click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cadenza

In music, a cadenza is, generically, an improvised or written-out ornamental passage played or sung by a soloist or soloists in a "free" rhythmic style, allowing virtuosic display. During this time the accompaniment will sustain a note or chord, thus an improvised cadenza is indicated in written notation by a fermata in all parts. A cadenza will occur over the final or penultimate note in a piece, the lead-in or over the final or penultimate note in an important subsection of a piece, it can be found before a final coda or ritornello. The term cadenza refers to a portion of a concerto in which the orchestra stops playing, leaving the soloist to play alone in free time and can be written or improvised, depending on what the composer specifies. Sometimes, the cadenza will include small parts for other instruments besides the soloist. 3, where a solo flute and horn are used over rippling arpeggios in the piano. The cadenza occurs near the end of the first movement, though it can be at any point in a concerto.

An example is Tchaikovsky's First Piano Concerto. The cadenza is the most elaborate and virtuosic part that the solo instrument plays during the whole piece. At the end of the cadenza, the orchestra re-enters, finishes off the movement on their own, or, less with the solo instrument; the cadenza was and remains, a vocal flourish improvised by a performer to elaborate a cadence in an aria. It was used in instrumental music, soon became a standard part of the concerto. Cadenzas for voice and wind instruments were to be performed in one breath, they should not use distant keys, it was improvised in this context as well, but during the 19th century, composers began to write cadenzas out in full. Third parties wrote cadenzas for works in which it was intended by the composer to be improvised, so the soloist could have a well formed solo that they could practice in advance; some of these have become so played and sung that they are part of the standard repertoire, as is the case with Joseph Joachim's cadenza for Johannes Brahms' Violin Concerto, Beethoven's set of cadenzas for Mozart's Piano Concerto no.

20, Estelle Liebling's edition of cadenzas for operas such as Donizetti's's La fille du régiment and Lucia di Lammermoor. The most notable deviations from this tendency towards written cadenzas are to be found in jazz, most at the end of a ballad, though cadenzas in this genre are brief. Saxophonist John Coltrane, however improvised an extended cadenza when performing "I Want To Talk About You", in which he showcased his predilections for scalar improvisation and multiphonics; the recorded examples of "I Want To Talk About You" are 8 minutes in length, with Coltrane's unaccompanied cadenza taking up 3 minutes. More sardonically, jazz critic Martin Williams once described Coltrane's improvisations on "Africa/Brass" as "essentially extended cadenzas to pieces that never get played." Noteworthy is saxophonist Sonny Rollins' shorter improvised cadenza at the close of "Three Little Words". Cadenzas are found in instrumental solos with piano or other accompaniment, where they are placed near the beginning or near the end or sometimes in both places.

Concertos are not the only pieces. Johann Strauss II unusually wrote a cadenza-like solo for cello and flute for the final section of his Emperor Waltz, before a round of trumpets and the whole orchestra bring the piece to its end; the second movement of Bach's third Brandenburg Concerto consists of just two chords. The coloratura arias of bel canto composers Gaetano Donizetti, Vincenzo Bellini, Gioachino Rossini. Mozart wrote a cadenza into the third and final movement of Piano Sonata in B-flat major, K. 333, an unusual choice at that time because the movement is otherwise in sonata-rondo form. Beethoven's "Emperor" Concerto contains a notated cadenza, it begins with a cadenza, accompanied by the orchestra. In the first movement, the composer specifies that the soloist should play the music, written out in the score, not add a cadenza on one's own. Beethoven famously included a cadenza-like solo for oboe in the recapitulation section of the first movement of his Symphony No. 5. Tchaikovsky's first piano concerto is notable not only for having a cadenza within the first few minutes of the first movement, but for having a second – longer – cadenza in a more conventional place, near the end of the movement.

Rachmaninoff's Piano Concerto No. 3, in which the first movement features a long and difficult toccata-like cadenza with an longer alternative or ossia cadenza written in a heavier chordal style. Both cadenzas lead to an identical section with arpeggios in the piano and a solo flute accompanying, before the cadenza ends quietly. Fritz Kreisler's cadenzas for the first and third movements

Dean Lawrence

Dean Lawrence is an Irish footballer. Lawrence plays as a defender with experience in every position along the backline, he has spent the majority of his schoolboy days with Shamrock Rovers. His performances at schoolboy level for the Hoops resulted in Lawrence making his Under-21 debut at 17 years of age, his breakthrough to Rovers' first team was at 19 years of age when he made his debut in a League of Ireland Cup tie against Drogheda United on 8 May 2007. His league debut came in the next game in Derry on 14 May 2007. Lawrence remained a regular fixture in the Rovers team during the 2007 season making a total of 16 appearances but with intense competition in Rovers defence for the 2008 season, Lawrence was loaned to rivals Shelbourne for the 2008 campaign to aid his development and to gain vital first team experience, he made his Shelbourne debut during a League of Ireland Cup first-round tie on 24 March 2008 against Sporting Fingal at Morton Stadium, a match Shelbourne won 6–5 on penalties after a 2–2 draw after extra-time.

