Lobsters are a family of large marine crustaceans. Lobsters have long bodies with muscular tails, live in crevices or burrows on the sea floor. Three of their five pairs of legs have claws, including the first pair, which are much larger than the others. Prized as seafood, lobsters are economically important, are one of the most profitable commodities in coastal areas they populate. Commercially important species include two species of Homarus from the northern Atlantic Ocean, scampi – the Northern Hemisphere genus Nephrops and the Southern Hemisphere genus Metanephrops. Although several other groups of crustaceans have the word "lobster" in their names, the unqualified term "lobster" refers to the clawed lobsters of the family Nephropidae. Clawed lobsters are not related to spiny lobsters or slipper lobsters, which have no claws, or to squat lobsters; the closest living relatives of clawed lobsters are the reef lobsters and the three families of freshwater crayfish. Lobsters are invertebrates with a hard protective exoskeleton.
Like most arthropods, lobsters must moult to grow. During the moulting process, several species change color. Lobsters have eight walking legs. Although lobsters are bilaterally symmetrical like most other arthropods, some genera possess unequal, specialized claws. Lobster anatomy includes two main body parts: the abdomen; the cephalothorax fuses the thorax, both of which are covered by a chitinous carapace. The lobster's head bears antennae, mandibles, the first and second maxillae; the head bears the compound eyes. Because lobsters live in murky environments at the bottom of the ocean, they use their antennae as sensors; the lobster eye has a reflective structure above a convex retina. In contrast, most complex eyes use a concave retina; the lobster's thorax is composed of maxillipeds, appendages that function as mouthparts, pereiopods, appendages that serve for walking and for gathering food. The abdomen includes pleopods, used for swimming as well as the tail fan, composed of uropods and the telson.
Lobsters, like snails and spiders, have blue blood due to the presence of hemocyanin, which contains copper. In contrast and many other animals have red blood from iron-rich hemoglobin. Lobsters possess a green hepatopancreas, called the tomalley by chefs, which functions as the animal's liver and pancreas. Lobsters of the family Nephropidae are similar in overall form to a number of other related groups, they differ from freshwater crayfish in lacking the joint between the last two segments of the thorax, they differ from the reef lobsters of the family Enoplometopidae in having full claws on the first three pairs of legs, rather than just one. The distinctions from fossil families such as the Chilenophoberidae are based on the pattern of grooves on the carapace. Lobsters are dark colored, either bluish green or greenish brown as to blend in with the ocean floor, but they can be found in a multitude of colors. Lobsters with atypical coloring are rare, accounting for only a few of the millions caught every year, due to their rarity, they aren't eaten, instead released back into the wild or donated to aquariums.
In cases of atypical coloring, there is a genetic factor, such as albinism or hermaphroditism. Notably, the New England Aquarium has a collection of such lobsters, called the Lobster Rainbow, on public display. Special coloring doesn't appear to have an effect on the lobster's taste once cooked. Lobsters live up to an estimated 45 to 50 years in the wild. In 2012, a report was published describing how growth bands in calcified regions of the eyestalk or gastric mill in shrimps and lobsters could be used to measure growth and mortality in decapod crustaceans. Without such a technique, a lobster's age is estimated by size and other variables. Research suggests that lobsters may not slow down, weaken or lose fertility with age, that older lobsters may be more fertile than younger lobsters; this longevity may be due to telomerase, an enzyme that repairs long repetitive sections of DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes, referred to as telomeres. Telomerase is expressed by most vertebrates during embryonic stages, but is absent from adult stages of life.
