Music of Saint Lucia
The music of Saint Lucia is home to many vibrant oral and folk traditions and is based on elements derived from the music of Africa rhythmically, Western Europe, dances like the quadrille and waltz. The banjo and cuatro are iconic Lucian folk instruments a four-stringed banjo called the bwa poye. Celebratory songs called jwé show lyricism, rhythmic complexity; the most important of the Afro-Lucian Creole folk dances is the kwadril. Music is an integral part of Lucian folk holidays and celebrations, as well as the good-natured rivalry between the La Rose and La Marguerite societies. There is little Western classical music on Saint Lucia, the country's popular music industry is only nascent. There are few recording opportunities, though live music and radio remain a vital part of Lucian culture. Popular music from abroad Trinidadian styles like calypso and soca, is widespread. Music education has long been a part of Lucian public education in the primary school age groups. More it has been introduced to older students, many of whom now participate in String Orchestras, wind ensembles, steelpan bands and other musical enrichment opportunities.
There is a well-known government assisted non-profit music school, the Saint Lucia School of Music. The Ministry of Education sponsors a variety of other special events; the island is home to the prestigious Saint Lucia Jazz Festival and the Creole celebration Jounen Kwéyòl. Saint Lucia, is an island in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean. St. Lucional flower is the rose. A typical Saint Lucian folk band is based around the fiddle, banjo and chak-chak; the banjo and cuatro are regarded as important in Saint Lucian culture the small, four-stringed bwa poye, or skroud banjo. Saint Lucian dances include moulala and comette, it is a stylized and formalized dance that derives from the European quadrille. Jwé is a more informal form of Lucian folk music, is performed at dances and other social events. Music plays a role in the La Rose and La Marguerite tradition of two rival societies that compete in celebration and form a fundamental part of Lucian culture. Jwé is a form of rural Lucian folk music associated with beach parties, wakes, débòt dances and full moon gatherings.
Jwé is performed as an informal, social event that provide the chance for Lucians to show off their verbal skills, communicate their comedic and political commentaries without offending people. Jwé includes both songs for men and women, both of which can be singers, though most Lucian folk instrumentalists are male. A jwé performance is considered good if the audience participates enthusiastically by clapping, responding to the leader and singing and dancing; some Lucians avoid jwé altogether because of atmosphere. Musical elements of jwé include gém, listwa, jwé chanté and jwé dansé; these forms are united by their use of the Creole language, their use of call-and-response singing between a leader and a chorus, with the exception of listwa, the use of improvisation. Jwé chanté and listwa are purely any traditional dance. Sung jwé, jwé chanté or chanté kont, is part of the funeral wake tradition. A jwé chanté leader uses pantomime to enact scenes from a story, or sometimes just the ribald double entendres from it.
The gém are based around a leader who uses his own flourishes on a choreographed dance and improvises witty lyrics, while the audience participates in the performance. Jwé dansé includes four traditional dances; the solo is a couple dance, the débòt, yonbòt and jwé pòté are all circle dances. The blòtjé is a musical movement found in all jwé dansé styles, for example, every four beats in the débòt dance. Quadrille is a Lucian Creole folk dance derived from the European quadrille, it is performed at private parties which are organized by a host in a private home or rented hall, with musicians paid by the host. Kwadrils are held except during Lent; the modern kwadril has declined in popularity. More some aspects of Lucian society have come to promote the quadrille as a symbol of Lucian culture. Quadrilles are unlike other Lucian dances in that they must be memorized and choreographed, with only slight room for personal interpretation and improvisation. Learners act as a sort of apprentice for more established performers.
A successful performance brings respect and prestige for all participants who dance the correct steps which are traditionally said to "demonstrate control over behavior and skills" and "symbolize... a set of special values linked with a higher social class". Kwadril music is provided by an ensemble consisting of a four-stringed instrument, the cuatro, a rattle, the chakchak, bones called zo, a violin, banjo and guitar. A kwadril consists of five separate dances: the pwémyé fidji, dézyèm fidji, twazyèm fidji, katwiyèm fidji and gwan won; the musicians may use a lakonmèt, schottische or polka.
