Geoffrey Haredale and, without explanation, takes Barnaby and leaves the city hoping to escape the unwanted visitor. The story advances five years to a wintry evening in early 1780. On the 27th anniversary of Reuben Haredale's murder, Soloman Daisy, winding the bell tower clock, sees a ghost in the churchyard, he reports this hair-raising event to his friends at the Maypole, John Willet decides that Geoffrey Haredale should hear the story. He departs in a winter storm taking hostler of the Maypole, as a guide. On the way back to the Maypole and Hugh are met by three men seeking the way to London. Finding that London is still 13 miles off, the men seek refuge for the night. Beds are prepared for them at the Maypole; these visitors prove to be Lord George Gordon.
Lord George makes an impassioned speech full of anti-papist sentiment, arguing that Catholics in the military would, given a chance, join forces with their co-religionists on the Continent and attack Britain. Next day the three depart for London, inciting anti-Catholic sentiment along the way and recruiting Protestant volunteers, from whom Ned Dennis, hangman of Tyburn, Simon Tappertit, former apprentice to Gabriel Varden, are chosen as leaders. Hugh, finding a handbill left at the Maypole, joins the Protestant throng which Dickens describes as "sprinkled doubtless here and there with honest zealots, but composed for the most part of the scum and refuse of London, whose growth was fostered by bad criminal laws, bad prison regulations, the worst conceivable police." Barnaby and his mother have been living in a country village, their whereabouts unknown despite Geoffrey Haredale's attempts to find them. The mysterious stranger finds them and sends Stagg, the blind man, to attempt to get money from them.
Barnaby and his mother flee to London, hoping to again lose their pursuer. When Barnaby and his mother arrive at Westminster Bridge they see an unruly crowd heading for a meeting on the Surrey side of the river. Barnaby is duped into joining them, despite his mother's pleas; the rioters march on Parliament, burn several Catholic churches and the homes of Catholic families. A detachment led by Hugh and Dennis head for Chigwell, intent on exacting revenge on Geoffrey Haredale, leaving Barnaby to guard The Boot, the tavern they use as their headquarters; the mob loots the Maypole on their way to the Warren. Emma Haredale and Dolly Varden are taken captive by the rioters. Barnaby is held in Newgate, which the mob plans to storm; the mysterious stranger haunting Mrs. Rudge is captured by Haredale at the smoldering ruins of the Warren, he turns out to be Barnaby Rudge Sr. the steward who had murdered Reuben Haredale and his gardener years earlier. It is revealed; the rioters capture Gabriel Varden, with the help of his wife's maid Miggs, attempt to have the locksmith help them break into Newgate to release prisoners.
He refuses and is rescued by two men, on
The Raven (paintings)
The Raven is a series of 28 watercolor paintings made by Nabil Kanso in 1995. The subjects of the works in the series are based on the poem The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe; the Raven series
"The Raven" is a narrative poem by American writer Edgar Allan Poe. First published in January 1845, the poem is noted for its musicality, stylized language, supernatural atmosphere, it tells of a talking raven's mysterious visit to a distraught lover, tracing the man's slow fall into madness. The lover identified as being a student, is lamenting the loss of his love, Lenore. Sitting on a bust of Pallas, the raven seems to further distress the protagonist with its constant repetition of the word "Nevermore"; the poem makes use of folk, mythological and classical references. Poe claimed to have written the poem logically and methodically, intending to create a poem that would appeal to both critical and popular tastes, as he explained in his 1846 follow-up essay, "The Philosophy of Composition"; the poem was inspired in part by a talking raven in the novel Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of'Eighty by Charles Dickens. Poe borrows the complex rhythm and meter of Elizabeth Barrett's poem "Lady Geraldine's Courtship", makes use of internal rhyme as well as alliteration throughout.
"The Raven" was first attributed to Poe in print in the New York Evening Mirror on January 29, 1845. Its publication made Poe popular in his lifetime, although it did not bring him much financial success; the poem was soon reprinted and illustrated. Critical opinion is divided as to the poem's literary status, but it remains one of the most famous poems written. "The Raven" follows an unnamed narrator on a dreary night in December who sits reading "forgotten lore" by a dying fire as a way to forget the death of his beloved Lenore. A "tapping at chamber door" reveals nothing, but excites his soul to "burning"; the tapping is repeated louder, he realizes it is coming from his window. When he goes to investigate, a raven flutters into his chamber. Paying no attention to the man, the raven perches on a bust of Pallas above the door. Amused by the raven's comically serious disposition, the man asks; the raven's only answer is "Nevermore". The narrator is surprised that the raven can talk; the narrator remarks to himself that his "friend" the raven will soon fly out of his life, just as "other friends have flown before" along with his previous hopes.
As if answering, the raven responds again with "Nevermore". The narrator reasons that the bird learned the word "Nevermore" from some "unhappy master" and that it is the only word it knows. So, the narrator pulls his chair directly in front of the raven, determined to learn more about it, he thinks for a moment in silence, his mind wanders back to his lost Lenore. He thinks the air grows denser and feels the presence of angels, wonders if God is sending him a sign that he is to forget Lenore; the bird again replies in the negative. The narrator becomes angry, calling the raven a "thing of evil" and a "prophet", he asks the raven whether he will be reunited with Lenore in Heaven. When the raven responds with its typical "Nevermore", he is enraged, calling it a liar, commands the bird to return to the "Plutonian shore"—but it does not move. At the time of the poem's recitation by the narrator, the raven "still is sitting" on the bust of Pallas; the narrator's final admission is that his soul is trapped beneath the raven's shadow and shall be lifted "Nevermore".
Poe wrote the poem without intentional allegory or didacticism. The main theme of the poem is one of undying devotion; the narrator desire to remember. He seems to get some pleasure from focusing on loss; the narrator assumes that the word "Nevermore" is the raven's "only stock and store", yet, he continues to ask it questions, knowing what the answer will be. His questions are purposely self-deprecating and further incite his feelings of loss. Poe leaves it unclear if the raven knows what it is saying or if it intends to cause a reaction in the poem's narrator; the narrator begins as "weak and weary," becomes regretful and grief-stricken, before passing into a frenzy and madness. Christopher F. S. Maligec suggests the poem is a type of elegiac paraclausithyron, an ancient Greek and Roman poetic form consisting of the lament of an excluded, locked-out lover at the sealed door of his beloved. Poe says. Though this is not explicitly stated in the poem, it is mentioned in "The Philosophy of Composition".
It is suggested by the narrator reading books of "lore" as well as by the bust of Pallas Athena, Greek goddess of wisdom. He is reading in the late night hours from "many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore". Similar to the studies suggested in Poe's short story "Ligeia", this lore may be about the occult or black magic; this is emphasized in the author's choice to set the poem in December, a month, traditionally associated with the forces of darkness. The use of the raven—the "devil bird"—also suggests this; this devil image is emphasized by the narrator's belief that the raven is "from the Night's Plutonian shore", or a messenger from the afterlife, referring to Pluto, the Roman god of the underworld. A direct allusion to Satan appears: "Whether Tempter sent, or whether tempest tossed thee here ashore..." Poe chose a raven as the central symbol in the story because he wanted a "non-reasoning" creature capable of speech. He decided on a raven, which he considered "equally capable of speech" as a parrot, because it matched the intended tone of the poem.
Poe said the raven is meant to symbolize "Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance". He was a