Anglesey or Ynys Môn is an island off the north-west coast of Wales. With an area of 276 square miles, Anglesey is by far the largest island of Wales, Anglesey is the largest island in the Irish Sea by area, and the second most populous island in the Irish Sea. The population at the 2011 census was 69,751, two bridges span the Menai Strait, connecting the island to the mainland, the Menai Suspension Bridge, designed by Thomas Telford in 1826, and the Britannia Bridge. A historic county of Wales and administrated as part of Gwynedd, Anglesey today makes up the Isle of Anglesey County along with Holy Island and other smaller islands. The majority of Angleseys inhabitants are Welsh speakers and Ynys Môn, Anglesey is derived from Old Norse, originally either Ǫngullsey Hook Island or Ǫnglisey Ǫnglis Island. No record of any such Ǫngli survives, but the name was used by Viking raiders as early as the 10th century and was adopted by the Normans during their invasions of Gwynedd. All of these derive from the proposed Proto-Indo-European root *ank-.
It was spelled as Anglesea. Ynys Môn, the islands Welsh name, was first recorded as Latin Mona by various Roman sources and it was likewise known to the Saxons as Monez. The Brittonic original was in the past taken to have meant Island of the Cow and this view is linguistically untenable, according to modern scientific philology. The etymology thus currently remains a mystery, poetic names for Anglesey include the Old Welsh Ynys Dywyll for its former groves and Ynys y Cedairn for its royal courts, Gerald of Wales Môn Mam Cymru for its productivity, and Y fêl Ynys. Numerous megalithic monuments and menhirs are present on Anglesey, testifying to the presence of humans in prehistory, Plas Newydd is near one of 28 cromlechs that remain on uplands overlooking the sea. The Welsh Triads claim that Anglesey was once part of the mainland, Anglesey has long been associated with the druids. News of Boudicas revolt reached him just after his victory, causing him to withdraw his army before consolidating his conquest, the island was finally brought into the Roman Empire by Gnaeus Julius Agricola, the Roman governor of Britain, in AD78.
During the Roman occupation, the area was notable for the mining of copper, the foundations of Caer Gybi as well as a fort at Holyhead are Roman, and the present road from Holyhead to Llanfairpwllgwyngyll was originally a Roman road. The island was grouped by Ptolemy with Ireland rather than with Britain, British Iron Age and Roman sites have been excavated and coins and ornaments discovered, especially by the 19th century antiquarian, William Owen Stanley. Following the Roman departure from Britain in the early 5th century, pirates from Ireland colonised Anglesey, in response to this, Cunedda ap Edern, a Gododdin warlord from Scotland, came to the area and began to drive the Irish out. This was continued by his son Einion Yrth ap Cunedda and grandson Cadwallon Lawhir ap Einion, as an island, Anglesey was in a good defensive position, and so Aberffraw became the site of the court, or Llys, of the Kingdom of Gwynedd
Bangor-on-Dee is a local government community, the lowest tier of local government, part of Wrexham County Borough in Wales. It is a village in the ancient district of Maelor in Wales, the village is in the county borough of Wrexham, until 1974 it was in the exclave of Flintshire traditionally known as the Maelor Saesneg, and from 1974 to 1996 was in the county of Clwyd. The village and its local government community had a total population of 1,266 in 517 households at the time of the 2001 census. The commonly used anglicised name refers to the proximity to the River Dee. However, the traditional Welsh name is Bangor-is-y-Coed, literally meaning Bangor below the wood/trees and this form was first recorded in 1699, while an alternative name of the parish, Bangor Monachorum, was first recorded in 1677. A monastery was established at Bangor in about AD560 by Saint Dunod and was an important religious centre in the 5th and 6th centuries, the scholar Bede wrote that 1200 monks were slaughtered and only 50 escaped.
Other accounts are different in terms of the numbers killed and the date. More than a later, the massacre was recounted in a poem entitled The Monks of Bangors March by Walter Scott. Today no trace of the remains and even its site is uncertain, it is possible that all the buildings, including the church, were built of wattle. The settlement at Bangor is likely to have continued after the destruction of the monastery, although it was not mentioned in the Domesday Book, a village was certainly in existence by 1300, when the present church is believed to have been built. The five-arched stone arch bridge across the River Dee dates from about 1660, a 1903 suspension bridge by David Rowell & Co. is nearby at Pickhill Meadows. Bangor had a station on the Cambrian Railways Wrexham to Ellesmere line which crossed the River Dee via a bridge to the north of the village. This line was opened in 1895 and ran through a rural area. The line closed for services in 1962. Following the entry into administration of GHA Coaches in July 2016 the only bus service that ran to the nearby towns of Wrexham.
