Woodbury is a village and civil parish in East Devon in the English county of Devon, 7 miles south east of the city of Exeter. It is a commuter village and is residential, since the majority of the workforce commute to Exeter. At the 2011 Census the village had a population of 1,605, the parish had a population of 3,466, it lies on the east bank of the Exe Estuary, has borders – clockwise from the estuary – with the district of Exeter and the parishes of Clyst St George, Clyst St Mary, Colaton Raleigh and Lympstone. Woodbury is part of the electoral ward of Woodbury and Lympstone whose population at the 2011 Census was 5,260; the village itself lies about four miles north of the centre of Exmouth on the B3179 road between Clyst St George and Budleigh Salterton. About two miles to the north lies the east-west A3052 road and about 1.5 miles to the west of the village the A376 road that follows the Exe Estuary from Exeter down to Exmouth passes through the parish. The small settlements of Ebford and Exton are on this road.
Woodbury Castle is an Iron Age fort on Woodbury Common. The ancient manor of Nutwell was in the west of the parish, adjacent to the Exe Estuary; the present house, Nutwell Court was built in 1810. The railway line which follows the estuary between Exeter and Exmouth was opened in 1861. Now known as the Avocet Line, the nearest station to Woodbury is at Exton; the clergyman and botanist W. Keble Martin lived in Woodbury in retirement; the village centre has two antiques shops and a garage. There are two pubs, "The Maltsters Arms" and "The White Hart" and a Chinese takeaway/fish and chip shop. A restaurant, The Green Door, closed in 2015. Woodbury Church of England Primary School now has over 140 pupils after the building of new classroom facilities in 2010; the parish church, dedicated to Saint Swithun is early 15th century: the Perpendicular style is mixed with elements of the older Decorated. Interesting features include the woodwork of the screen, the 15th-century font, Elizabethan altar rails, Jacobean pulpit, an early 17th-century monument to a man and his wife.
Woodbury is twinned with Bretteville sur Odon in Normandy. Village website GENUKI page
Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King James V, was six days old when her father died and she acceded to the throne, she spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents, in 1558, she married the Dauphin of France, Francis. He ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, Mary became queen consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561. Four years she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and in June 1566 they had a son, James. In February 1567, Darnley's residence was destroyed by an explosion, he was found murdered in the garden. James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was believed to have orchestrated Darnley's death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle.
On 24 July 1567 she was forced to abdicate in favour of her one-year-old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, Queen Elizabeth I of England. Mary had once claimed Elizabeth's throne as her own, was considered the legitimate sovereign of England by many English Catholics, including participants in a rebellion known as the Rising of the North. Perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth in 1586, she was beheaded the following year at Fotheringhay Castle. Mary was born on 8 December 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland, to King James V and his French second wife, Mary of Guise, she was said to have been born prematurely and was the only legitimate child of James to survive him. She was the great-niece of King Henry VIII of England, as her paternal grandmother, Margaret Tudor, was Henry VIII's sister.
On 14 December, six days after her birth, she became Queen of Scotland when her father died from the effects of a nervous collapse following the Battle of Solway Moss, or from drinking contaminated water while on campaign. A popular tale, first recorded by John Knox, states that James, hearing on his deathbed that his wife had given birth to a daughter, ruefully exclaimed, "It cam wi' a lass and it will gang wi' a lass!" His House of Stuart had gained the throne of Scotland by the marriage of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce, to Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland. The crown had come to his family through a woman, would be lost from his family through a woman; this legendary statement came true much later—not through Mary, but through her descendant Queen Anne. Mary was baptised at the nearby Church of St Michael. Rumours spread that she was weak and frail, but an English diplomat, Ralph Sadler, saw the infant at Linlithgow Palace in March 1543, unwrapped by her nurse, wrote, "it is as goodly a child as I have seen of her age, as like to live."As Mary was an infant when she inherited the throne, Scotland was ruled by regents until she became an adult.