However, unlike most vertebrates, lobsters express telomerase as adults through most tissue, suggested to be related to their longevity. Telomerase is present in'Green Spotted' lobsters - whose markings are thought to be produced by the enzyme interacting with their shell pigmentation Lobster longevity is limited by their size. Moulting requires metabolic energy and the larger the lobster, the more energy is needed. Lobsters, like many other decapod crustaceans, grow throughout life and are able to add new muscle cells at each moult. Lobster longevity allows them to reach impressive sizes. According to Guinness World Records, the largest lobster caught was in Nov
Hyas is a genus of oregoniid crabs, comprising five extant species: Hyas alutaceus Brandt, 1851 Hyas araneus Hyas coarctatus Leach, 1815 Hyas lyratus Dana, 1851 Hyas ursinus Rathbun, 1924 Media related to Hyas at Wikimedia Commons
Devon and Cornwall Police
Devon and Cornwall Police is the territorial police force responsible for policing the counties of Devon and Cornwall, including the unitary authority areas of Plymouth and the Isles of Scilly. The geographical area covered is the largest for any police force in England, the fifth largest in the United Kingdom; the total resident population of the force area is 1.5 million, with around 11 million visitors annually. The force was formed on 1 April 1967 by the amalgamation of the Devon and Exeter Police, Cornwall County Constabulary and Plymouth City Police, these three constabularies were an amalgamation of 23 city and borough police forces that were absorbed between 1856 and 1947. Bodmin Borough Police 1836 to 1865: Three constables were appointed on 1 January 1836 under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, they acted as firemen. In 1865 a public inquiry was held on the matter of amalgamating Bodmin Borough Police with the Cornwall Constabulary. Although the proposal was unpopular, amalgamation took place on 21 October 1865.
Falmouth Borough Police 1836 to 1889: Six officers were appointed in 1836 comprising two serjeants-at-mace and three constables. In 1857, the force was led by an officer with the rank of superintendent with two constables in his charge. On 1 April 1889, the Falmouth Borough Police was amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary by virtue of section 35 of the Local Government Act 1888; the Act made it mandatory for all police forces covering a populace of less than 10,000 to merge with the county police. Helston Borough Police 1851 to 1889: Although Helston was mandated to create an organised police force, it continued to appoint parish officers until the 1850s when the increase in population and crime rate demanded the appointment of a full-time head constable and a handful of part-time constables. A popular pastime among drunken miners in Helston was the attempted strangulation of Head Constable Bishop, who found himself being throttled on many occasions while attempting to make arrests; the force was amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary in 1889.
Launceston Borough Police 1846 to 1883: Edward Barrett, for many years the only constable in Launceston, garnered a menacing reputation thanks to the gratuitous use of his ‘black book’ and for the ravenous dog that accompanied him on his patrols. In 1883, the loss of a government grant to the Launceston authorities forced them to reconsider Barratt's position, from that year the Borough of Launceston was policed by the Cornwall Constabulary. Liskeard Borough Police 1853 to 1877: A police force for the cash-strapped Borough of Liskeard did not materialise until 1853 when they resolved to appoint Inspector Humphreys and Constable Spry as the first and only members of the Liskeard Borough Police. In 1877, after repeated condemnation of the force by the HMI, it was amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary. Penryn Borough Police 1836 to 1889: The Penryn Borough Police numbered more than two full-time constables, supported by special constables at times of disorder. Along with the Falmouth, Helston and St Ives constabularies, Penryn's lawmen amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary by Act of Parliament in 1889.
Penzance Borough Police 1836 to 1947: Formed on 1 January 1836 and consisting of three constables paid from the borough rate. The first chief constable carried the title of ‘Le Yeoman,’ an archaic term taken from Penzance's second charter of 1614. In 1852 the Great Western Railway arrived in Penzance, increasing tourism and the general population considerably; the increase in population brought with it an increase in crime and the Penzance force grew accordingly. During the First World War many constables resigned to join the colours and hundreds of ordinary citizens enrolled as special constables. During the Second World War a large war reserve constabulary was built and formed part of Penzance's civil defence response to air raids, it was a efficient and organised force, ordered to merge with the Cornwall Constabulary on 1 April 1947. St. Ives Borough Police 1836 to 1889: The St Ives authorities could only afford to appoint one constable and this remained the case for the force's 53-year history.