South-west of the village there is Bangor-on-Dee racecourse, a National Hunt racecourse, there are two pubs, a basketball court and river activities such as fishing and rafting. St Dunawds Church, Bangor Is-coed The racecourse Map sources for Bangor-on-Dee The Monks of Bangors March photos of Bangor-on-Dee and surrounding area on geograph
Kingdom of Gwynedd
The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd was one of several successor states to the Roman Empire that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain. Based in northwest Wales, the rulers of Gwynedd repeatedly rose to preeminence and were acclaimed as King of the Britons before losing their power in civil wars or invasions and that realm lasted until the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1283. The sons of their leader, were said to have possessed the land between the rivers Dee and Teifi, the modern preserved county of Gwynedd and principal area of Gwynedd are both somewhat smaller. The 5th-century Cantiorix Inscription now in Penmachno church seems to be the earliest record of the name and it is in memory of a man named Cantiorix and the Latin inscription is Cantiorix hic iacit/Venedotis cives fuit/consobrinos Magli magistrati, Cantiorix lies here. He was a citizen of Gwynedd and a cousin of Maglos the magistrate, the use of terms such as citizen and magistrate maybe cited as evidence that Romano-British culture and institutions continued in Gwynedd long after the legions had withdrawn.
As early as the 2nd century, there may have been an Irish presence in the region as Ptolemy marks the Llŷn Peninsula as the Promontory of the Gangani which is a name he recorded in Ireland, the region became known as Venedotia in Latin. The name was attributed to a specific Irish colony on Anglesey. According to traditional pedigrees, Cuneddas grandfather was Padarn Beisrudd, Paternus of the red cloak, nennius recounts how Cunedda brought order to North Wales and after his death Gwynedd was divided among his sons, Dynod was awarded Dunoding, another son Ceredig received Ceredigion, and so forth. According to Professor John Davies, here is a determinedly Brythonic, there was generally quick abandonment of Roman political and ecclesiastical practices and institutions within Gwynedd and elsewhere in Wales. These early petty kings or princelings adopted the title rhi in Welsh, replaced by brenin, genealogical lists compiled around 960 bear out that a number of these early rulers claimed degrees of association with the old Roman order, but do not appear in the official royal lineages.
It may be assumed that the stronger kings annexed the territories of their weaker neighbors, other evidence supports Nenniuss claim that a leader came to north Wales and brought the region a measure of stability, although an Irish Gaelic element remained until the mid-5th century. During that peace he established a mighty kingdom, after Cadwallon, Gwynedd appears to have held a pre-eminent position amongst the petty Cambrian states in the post-Roman period. The great-grandson of Cunedda, Maelgwn Hir Maelgwn the Tall, was one of the most famous leaders in Welsh history, there are several legends about his life concerning miracles performed either by him or in his presence. Maelgwn was curiously described as the dragon of the island by Gildas which was possibly a title, Maelgwn eventually died in 547 from the plague leaving a succession crisis in his wake. His son in law, Elidyr Mwynfawr of the Kingdom of Strathclyde, claimed the throne and invaded Gwynedd to displace Maelgwns son, Elidyr was killed in the attempt but his death was avenged by his relatives who ravaged the coast of Arfon.