From the outset, there were two claims to the regency: one from Catholic Cardinal Beaton, the other from the Protestant Earl of Arran, next in line to the throne. Beaton's claim was based on a version of the king's will. Arran, with the support of his friends and relations, became the regent until 1554 when Mary's mother managed to remove and succeed him. King Henry VIII of England took the opportunity of the regency to propose marriage between Mary and his own son and heir, hoping for a union of Scotland and England. On 1 July 1543, when Mary was six months old, the Treaty of Greenwich was signed, which promised that, at the age of ten, Mary would marry Edward and move to England, where Henry could oversee her upbringing; the treaty provided that the two countries would remain separate and that if the couple should fail to have children, the temporary union would dissolve. Cardinal Beaton rose to power again and began to push a pro-Catholic pro-French agenda, angering Henry, who wanted to break the Scottish alliance with France.
Beaton wanted to move Mary away from the coast to the safety of Stirling Castle. Regent Arran resisted the move, but backed down when Beaton's armed supporters gathered at Linlithgow; the Earl of Lennox escorted her mother to Stirling on 27 July 1543 with 3,500 armed men. Mary was crowned in the castle chapel on 9 September 1543, with "such solemnity as they do use in this country, not costly" according to the report of Ralph Sadler and Henry Ray. Shortly before Mary's coronation, Scottish merchants headed for France were arrested by Henry, their goods impounded; the arrests caused anger in Scotland, Arran joined Beaton and became a Catholic. The Treaty of Greenwich was rejected by the Parliament of Scotland in December; the rejection of the marriage treaty and the renewal of the Auld Alliance between France and Scotland prompted Henry's "Rough Wooing", a military campaign designed to impose the marriage of Mary to his son. English forces mounted a series of raids on French territory. In May 1544, the English Earl of Hertford raided Edinburgh, the Scots took Mary to Dunkeld for safety.
In May 1546, Beaton was murdered by Protestant lairds, on 10 September 1547, nine months after the death of Henry VIII, the Scots suffered a heavy defeat at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh. Mary's guardians, fearful for her safety, sent her t
Edward VI of England
Edward VI was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. He was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine. Edward was the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, England's first monarch to be raised as a Protestant. During his reign, the realm was governed by a regency council; the council was first led by his uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, who from 1551 was Duke of Northumberland. Edward's reign was marked by economic problems and social unrest that in 1549 erupted into riot and rebellion. An expensive war with Scotland, at first successful, ended with military withdrawal from Scotland and Boulogne-sur-Mer in exchange for peace; the transformation of the Church of England into a recognisably Protestant body occurred under Edward, who took great interest in religious matters. Although his father, Henry VIII, had severed the link between the Church and Rome, Henry VIII had never permitted the renunciation of Catholic doctrine or ceremony.
It was during Edward's reign that Protestantism was established for the first time in England with reforms that included the abolition of clerical celibacy and the Mass, the imposition of compulsory services in English. In February 1553, at age 15, Edward fell ill; when his sickness was discovered to be terminal, he and his Council drew up a "Devise for the Succession", to prevent the country's return to Catholicism. Edward named his first cousin once removed, Lady Jane Grey, as his heir, excluding his half-sisters and Elizabeth; this decision was disputed following Edward's death, Jane was deposed by Mary nine days after becoming queen. During her reign, Mary reversed Edward's Protestant reforms, which nonetheless became the basis of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559. Edward was born on 12 October 1537 in his mother's room inside Hampton Court Palace, in Middlesex, he was the son of King Henry VIII by Jane Seymour. Throughout the realm, the people greeted the birth of a male heir, "whom we hungered for so long", with joy and relief.
Te Deums were sung in churches, bonfires lit, "their was shott at the Tower that night above two thousand gonnes". Queen Jane, appearing to recover from the birth, sent out signed letters announcing the birth of "a Prince, conceived in most lawful matrimony between my Lord the King's Majesty and us". Edward was christened on 15 October, with his half-sisters, the 21-year-old Lady Mary as godmother and the 4-year-old Lady Elizabeth carrying the chrisom; the Queen, fell ill on 23 October from presumed postnatal complications, died the following night. Henry VIII wrote to Francis I of France that "Divine Providence... hath mingled my joy with bitterness of the death of her who brought me this happiness". Edward was a healthy baby who suckled from the outset, his father was delighted with him. That September, the Lord Chancellor, Lord Audley, reported vigour; the tradition that Edward VI was a sickly boy has been challenged by more recent historians. At the age of four, he fell ill with a life-threatening "quartan fever", despite occasional illnesses and poor eyesight, he enjoyed good health until the last six months of his life.