Music of the Bahamas
The music of the Bahamas is associated with junkanoo, a celebration which occurs on Boxing Day and again on New Year's Day. Parades and other celebrations mark the ceremony. Groups like The Baha Men, Ronnie Butler and Kirkland Bodie have gained massive popularity in Japan, the United States and other places. Other popular Bahamian artists include Stileet and Stevie S. Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music which originated in Trinidad and Tobago; this form of music has spread through many parts including The Bahamas. Soca is a form of dance music which originated from many calypso music in Tobago, it combined the melodic lilting sound of calypso with insistent percussion and local chutney music. Soca music has evolved in the last 20 years by musicians from various Anglophone Caribbean countries including Trinidad, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Grenada, Saint Lucia and Barbuda, United States Virgin Islands, The Bahamas, Saint Kitts and Nevis and Belize; the word Junkanoo is said to be derived from a Ghanaian leader, John Connu, or from the Qujo supreme deity and ancestral spirits.
The junkanoo was practiced in North Carolina and remnants still exist in Belize. It is most well known, from Nassau and Freeport. Since the 1950s the influence of American culture has increased through TV and radio broadcasts from Florida stations, other Caribbean styles have made inroads: calypso and soca, from Jamaica, Cuba and other islands. Tourism has had an impact, bringing in Japanese and North Americans with their attendant forms of cultural expression. In this milieu more traditional Bahamas performers such as Joseph Spence, have still enjoyed successful careers playing junkanoo, Christian hymns and the ant'ems of the local sponge fishermen, which include "Sloop John B" made famous by The Beach Boys. Junkane. In 1973, the year the Bahamas achieved independence from the United Kingdom, black professionals of the middle and upper classes began to dominate junkanoo celebrations. Costuming and competitions became more complex and commonplace, soon became a tourist draw. Aside from being a type of drum, goombay is a percussion music made famous by Alphonso'Blind Blake' Higgs, who played to tourists arriving at Nassau International Airport for several years.
Rake-and-scrape music is a unique type of instrumental music made by bending a saw and scraping with a small object, most a screwdriver. Rake-and-scrape's popularity has been declining in recent years, but performers like Lassie Do and the Boys continue to keep the tradition alive. Christian rhyming spirituals and the ant'ems of sponge fishermen are now dead traditions, decimated by the arrival of pop music, a 1930s sponge blight and other causes. E. Clement Bethel's master's thesis on traditional Bahamian music was adapted for the stage by his daughter, Nicolette Bethel and Philip A. Burrows. Music of The Bahamas was first performed at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in 1991, was revived in 2002 for fresh Bahamian audiences. A recording of that show is available for sale from Ringplay Productions. Rake and scrape music is played traditionally with Concertinas, Goombay drums, a Handsaw. Rake and scrape is believed to have originated on the island of Cat Island but evidence suggest that it was emerging in many places simultaneously.
The earliest reference to usage of the accordion by Bahamians is in 1886 in an Article in the Nassau Guardian. The term rake and scrape became the norm in 1969 by Charles Carter although he claims the people of Cat Island were calling it that when he visited the Island. Membranophones: The Goombay drum is main rhythmic component in rake-n-scrape, it is referred to a goatskin drum, as the skin of a goat was stretched over a wooden barrel. It is decorated by complex geometric designs in bright colors; the drum is always heated over fire to retain its tone. In 1971, when manufacturers started shipping products in metal barrels, Bahamians switched the drum to metal changing the tone of the drum. Idiophones: The main component that makes Rake-N-Scrape unique is the use of the Carpenter's Saw; this instrument is scraped with a butter knife. Bent against the body of the player and flexed, various timbral effects are obtained. In more modern music, the saw is replaced with a guiro. Aerophones: The accordion is the component that adds the round form which enables dancers to dance the ring dance.