Rhun counter-attacked and exacted the same penalty on the lands of his foes in what is now central Scotland, Rhun returned to Gwynedd and the rest of his reign was far less eventful. He was succeeded by his son, Beli ap Rhun in c, on the accession of Belis son Iago ap Beli in c. 599, the situation in Britain had deteriorated significantly, most of the area today called northern England and been overrun by the invading Angles of Deira and Bernicia who were in the process of forming the Kingdom of Northumbria
History of Wales
The history of Wales begins with the arrival of human beings in the region thousands of years ago. Neanderthals lived in what is now Wales, or Cymru in Welsh, at least 230,000 years ago, while Homo sapiens arrived by about 31,000 BC. However, continuous habitation by humans dates from the period after the end of the last ice age around 9000 BC, and Wales has many remains from the Mesolithic, Neolithic. During the Iron Age the region, like all of Britain south of the Firth of Forth, was dominated by the Celtic Britons, the Romans departed from Britain in the 5th century, opening the door for the Anglo-Saxon invasion. Thereafter Brittonic language and culture began to splinter, and several groups formed. The Welsh people were the largest of groups, and are generally discussed independently of the other surviving Brittonic-speaking peoples after the 11th century. A number of kingdoms formed in present-day Wales in the post-Roman period, internecine struggles and external pressure from the English and later, the Norman conquerors of England, led to the Welsh kingdoms coming gradually under the sway of the English crown.
The Welsh launched several revolts against English rule, the last significant one being led by Owain Glyndŵr in the early 15th century. In the 16th century Henry VIII, himself of Welsh extraction as a grandson of Owen Tudor. Under Englands authority, Wales became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, the Welsh retained their language and culture in spite of heavy English dominance. The publication of the significant first complete Welsh translation of the Bible by William Morgan in 1588 greatly advanced the position of Welsh as a literary language. Wales played a full and willing role in World War One, the industries of Empire in Wales declined in the 20th century with the end of the British Empire following the Second World War, while nationalist sentiment and interest in self-determination rose. The Labour Party replaced the Liberal Party as the dominant political force in the 1940s, the nationalist party Plaid Cymru gained short lived momentum in the 1960s. In a 1997 referendum Welsh voters approved the devolution of responsibility to a National Assembly for Wales.
The Red Lady of Paviland, a human skeleton dyed in red ochre, was discovered in 1823 in one of the Paviland limestone caves of the Gower Peninsula in Swansea, South Wales. Despite the name, the skeleton is that of a man who lived about 33,000 years ago at the end of the Upper Paleolithic Period. He is considered to be the oldest known burial in Western Europe. The skeleton was found along with jewellery made from ivory and seashells, following the last ice age, Wales became roughly the shape it is today by about 8000 BC and was inhabited by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962.
Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen.
The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh
The Harleian genealogies are a collection of Old Welsh genealogies preserved in British Library, Harleian MS3859. Part of the Harleian Library, the manuscript, which contains the Annales Cambriae. 1100, although a date of c.1200 is possible, since the genealogies begin with the paternal and maternal pedigrees of Owain ap Hywel Dda, the material was probably compiled during his reign. The collection traces the lineages of less prominent rulers of Wales, some of the genealogies reappear in the genealogies from Jesus College MS20. Bonedd Gwŷr y Gogledd Genealogies from Jesus College MS20 Siddons, a Historical Encyclopedia, ed. John T. Koch. ‘The Chronology of the Annales Cambriae and the Liber Landavensis on the basis of their Old French Graphical Phenomena, National Library of Wales Journal XI, no.3, 181-226. A Translation of Harleian 3859, PRO E. 164/1, Cottonian Domitian, A1, Exeter Cathedral Library MS.3514 and MS Exchequer DB Neath, Egerton, The Annales Cambriae and Old Welsh Genealogies, from Harleian MS.
3859, in Phillimore, Egerton, Y Cymmrodor, IX, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, a copy of this text is reproduced on-line at Full-text resources for ‘Dark Age’ history, Keith Fitzpatrick-Matthews. Edited versions of this appear at Wikisource and Mary Jones Celtic Literature Collective. The Dynasty of Cunedag and the Harleian Genealogies, Y Cymmrodor, XXI, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, pp. 63–105 Anscombe, A. Indexes to Old-Welsh Genealogies, in Stokes, Meyer, Archiv für celtische Lexikographie, I, Max Niemeyer, pp. 187–212, 513–549 Anscombe, A. Indexes to Old-Welsh Genealogies, in Stokes, Meyer, Archiv für celtische Lexikographie, II, Max Niemeyer, pp. 147–196 James, “The Harleian Ms.3859 Genealogy II, The Kings of Dyfed down to Arthur Map Petr. Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 23,2, 143-52, Egerton, ed. Pedigrees from Jesus College MS. 20, Y Cymmrodor, VIII, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, pp. 77–92
Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion
The Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, often called simply the Cymmrodorion, is a London-based Welsh learned society, with membership open to all. It was first established in 1751 as a social, literary and it fell into abeyance between 1787 and 1820, and again between 1843 and 1873. In its second and third incarnations its interests have been predominantly cultural, the present society claims continuity from that founded in 1751, but the three successive societies have in fact been slightly different in character and aims. The society continues to be based in London, but now draws two-thirds of its membership from Wales, the Society was founded by the brothers Lewis and Richard Morris, natives of Anglesey. The name, coined by Lewis Morris, was a form of the Welsh, cyn-frodorion, several factors combined to prompt the foundation of the new society. One may have been Lewis Morriss disappointment at his failure to be elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. More important was a desire to support the Welsh Charity School, established in 1716 under the auspices of another London Welsh Society, by the 1740s the Antient Britons had become somewhat moribund, and the new Society of Cymmrodorion was intended in part to supplement its efforts.