Due to intense competition amongst Shelbourne's experienced backline, Lawrence was limited to five league and cup appearances during his season-long loan at Tolka Park. Lawrence was released by Shamrock Rovers following the conclusion of the 2008 season. In May 2009, new Kildare County manager Joey Somerville brought Lawrence to Station Road to bolster up a defence that had leaked 30 goals plus in the first 9 games of the season. Lawrence wore the captain's armband for his debut against Waterford United at the RSC on 9 May 2009. Lawrence made a total of 19 league and cup appearances with no goals before Kildare County went into liquidation at the end of the 2009 season. SRFC Young Player of the Year: Shamrock Rovers – 2007 Dean Lawrence's profile at www.shelbournefc.com

Knowledge-based authentication

Knowledge-based authentication referred to as KBA, is a method of authentication which seeks to prove the identity of someone accessing a service such as a financial institution or website. As the name suggests, KBA requires the knowledge of private information of the individual to prove that the person providing the identity information is the owner of the identity. There are two types of KBA: static KBA, based on a pre-agreed set of shared secrets, dynamic KBA, based on questions generated from a wider base of personal information. Static KBA referred to as "shared secrets" or "shared secret questions", is used by banks, financial services companies and e-mail providers to prove the identity of the customer before allowing account access or, as a fall-back, if the user forgets their password. At the point of initial contact with a customer, a business using static KBA must collect the information to be shared between the provider and customer—most the questions and corresponding answers.

This data must be stored only to be retrieved when the customer comes back to access the account. The weakness of static KBA was demonstrated in an incident in 2008 where unauthorised access was gained to the e-mail account of former Alaska Governor Sarah Palin; the Yahoo! Account's password could be reset using shared secret questions including "where did you meet your spouse?" along with the date of birth and ZIP code of the former governor to which answers were available online. Some identity verification providers have introduced secret sounds or pictures in an effort to help secure sites and information; these tactics require the same methods of data retrieval as secret questions. Dynamic KBA is a high level of authentication that uses knowledge questions to verify each individual identity but does not require the person to have provided the questions and answers beforehand. Questions are compiled from public and private data such as marketing data, credit reports or transaction history.

To initiate the process, basic identification factors such as name and date of birth must be provided by the consumer and checked with an identity verification service. After the identity is verified, questions are generated in real time from the data records corresponding to the individual identity provided; the knowledge needed to answer the questions is not available in a person's wallet making it difficult for anyone other than the actual identity owner to know the answer and obtain access to secured information. The period of time for the person is given to respond to questions and the number of attempts is limited to prevent answers from being researched. Dynamic KBA is employed in several different industries to verify the identities of customers as a means of fraud prevention and compliance adherence; because this type of KBA is not based on an existing relationship with a consumer, it gives businesses a way to have higher identity assurance on customer identity during account origination.

Identity verification service Out of wallet Varghese, Thomas. "Addressing Red Flags Compliance". SC Magazine, Jan. 28, 2009. Http://www.scmagazineus.com/addressing-red-flags-compliance/article/126529/. Retrieved 2009-09-15

Liga Perdana (1994–1997)

Liga Perdana was the top-tier football league in Malaysia that operated from 1994 to 1997. The league was formed and established in 1994 to succeed the Liga Semi-Pro and became the Malaysian professional football league. At this time the league was interchangeably referred as Malaysian League; as per league rules for the newly formed professional league, all teams were required to register 13 full professional, two semi-professional, only three foreign players to play for their team in the competition. The inaugural season started on 5 April 1994; the league was succeeded in 1998 by the formation of Liga Perdana 1 when the league was divided into two division alongside the Liga Perdana 2 by Football Association of Malaysia. A football league competition involving the representative sides of the state football associations was first held in Malaysia in 1979; when it began, it was intended as a qualifying tournament for the final knock-out stages of the Malaysia Cup. It was not until 1982 that a league trophy was introduced to recognise the winners of the preliminary stage as the league champions.