This is of European descent. In more modern bands, it is replaced by electronic keyboard. List of Bahamian musicians Kaliss, Jeff. "Junkanoo and Sloop John B.". 2000. In Broughton and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie and Duane, World Music, Vol. 2: Latin & North America, India and Pacific, pp 317–324. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0 Rommen, Timothy. "Come Back Home: Regional Travels, Global Encounters, Local Nostalgias in Bahamian Popular Musics." Project Muse: Latin American Music Review, Vol 30, Number 2, Fall/Winter 2009. University of Texas Press, 159-183. Ingraham, Veronica. 2007. “The Bahamas” in An Encyclopedic History: Music in Latin America and the Caribbean, vol. 2, Performing the Caribbean Experience, Ed. By Malena Kuss. Texas: University of Texas Press, 359-376. Http://www.bahamasentertainers.com/ The Bahamas: Islands of song and produced by Oete Reiniger, with introductory essays by Gail Saunders and Kayla Olubumni Lockhart Edwards. I CD, Smithsonian Folkways SF 40405. Audio clips: traditional music o
Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music that originated in Trinidad and Tobago during the early to mid-19th century and spread to the rest of the Caribbean Antilles and Venezuela by the mid-20th century. Its rhythms can be traced back to West African Kaiso and the arrival of French planters and their slaves from the French Antilles in the 18th century, it is characterized by rhythmic and harmonic vocals, is most sung in a French creole and led by a griot. As calypso developed, the role of the griot became known as a chantuelle and calypsonian; as English replaced "patois" as the dominant language, calypso migrated into English, in so doing it attracted more attention from the government. It allowed the masses to challenge the doings of the unelected Governor and Legislative Council, the elected town councils of Port of Spain and San Fernando. Calypso continued to play an important role in political expression, served to document the history of Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago. Calypso in the Caribbean includes a range of genres, including: the Benna in Barbuda.
It is thought that the name "calypso" was "kaiso", now believed to come from Efik "ka isu" and Ibibio "kaa iso", used in urging someone on or in backing a contestant. There is a Trinidadian term "cariso" that means "old-time" calypsos; the term "calypso" is recorded from the 1930s onwards. Alternatively, the insert for The Rough Guide to Calypso and Soca favours John Cowley's arguments in Carnival and Calypso: Traditions in the Making, that the word might be a corruption of the French carrouseaux and through the process of patois and Anglicization became caliso and finally "calypso". Calypso music was developed in Trinidad in the 17th century from the West African Kaiso and canboulay music brought by African slaves imported to that Caribbean island to work on sugar plantations; the slaves, brought to toil on sugar plantations, were stripped of all connections to their homeland and family and not allowed to talk to each other. They used calypso to communicate with each other. Many early calypsos were sung in French Creole by an individual called a griot.
As calypso developed, the role of the griot became known as a chantuelle and calypsonian. Modern calypso, began in the 19th century, a fusion of disparate elements ranging from the masquerade song lavway, French Creole belair and the calinda stick-fighting chantwell. Calypso's early rise was connected with the adoption of Carnival by Trinidadian slaves, including canboulay drumming and the music masquerade processions; the French brought Carnival to Trinidad, calypso competitions at Carnival grew in popularity after the abolition of slavery in 1834. The first identifiably calypso genre song was recorded in 1912, by Lovey's String Band while visiting New York City. In 1914, the second calypso song was recorded, this time in Trinidad, by chantwell Julian Whiterose, better known as the Iron Duke and famous calinda stick-fighter. Jules Sims would record vocal calypsos; the majority of these calypsos of the World War I era were instrumentals by Lovey and Lionel Belasco. Due to the constraints of the wartime economy, no recordings of note were produced until the late 1920s and early 1930s, when the "golden era" of calypso would cement the style and phrasing of the music.
Calypso evolved into a way of spreading news around Trinidad. Politicians and public figures debated the content of each song, many islanders considered these songs the most reliable news source. Calypsonians pushed the boundaries of free speech as their lyrics spread news of any topic relevant to island life, including speaking out against political corruption. British rule enforced censorship and police began to scan these songs for damaging content. With this censorship, calypsos continued to push boundaries, with a variety of ways to slip songs past the scrutinizing eyes of the editor. Double entendre, or double-speak, was one way, as was the practice of denouncing countries such as Hitler's Germany and its annexation of Poland, while making pointed references toward the UK's policies on Trinidad. Sex, gossip, politics, local news and insulting other calypsonians were the order of the day in classic calypso, just as it is today with classic hip-hop, and just as the hip-hop of today, the music sparked shock and outrage in moralistic sections of society.
Countless recordings were dumped at sea in the name of censorship, although in truth, rival US companies did this in the spirit of underhanded competition, claiming that the rivals' material was unfit for US consumption. Decca Records lost untold pressings in this manner, as did RCA's Bluebird label. An entrepreneur named Eduardo Sa Gomes played a significant role in spreading calypso in its early days. Sa Gomes, a Portuguese immigrant who owned a local music and phonograph equipment shop in Port of Spain, promoted the genre and gave financial support to the local artists. In March 1934, he sent Roaring Attila the Hun to New York City to record.