It was to raise funds to relieve impoverished Welsh people in London, the Societys primary object, was to be a hub of social activity for the Welsh in London, and a focus of Welsh culture. Regular meetings were held on the first Wednesday of each month, Richard Morris served as the Societys first Llywydd. On his death in 1779, the Society offered a medal for the best elegy on its late President. Sir Watkin Lewes succeeded Morris as Llywydd, and served until the first Societys demise in 1787, the Society had a Penllywydd. This office was held by William Vaughan of Corsygedol until shortly before his death in 1775, in the second half of the 18th century the Welsh Charity School was run jointly by the Antient Britons and the Cymmrodorion. The officers of the Cymmrodorion used the building on Clerkenwell Green as their business address, sometimes held meetings there. The library was intended to hold a copy of every Book that hath ever been printed in the antient British language and it was, in other words, regarded as a prototype National Library of Wales.
A regular and important activity in the Societys calendar was the annual Saint Davids Day dinner, in 1766 John Egerton, Bishop of Bangor, appointed an elderly English priest, Dr Thomas Bowles, to the parish of St Beuno and chapelry of St Cwyfan, Llangwyfan. The Court of Arches heard evidence in the case in May 1770 but did not hear the prosecution, however, he agreed with the prosecution that only clergy who could speak Welsh should be appointed to Welsh-speaking parishes. Richard Morris died in 1779 and the Society fell into abeyance in 1787, in a symbolic gesture, its Presidential Chair was handed over to the Gwyneddigion Society. However, the Charity School, which in 1772 had moved to new premises in Grays Inn Lane and its formal title was therefore the Cymmrodorion Society or the Metropolitan Cambrian Institution
Kingdom of Northumbria
The Kingdom of Northumbria was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland, which subsequently became an earldom in a unified English kingdom. The name reflects the southern limit to the kingdoms territory. Northumbria was formed by Æthelfrith in central Great Britain in Anglo-Saxon times, at the beginning of the 7th century, the two kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira were unified. At its height, the kingdom extended at least from just south of the Humber to the River Mersey, the earldom came about when the southern part of Northumbria was lost to the Danelaw. The earldom was bounded by the River Tees in the south, much of this land was debated between England and Scotland, but the Earldom of Northumbria was eventually recognised as part of England by the Anglo-Scottish Treaty of York in 1237. On the northern border, Berwick-upon-Tweed, which is north of the Tweed but had changed many times, was defined as subject to the laws of England by the Wales. The local Environment Agency office, located in Newcastle Business Park, the term is not the official name for the UK and EU region of North East England.
See also, List of monarchs of Northumbria and Timeline of Northumbria Northumbria was originally formed from the union of two independent kingdoms and Deira, Bernicia covered lands north of the Tees, while Deira corresponded roughly to modern-day Yorkshire. Bernicia and Deira were first united by Aethelfrith, a king of Bernicia who conquered Deira around the year 604. He was defeated and killed around the year 616 in battle at the River Idle by Raedwald of East Anglia, who installed Edwin, the son of Ælla, a former king of Deira, as king. Edwin, who accepted Christianity in 627, soon grew to become the most powerful king in England, he was recognised as Bretwalda and conquered the Isle of Man and Gwynedd in northern Wales. He was, himself defeated by an alliance of the king of Gwynedd, Cadwallon ap Cadfan. After Edwins death, Northumbria was split between Bernicia, where Eanfrith, a son of Aethelfrith, took power, and Deira, cumbria tended to remain a country frontier with the Britons. Both of these rulers were killed during the year that followed, after the murder of Eanfrith, his brother, backed by warriors sent by Domnall Brecc of Dál Riata and killed Cadwallon at the Battle of Heavenfield in 634.