Over the years, the league competition has gained important stature in its own right. In early days, the Malaysian football league system consisted of an amateur league before the changes in 1989, when the Liga Semi-Pro was introduced which operated from 1989 to 1993; the only teams allowed to participate in the league were the state FA's sides, teams representing the Armed Forces and the Police, teams representing the neighbouring countries of Singapore and Brunei. In its inaugural season 16 teams competing in the league; the teams were based from all states in Malaysia including Kuala Lumpur and addition of two foreign teams and Brunei. Between 1994 and 1997, there was no second level league. 1994 was. The Liga Semi-Pro replaced by the Liga Perdana, the new professional national league, added, a second cup competition, Piala FA, joined the existing Malaysia Cup; the newly formed professional football league was in peril when a bribing and corruption scandal was discovered between 1994 and 1995.

21 players and coaches was sacked, 58 players were suspended and 126 players were questioned over corruption by Malaysian authorities. FAM did created another amateur league in 1992 for local clubs in Malaysia to compete, called the National League The league was managed by FAM outside entity, Super Club Sdn. Bhd. Unfortunately, the league only ran for one season before it folded; some of the clubs were evolved and joined the main league where in 1997, promotion from Malaysia FAM Cup to the professional M-League was introduced for the first time. Johor FC and NS Chempaka FC were the first two sides. Liga Perdana was replaced by two divisions league in 1998 consist of Liga Perdana 1 and Liga Perdana 2. During 1998, Liga Perdana 1 consist of 12 teams. 10 teams that qualified for Malaysia Cup which played in 1997 Liga Perdana were automatically qualified to Liga Perdana 1. The other two spots were filled by a playoff round of the 5 lowest teams in the 1997 Liga Perdana and the Malaysian Olympic football team.

The lowest four teams from the playoff round were put into Liga Perdana 2 alongside Police, Malaysia Military, Negeri Sembilan Chempaka F. C and PKN Johor. At this time the league still consisted of semi-pro team where each team was allowed to register 25 players where 12 players must be a professional for Liga Perdana 1 and a minimum of six professional players in Liga Perdana 2. In its inaugural season 16 teams competing in the league; the teams were based from all states in Malaysia including Kuala Lumpur and addition of two foreign teams and Brunei. 16 teams competing in the first season of Liga Perdana. 15 teams competing in the second season of Liga Perdana after Singapore pull from the league. 15 teams competing in the third season of Liga Perdana. 15 teams competing in the last season of Liga Perdana before it was succeeded by Liga Perdana 1. Below is the list of champions of Liga Perdana from 1994 until 1997

Edwin Maher

Edwin Maher is a New Zealand-born TV journalist who worked for CCTV International in Beijing before retiring in 2017. Maher established his broadcast career in Australia, working many minor roles as a weatherman, in many cities before beginning a 25-year stint with Australian Broadcasting Corporation in 1979, he is remembered in Melbourne for his use of a varied and creative number of viewer submitted pointers to highlight items when delivering the ABC's Victorian state weather forecast. In 2003, China Central Television sought to expand its CCTV International to be more professional and accessible to Western audiences. CCTV senior executive Jiang Heping approached Maher working in China with CCTV as a voice coach, to become one of the first western anchors for the revamped network. Maher was offered the position because of his clear diction speaking English and his experience in voice coaching. Maher taught speaking in private lessons through his company Maher Media Services, lectured at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, released audio lessons on voice.

He accepted the job with CCTV and started in March 2004. Besides anchoring a news broadcast a few afternoons a week, his duties include voice coaching to the Chinese staff. Maher answers criticism that he has become a paid mouthpiece for the Communist propaganda by saying he only reads the news and is, "not trying to read into the news, not thinking about what is behind the content. Politically sensitive news, like any other news, has to be read clearly; that is my bottom line. Because I'm in China, some news may be regarded as politically sensitive or whatever, but that doesn't affect my interpretation of it to the audience." Maher wrote articles for the English language China Daily newspaper about his experiences learning Mandarin Chinese. He appeared in the 2003 Australian movie Bad Eggs as a news presenter reporting on the events at the end of the film. In January 2010, it was announced. Edwin Maher on IMDb

KZII-FM

KZII-FM, known as "102-5 Kiss FM" is a Top 40 formatted radio station serving Lubbock, Texas. The station is owned by Townsquare Media, its studios and transmitter are located in south Lubbock. KZII went on air on April 15, 1948 as KFYO-FM. According to Jack Dale, it signed off a few years after limited use. From the 1950 edition of Broadcasting Yearbook KFYO-FM broadcast on 99.5 FM at 13,000 watts of power. In mid-March 1982 the station was back on the air as KRUX. Studios were on the third floor of the Plains Bank building at 5010 50th, the transmitter was at 98th and University. Station featured "six packs" of country music, it was owned by Rex Broadcasting Corporation of owner of KCUB and KIIM in Tucson, Az, KROD and KLAQ in El Paso, Texas. Rex was owned by Jim Sloane, had filed for the station on 102.5 in 1977. A couple of other local stations filed for the channel; the original engineering had been prepared by Guy Smith at the Ray Moran stations. Moran filed for 101.1 in 1973 and received it unopposed in 1973, went on air in 1974.