Music of Haiti
The music of Haiti combines a wide range of influences drawn from the many people who have settled on this Caribbean island. It reflects French, African rhythms, Spanish elements and others who have inhabited the island of Hispaniola and minor native Taino influences. Styles of music unique to the nation of Haiti include music derived from rara parading music, twoubadou ballads, mini-jazz rock bands, rasin movement, hip hop Creòle, the wildly popular compas, méringue as its basic rhythm. Haiti hadn't had a recorded music until 1937. One of the most popular Haitian artists is Wyclef Jean, his music is somewhat hip-hop mixed with world music. Haitian music is influenced by European colonial ties and African migration. In the case of European colonization, musical influence has derived from the French. One of Haiti's musical traditions is known to outsiders as compas, but in the former non-standardized Haitian Creole, Haitians identify it variously as compa and konpa-dirék. Regardless of its various spellings, compas refers to a complex, ever-changing music genre that fuses African rhythms, European ballroom dancing, Haitian bourgeois aesthetics.
The word may have derived from the Spanish compás, which relates to the musical rhythm of the "beat" or "pulse." One of the most distinctive features of Haitian compas music is the steady, pulsing drum beat, which makes it easy to dance to. Haïti Chérie is a traditional patriotic and most recognizable song of Haiti, written and composed by Dr. Othello Bayard de Cayes and was called Souvenir d'Haïti, it represents the pride Haitian people feel for their culture. Within the Haitian community, at home and abroad, it is considered as a second national anthem to La Dessalinienne and the song has recorded several different versions. Méringue is a guitar-based style connected to merengue but without the use of the accordion; the blend of African and European cultures has created popular dance music, music played on simple acoustic instruments. Méringue has lost popularity to kompa. Rara music is a Lenten processional music with strong ties to the Vodou religious tradition, it has been confused with Haitian Carnival, since both celebrations involve large groups of dancing revelers in the streets.
Rara is performed between Ash Wednesday until Easter Sunday Rara bands roam the streets performing religious ceremonies as part of their ritual obligations to the "loa" or spirits of Haitian Vodou. Guédé, a spirit associated with death and sexuality, is an important spiritual presence in Rara celebrations and possesses a houngan or mambo before the band begins its procession, blessing the participants and wishing them safe travels for their nightly sojourns. Twoubadou is a form of music played by peripatetic troubadours playing some combination of acoustic, beat box and accordion instruments singing ballads of Haitian, French or Caribbean origin, it is in some ways similar to Son Cubano from Cuba as a result of Haitian migrant laborers who went to work on Cuban sugar plantations at the turn of the 20th century. Musicians perform at the Port-au-Prince International Airport and at bars and restaurants in Pétion-Ville. Compas, short for compas direct, is the modern méringue, popularized in the mid-1950s by the sax and guitar player Nemours Jean-Baptiste.
His méringue soon became popular throughout the Antilles in Martinique and Guadeloupe. Webert Sicot and Nemours Jean-Baptiste became the two leaders in the group. Sicot left and formed a new group and an intense rivalry developed, though they remained good friends. To differentiate himself from Nemours, Sicot called his modern cadence rampa. In Creole, it is spelled as konpa dirèk or konpa, it is spelled as it is pronounced as kompa. Mini-jazz was formed in the mid-'60s characterized by the rock bands formula of two guitars, one bass, drum-conga-cowbell, some use an alto sax or a full horn section, others use a keyboard, accordion or lead guitar. However, all these small jazz or bands had their guitars with sophisticated styles; the 1970s were dominated by mini-jazz. One of the mini-jazz groups, Tabou Combo, became the most popular ensemble of Haiti. From Haiti the mini-jazz formula replicated in the French Antilles in the 1970s. Haitian rock originated as rock n roll in Haiti in the early 1960s, performed by rock bands called yeye bands.