He incorporated Gododdin lands northwards up to the Firth of Forth and extended his reach westward, encroaching on the remaining Cumbric speaking kingdoms of Rheged. Thus, Northumbria became not only part of modern Englands far north, King Oswald re-introduced Christianity to the Kingdom by appointing St. Aidan, an Irish monk from the Scottish island of Iona to convert his people. This led to the introduction of the practices of Celtic Christianity, a monastery was established on Lindisfarne. In 642, Oswald was killed by the Mercians under Penda at the Battle of Maserfield and this battle marked a major turning point in Northumbrian fortunes, Penda died in the battle, and Oswiu gained supremacy over Mercia, making himself the most powerful king in England
He is one of the best-documented figures of the Christian church in the British Isles during the sub-Roman period, and was renowned for his Biblical knowledge and literary style. In his life, he emigrated to Brittany where he founded a monastery known as St. Gildas de Rhuys. Differing versions of the Life of Saint Gildas exist, but both agree that he was born in what is now Scotland on the banks of the River Clyde, and these works were written in the eleventh and twelfth centuries and are regarded by scholars as unhistorical. He is now thought to have his origins further south, in his own work, he claims to have been born the same year as the Battle of Mount Badon. He was educated at a center, possibly Cor Tewdws under St. Illtud. He became a teacher, converting many to Christianity and founding numerous churches and monasteries throughout Britain. He is thought to have made a pilgrimage to Rome before emigrating to Brittany, his life of solitude was short-lived, and pupils soon sought him out and begged him to teach them.
He is thought to have died at Rhuys, and was buried there, the 9th century Rhuys Life is generally accepted as being more accurate. The First Life of St. Gildas was written by a monk at the monastery which Gildas founded in Rhuys. According to this tradition, Gildas is the son of Caunus, king of Alt Clut in the Hen Ogledd and he had four brothers, his brother Cuillum ascended to the throne on the death of his father, but the rest became monks in their own right. Gildas was sent as a child to the College of Theodosius in Glamorgan, under the care of St. Illtud and his master St. Illtud loved him tenderly and taught him with special zeal. He was supposed to be educated in arts and divine scripture, but elected to study only holy doctrine. After completing his studies under St. Illtud, Gildas went to Ireland where he was ordained as a priest and he returned to his native lands in northern Britain where he acted as a missionary, preaching to the pagan people and converting many of them to Christianity.
He was asked by Ainmericus, high king of Ireland, to order to the church in Ireland. Gildas obeyed the summons and travelled all over the island, converting the inhabitants, building churches. He travelled to Rome and Ravenna where he performed many miracles, intending to return to Britain, he instead settled on the Isle of Houat off Brittany where he led a solitary, austere life. At around this time, he preached to Nonnita, the mother of Saint David. He was eventually sought out by those who wished to study under him and he built an oratory on the bank of the River Blavetum, today known as St. Gildas de Rhuys
Kingdom of Powys
The Kingdom of Powys was a Welsh successor state, petty kingdom and principality that emerged during the Middle Ages following the end of Roman rule in Britain. It very roughly covered the top two thirds of the county of Powys and part of the east midlands. The fertile river valleys of the Severn and Tern are found here, the name Powys is thought to derive from Latin pagus the countryside and pagenses dwellers in the countryside, the origins of French pays and English peasant. During the Roman Empire, this region was organised into a Roman province, with the capital at Viroconium Cornoviorum, an entry in the Annales Cambriae concerning the death of King Cadell ap Brochfael says that the land called Powys was originally known as Ternyllwg. Throughout the Early Middle Ages, Powys was ruled by the Gwerthrynion dynasty, a family claiming descent jointly from the marriage of Vortigern and Princess Sevira, the daughter of Magnus Maximus. Archaeological evidence has shown that, unusually for the period, Viroconium Cornoviorum survived as an urban centre well into the 6th century.