Sloane delayed filing until the seventies and ended up in a comparative hearing for the station. KRUX was sold to the owners of crosstown 790 KFYO in mid-1985. Studios were consolidated at the KFYO Transmitter Site at 4322 82nd Street. In 1986 the Z102/KFYO studios and KFYO 790 AM transmitter site were moved to 143rd Street & South Slide Road, south of Lubbock, south of FM 1585; the studios were moved again in the Fall of 1996 to the Gulfstar studios at 4413 82nd Street. By year end in 1985, the 102.5 transmitter had been relocated to a temporary location in north Lubbock, in 1985-1986 the transmitter was moved to a new tower at 82nd and Avenue P shared by 94.5 KFMX, 96.3 KLLL, 99.5 KRLB, 102.5 KFYO-FM. In the late 1990s 98.1 KKCL moved on to The Lubbock Tower, with 95.5 KAIQ-FM moving onto The Lubbock Tower in 2004. After Gulfstar's parent company, merged with Chancellor Broadcasting, these stations were sold to one of the Hicks family controlled groups that were rolled up into Clear Channel Communications.

In 2006, Clear Channel announced they were going private, announced they would sell many of their smaller market stations, including their cluster in Lubbock. GAP Broadcasting purchased these stations, including KZII-FM. On Tuesday, March 17, 2009 at midnight, GAP Broadcasting dropped the Z102 format in favor of the "Kiss FM" branding; the station became 102.5 Kiss FM at 5 p.m. on March 20, 2009. What became Gap Central Broadcasting was folded into Townsquare Media on August 13, 2010. Kiss FM's current format is Mainstream CHR, a variant of Top 40, although the station has shifted between Mainstream CHR and Rhythmic CHR over the past 10 years, as different stations entered the Lubbock market to compete. From the 1990s through mid-2001, Z102 was the home of Jay and Dina in the Morning; the show was regionally syndicated throughout West Texas in the late 1990s, 2000 & 2001. Affiliate stations included Power 98.7 in Amarillo, 103.3 KCRS-FM Midland/Odessa and 100.7 FM in Abilene. The show moved to 96.7 KHFI-FM, in Austin, in 2001.

Before the end of 2001, Chris & Dina moved back to Lubbock to host "Chris & Dina in the Morning", heard on Z102. Jay Shannon went on to serve two separate stints as OM/PD for KHFI from 2001 to 2014. In his time at KHFI, Shannon found a DJ named Bobby Bones and created a morning show centered on him; the present-day Bobby Bones Show was patterned after "Jay, Chris & Dina in the Morning" with Bobby filling the role that Jay served, Lunchbox filling the antagonist Chris Kelly role and Amy taking Dina's role. For a number of years in the 2000s, into the early 2010s, on Saturdays from 8 to 11PM KISS FM broadcast live from Heaven Nightclub called "Saturday Night Heaven"; the remote broadcast was ended in 2011. In March 2016, assistant program director Boleo brought back the weekend party with Turn Up Friday's which originates from Lubbock's Club Pink, it would move to Saturday nights in a sporadic fashion. The 5 O'Clock Bomboocha began on KISS FM in February 2017; the original host was Tommy the Hacker simulcasting from Townsquare sister station 96.9 KXSS FM, Tommy the Hacker would do the show from Wild 104.3 - KQFX-FM Amarillo - after his departure from KXSS.

In late March 2017, DJ Lopez would take over DJ duties on the Bomboocha. As of June of 2018 hosting duties were split between DJ Lopez, Tommy the Hacker and Local DJ Ricky Ri; the Bomboocha was discontinued in July of 2019 by Townsquare Corporate despite local outrage for the cancellation. On air, Z102's positioning included "Hot Hitz, 102.5 Z102". Current branding is All The Hits, 102.5 KISS FM. Current on-air personalities include - Elvis Duran and the Morning Show, Midday Michelle, PopCrush Nights with Kayla Thomas. Former on-air personalities include - Boleo, DJ Ricky Ri, Renee Raven,'E', Lisa Paige, Steve Sever, Jay Shannon, Chris Kelly, Dina Morales, Bobby Ramos, DJ Lopez, To