These were short-lived when they added compas direct to their repertoire and called the result mini-jazz. Today, Haitian rock is an alternative rock music with a blend of Caribbean flavor, first introduced to Haiti by Yohann Doré. Splash were a popular Haitian rock band of the 1990s. Starting in the late 1970s, youth from Port-au-Prince began experimenting with new types of life. François Duvalier's appropriation of Vodou images as a terror technique, the increase in U. S. assembly and large-scale export agriculture, the popularity of disco, Jean-Claude Duvalier's appreciation of kompa and chanson française disillusioned many youth and love. To question the dictatorship's notion of "the Haitian nation", several men began trying a new way of living, embodied in the Sanba Movement, they drew upon global trends in black power, Bob Marley, "Hippie"-dom, as well as prominently from rural life in Haiti. They dressed in the traditional blue denim of peasants, eschewed the commercialized
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
Music of Trinidad and Tobago
The music of Trinidad and Tobago is best known for its calypso music, soca music and steelpan. Calypso's internationally noted performances in the 1950s from native artists such as Lord Melody, Lord Kitchener and Mighty Sparrow; the art form was most popularised at that time by Harry Belafonte. Along with folk songs and African- and Indian-based classical forms, cross-cultural interactions have produced other indigenous forms of music including soca, parang and other derivative and fusion styles. There are local communities which practice and experiment with international classical and pop music fusing them with local steelpan instruments. MusicTT was established in 2014 to facilitate the business development and export activity of the music industry in Trinidad and Tobago; the Cedula of Population of 1783 laid the growth of the population of Trinidad. The island's Spanish possessors contributed little with El Dorado the focus. Following the Cedula, French planters from the French Antilles of Martinique, Grenada and Dominica migrated to the Trinidad.
This exodus was encouraged due to the French Revolution. The Spanish gave many incentives to lure settlers to the island, including exemption from taxes for 10 years and land grants in accordance to the terms set out in the Cedula; these new immigrants established local communities of Blanchisseuse, Champs Fleurs, Cascade and Laventille. Trinidad's population jumped from less than 1,400 in 1777, to over 15,000 by the end of 1789. In 1797, Trinidad became a British crown colony, with a French-speaking population. Carnival had arrived with the French. Indentured laborers and slaves, who could not take part in Carnival, formed their own, parallel celebration, which became the precursor for the Trinidad & Tobago Carnival, has played an important role in the development of Trinidad's culture. Official and elite unease over carnival revelry grew during the next few decades, in 1883 drumming was banned in an attempt to clean up Carnival; this injunction came after a serious disturbance during the 1881 Carnival, known as the Canboulay Riots.
Canboulays were processions during carnival that commemorated the harvesting of burnt cane fields during slavery, a process so labor-intensive that it had involved forced marches of slaves from neighboring plantations to more efficiently harvest the cane. These canboulay processions were popular, incorporated kalenda; the government's attempt to ban the processions in 1881 resulted in open riots between Afro-Creole revelers and police, a turn of events that, not caused deep resentment within Trinidadian society toward the government's use of power. The open resistance of Afro-Creole revelers, of course, redoubled concerns among government officials over this potential threat to public order and led to an alternative strategy—the banning of drumming—in 1883. To make sure that the point got across, stick-fighting itself was banned in 1884. An ingenious substitute for the drums and sticks, called tamboo bamboo, was introduced in the 1890s. Tamboo-bamboo bands consist of three different instruments: boom, foulé, cutter.
The boom serves as the bass instrument, is about five feet long, is played by stamping it on the ground. The foulé, a higher-pitched instrument, consists of two pieces of bamboo, each about a foot long, is played by striking these pieces end to end; the cutter, the highest-pitched instrument in the ensemble, is made from a thinner piece of bamboo and is struck with a stick. These three types of instruments combined to beat out rhythms that accompanied the chantwells and were a staple of carnival celebrations for many years, they were rendered obsolete by the steel band. The 1930s saw contests between tents become a standard part of Carnival, in 1939, Growling Tiger was crowned the first calypso monarch of Trinidad. Carnival festivities split into two kinds of venues during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, occupying both the street and more performance-oriented calypso tents. Both of these spaces, were the preserve of the lower class and of Afro-Creoles. Calypsonians were considered dangerous by elites and government officials because they commanded large followings and could sway public opinion with their songs.
The streets were carefully monitored, setting up an atmosphere within which calypso and Carnival were embraced by the lower class and kept at a distance by elites. The Afro-Creole middle class, working toward upward social mobility and thus concerned with aligning itself with the elite attempted to distance itself from Carnival and calypso. Beginning in 1845, major influxes of indentured immigrants from India and other parts of the world changed the ethnic composition of the islands; these indentured servants brought their own folk music from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, to the creole mix, resulting in chutney music. In addition to Indians, Portuguese and Africans came to the islands in waves between 1845 and 1917, after. Recorded in the hills of Trinidad, here is a fascinating juxtaposition of three music and music / dance practices of non-urban dwellers derived from African roots. Bamboo-Tamboo evolved out of the ban which European colonizers imposed on drumming: dry, hollow bamboo poles were cut to varying lengths to produce different pitches when thumped against the ground.