A few years before the St Ives Borough Police amalgamated with the county police, the elderly head constable Mr Bennett had become frail and eccentric. Said to have spent much of his time sat on a stool watching the ships sail into St Ives Bay, Bennett's final and most inauspicious act was the transfer of a prisoner by train to Bodmin. During a stop, the head constable decided to get off and stretch his legs, an activity he became so preoccupied with that the train, his prisoner, left without him. Truro Borough Police 1836 to 1921: An ad hoc force for Truro existed between 1836 and 1838 when it was resolved to appoint a superintendent and constables proper. "I’ll have you under the clock!" was on oft uttered warning to miscreants by the borough constables – a reference to the police cells situated under the town hall clock on Boscawen Street. In 1877 Truro was granted city status and the police force was renamed accordingly to Truro City Police; the long and varied history of the Truro City Police concluded on 28 February 1921 when the constables were forcibly merged with the Cornwall Constabulary.
Cornwall County Constabulary 1856 to 1967: Esteemed members of the Cornish judiciary met at Bodmin in November 1856 to discuss the formation of the Cornwall Constabulary and decided on a force numbering 178 constables under Colonel Walter Raleigh Gilbert. The building of the force, conducted by Gilbert, two superintendents and a sergeant major, was a troubled process. Gilbert set impossibly high standards for recruits and many did not meet the requirements. By the summer of 1857, the force was only at half-strength, drawing criticism from the Bo
Lizard known as The Lizard, is a village on the Lizard peninsula in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated about ten miles south of Helston, is mainland Britain's most southerly settlement. Lizard is a tourist centre and its large village green is surrounded by cafes and gift shops; the name derives from the Cornish Lis for'place' and Ard for'high'. The village is in the civil parish of Landewednack, the most southerly parish on the British mainland; the parish church is the most southerly in mainland Britain. It is built of local Serpentinite stone and is situated in the hamlet of Landewednack, now a suburb of Lizard village. Lizard Lighthouse, the oldest mainland light in Cornwall, is situated half-a-mile south of the village, it has twin towers and was erected in 1752 although there had been a light here since 1619. The Lizard Lifeboat Station, operated by the RNLI, is situated at Kilcobben Cove half-a-mile east of the village; the Spanish Armada was first spotted from near Lizard village in 1588.
There is a Cornish cross in the village
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Conger is a genus of marine congrid eels. It includes some of the largest types of eels, ranging up to 3 m in length, in the case of the European conger. Large congers have been observed by divers during the day in parts of the Mediterranean Sea, both European and American congers are sometimes caught by fishermen along the European and North American coasts; the life histories of most conger eels are poorly known. Based on collections of their small leptocephalus larvae, the American conger eel has been found to spawn in the southwestern Sargasso Sea, close to the spawning areas of the Atlantic freshwater eels. "Conger" or "conger eel" is sometimes included in the common names of species of the family Congridae, including members of this genus. Conger cinereus Rüppell, 1830 Conger conger Conger erebennus Conger esculentus Poey, 1861 Conger macrocephalus Robert H. Kanazawa, 1958 Conger marginatus Valenciennes, 1850 Conger myriaster Conger oceanicus Conger oligoporus Kanazawa, 1958 Conger orbignianus Valenciennes, 1842 Conger philippinus Kanazawa, 1958 Conger triporiceps Kanazawa, 1958 Conger verreauxi Kaup, 1856 Conger wilsoni Fishing for congers is recorded in the 12th-century.
One species of the conger eel, Conger myriaster, is an important food fish in East Asia. It is served as sushi. Congers can attack humans. In July, 2013, a diver was attacked by a conger eel in Killary Harbour, Ireland, at a depth of 25 metres; the eel bit a large chunk from his face. The diver reported the creature was more than 1.8 metres in length and "about the width of a human thigh". BOLDSystems: Genus Conger