The Historia Brittonum, written around AD828, records the town as Caer Guricon, in the following centuries, the Powys eastern border was encroached upon by English settlers from the emerging Anglian territory of Mercia. This was a process, and English control in the West Midlands was uncertain until the late 8th century. In 549 the Plague of Justinian - an outbreak of a strain of bubonic plague - arrived in Britain, the English were less affected by this plague as they had far fewer trading contacts with the continent at this time. In 616, the armies of Æthelfrith of Northumbria clashed with Powys, seeing an opportunity to further drive a wedge between the North Welsh and those of Rheged, Æthelfrith invaded Powys northern lands. Æthelfrith forced a battle near Chester and defeated Selyf and his allies, if King Cynddylan of Pengwern hailed from the royal Powys dynasty, forces from Powys may have been present at the Battle of Maes Cogwy in 642. However, this account is now thought to represent ninth-century imaginings of what must have been going on in the seventh.
Powys enjoyed a resurgence with successful campaigns against the English in 655, 705-707 and 722, the court was moved to Mathrafal Castle in the valley of the river Vyrnwy by 717, possibly by king Elisedd ap Gwylog. Elisedds successes led King Æthelbald of Mercia to build Wats Dyke and this endeavour may have been with Elisedds own agreement, for this boundary, extending north from the Severn valley to the Dee estuary, gave Oswestry to Powys. King Offa of Mercia seems to have continued this consultive initiative when he created an earth work. Davies wrote of Cyril Foxs study of Offas Dyke, In the planning of it, there was a degree of consultation with the kings of Powys and Gwent. And for Gwent Offa had the dyke built on the eastern crest of the gorge, clearly with the intention of recognizing that the river Wye and its traffic belonged to the kingdom of Gwent. This new border moved Oswestry back to the English side of the new frontier, and Offa attacked Powys in 760 at Hereford, and again on 778,784 and 796
Consecrated life, in the canon law of the Catholic Church, is a stable form of Christian living by those faithful who are called to follow Jesus Christ in a more exacting way recognized by the Church. It is characterized by the profession of the evangelical counsels of poverty, chastity. The Benedictine vow as laid down in the Rule of Saint Benedict,58,17, is analogous to the more usual vow of religious institutes. Consecrated persons are not part of the hierarchy of the Catholic Church, unless they are ordained bishops and they led lives dedicated to God, each in his own way. Many of them, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, thus the Church, by virtue of her authority, gladly accepted and approved them. Consecrated life may be lived either in institutes or individually, while those living it are either clergy or lay people, the state of consecrated life is neither clerical nor lay by nature. Institutes of consecrated life are either religious institutes or secular institutes and they manifest to everyone the interior aspect of the mystery of the Church, that is, personal intimacy with Christ.
Hidden from the eyes of men, the life of the hermit is a silent preaching of the Lord, here is a particular call to find in the desert, in the thick of spiritual battle, the glory of the Crucified One. Sacred virgins are one of oldest forms of consecrated life, and they share with the Church her own title of Virgin and Mother and have a specifically spousal vocation with Jesus Christ. Consecrated virgins have come from all walks of life and their numbers include a Doctor of the Church, consecrated widows may be established who, like virgins, profess chastity apart from the world by a public profession. These women and men, through a vow of chastity as a sign of the Kingdom of God, consecrate their state of life in order to devote themselves to prayer. The Code of Canon Law and the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches envisage new forms of consecrated life being approved by the Holy See, societies of apostolic life are dedicated to pursuit of an apostolic purpose, such as educational or missionary work.
They resemble institutes of consecrated life but are distinct from them, the members do not take religious vows, but live in common, striving for perfection through observing the constitutions of the society to which they belong. Some societies of apostolic life, but not all of them, although societies of apostolic life may in externals resemble religious life, a major distinction is that they are not themselves consecrated and their state of life does not change. Each major development in life, particularly in the Latin West. The Greek word for desert, gave this form of living the name eremitic life. Though the eremitic life would eventually be overshadowed by the far more numerous vocations to the cenobitic life, the Middle Ages saw the emergence of a variant of the hermit, the anchorite, and life in Carthusian and Camaldolese monasteries has an eremitic emphasis. The Greek Orthodox and the Russian Orthodox Churches have their own eremitic traditions, the eremitic life was apparently healthy for some, but led to imbalance in others