Music of Martinique
Main article: Music of Martinique and GuadeloupeThe music of Martinique has a heritage, intertwined with that of its sister island, Guadeloupe. Despite their small size, the islands have created a large popular music industry, which gained in international renown after the success of zouk music in the 20th century. Zouk's popularity was intense in France, where the genre became an important symbol of identity for Martinique and Guadeloupe. Zouk's origins are in the folk music of Martinique and Guadeloupe Martinican chouval bwa, Guadeloupan gwo ka. There's notable influence of the pan-Caribbean calypso tradition and Haitian kompa. Carnival is a important festival, known as Vaval on Martinique. Music plays a vital role, with Martinican big bands marching across the island. Vaval declined following World War II, bouncing back with new band formats and new traditions only in the 1980s. Like Guadeloupe, Martinique features participatory, call-and-response style songs during its Vaval celebrations. In the early 20th century on Martinique, Creole bands travelled on trucks or small carts during Vaval, playing a music known as biguine vidé.
After the decline of Vaval in World War II, the tradition began anew in the 1980s, when large marching bands of fifty or more people became common, including a number of horn players and dancers. These large bands, known as groups à pied, are each identified with a neighborhood. Biguine vidé is an up tempo version of the biguine rhythm, it participatory music, with the bandleader singing the audience responding. Modern instrumentation includes a variety of improvised drums made from containers of all kinds, plastic plumbing, tanbou débonda, bélé chacha, tibwa and bélé drums. Aside from the biguine vidé bands, Vaval includes song and costume contests and zouk parties; the bel air is a legacy of the slave music tradition. The bélé itself is a huge tambour drum, it is characterized, in its rhythm, by the "tibwa" played on a length of bamboo mounted on a stand to the tambour bélé, is accompanied by a chacha. The tibwa rhythm plays a basic pattern and the drum comes to mark the highlights and introduce percussion improvisations.
It is organized in the first entry of the singer and choir. The "Bwatè" sets the pace, followed by bélé drum; the dancers take the stage. A dialogue is created between the dancers and the "tanbouyè"; the "answer" play opposite the singer, the audience can participate. As a family, together singers, dancers and audiences are lured by its mesmerizing rhythms; the bélé song-dances include, bélé dous, bélé pitjè, biguine bélé, bélé belya, gran bélé The bélé is the origin of several important Martiniquan popular styles, including chouval bwa and biguine, exerted an influence on zouk. Edmond Mondesir is a popular bélé musician from Martinique. Chouval bwa is a kind of Martinican traditional music, featuring percussion, bamboo flute and wax-paper/comb-type kazoo; the music originated among rural Martinicans, as a form of celebratory holiday music played to accompany a dance called the manege. Chouval bwa percussion is played by a drummer on the tanbour drum and the ti bwa, a percussion instrument made out of a piece of bamboo laid horizontally and beaten with sticks.
In French Caribbean culture of the Lesser Antilles, the term kwadril is a Creole term referring to a folk dance derived from the quadrille. Kwadril dances are in sets consisting of proper quadrilles, plus creolized versions of 19th-century couple dances: biguines and valses Créoles. Instrumentation consists of variable combinations of accordion, violin, tanbou dibas, malakach, triangle and syak, a bamboo rasp one metre long, grooved on both top and bottom, held with one end on the belly and the other on a door or wall and scraped with both hands. Though Martinique and Guadeloupe are most known only for the internationally renowned zouk style, the islands have produced popular musicians in various updated styles of traditional biguine, chouval bwa and gwo ka; the world-famous zouk band Kassav' remains the most famous performers from the island. Chouval bwa has been popularized by Claude Germany, Tumpak, Dédé Saint-Prix, Pakatak. Martinique is the birthplace of the Gibson Brothers who achieved significant chart success worldwide, most notably with their single "Cuba".
Biguine is a Martinican form of clarinet and trombone music which can be divided into two distinct types: bidgin bélè or drum biguine – originates in slave bèlè dances and characterized by the use of bélè drums and tibwa rhythm sticks, along with call and response, nasal vocals and improvised instrumental solos. Orchestrated biguine – originates in Saint-Pierre in the 18th century influenced by French music though vocals are in creole. Evolving out of string band music, biguine spread to mainland France in the 1920s. Early stars like Alexandre Stellio and Sam Castandet became popular, its popularity abroad died quickly, but it lasted as a major force in popular music on M