Edward was placed in the care of Margaret Bryan, "lady mistress" of the prince's household. She was succeeded by Lady Troy; until the age of six, Edward was brought up, as he put it in his Chronicle, "among the women". The formal royal household established around Edward was, at first, under Sir William Sidney, Sir Richard Page, stepfather of Edward Seymour's wife, Anne Stanhope. Henry demanded exacting standards of security and cleanliness in his son's household, stressing that Edward was "this whole realm's most precious jewel". Visitors described the prince, lavishly provided with toys and comforts, including his own troupe of minstrels, as a contented child. From the age of six, Edward began his formal education under Richard Cox and John Cheke, concentrating, as he recalled himself, on "learning of tongues, of the scripture, of philosophy, all liberal sciences", he received tuition from Elizabeth's tutor, Roger Ascham, Jean Belmain, learning French and Italian. In addition, he is known to have studied geometry and learned to play musical instruments, including the lute and the virginals.
He collected globes and maps and, according to coinage historian C. E. Challis, developed a grasp of monetary affairs that indicated a high intelligence. Edward's religious education is assumed to have favoured the reforming agenda, his religious establishment was chosen by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, a leading reformer. Both Cox and Cheke were "reformed" Catholics or Erasmians and became Marian exiles. By 1549, Edward had written a treatise on the pope as Antichrist and was making informed notes on theological controversies. Many aspects of Edward's religion were Catholic in his early years, including celebration of the mass and reverence for images and relics of the saints. Both Edward's sisters were attentive to their brother and visited him – on one occasion, Elizabeth gave him a shirt "of her own working". Edward "took special content" in Mary's company, though he disapproved of her taste for foreign dances. In 1543, Henry invited his children to spend Christmas with him, signalling hi
William Henry Hamilton Rogers
William Henry Hamilton Rogers, Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, of Ridgeway Row in Colyton, was an English historian and antiquarian who specialised in the West Country of England. He worked with the illustrator Roscoe Gibbs. Bells of Memory, 1862 The Spirit of the Minor Prophets Metrically Rendered, 1865 The Ancient Sepulchral Effigies and Monumental and Memorial Sculpture of Devon, Exeter, 1877 archive.org text The Fate of Clifton-Maubank, 1888 Memorials of the West and Descriptive, Collected on the Borderland of Somerset and Devon, Exeter, 1888 archive.org text List of chapters: Beer and its Quarry. On-line text, freefictionbooks on-line text, with images, Project Gutenburg archive.org text List of chapters: 1: "Our Steward of Household", Lord Willoughby de Broke, KG. 183 Maps and plans of old Southampton, Southampton record Society, vol.3 Wanderings in Devon Chapters include: Beer and its Quarry. West-Country Stories and Sketches: Biographical and Historical, 1895 Archaeological Papers Relating to the Counties of Somerset, Willts and Devon, Published by Barnicott and Pearce, Athenaeum Press, 1902 Devon & Cornwall Notes & Queries, Vol. VIII, Jan.1914-Oct.1915, Exeter, 1915, pp. 1–2, Obituary Works by William Henry Hamilton Rogers at Project Gutenberg Works by or about William Henry Hamilton Rogers at Internet Archive
Sir Amias Paulet of Hinton St. George, was an English diplomat, Governor of Jersey, the gaoler for a period of Mary, Queen of Scots, he was the son of Sir Hugh Paulet of Hinton St George by his wife Philippa Pollard, a daughter of Sir Lewis Pollard, Justice of the Common Pleas, of King's Nympton, Devon. Paulet went to Jersey in 1550 when his father was made Governor and acted as his assistant; the following year he was sent by his father to complain to the Privy Council that officials in Normandy were refusing to hand over six thieves who had escaped from Jersey. He was sent to Paris with a letter for the Constable of France, thence to Normandy, returning to Jersey with his prisoners. In 1556 he was formally appointed Lieutenant-Governor and by the end of the decade he was running the island in his father's absence, he kept this post until 1573. His father Hugh died that year, Paulet was made Governor, a post he held until his death. There was much concern at this time about invasion by the French and Paulet went on a spying mission to the Brittany coast to discover for himself whether ships and troops were being gathered.
Nothing happened because the death of the French king brought a temporary cessation to threats against the Channel Islands. However, relations with nearby Normandy were not good, as shown by a letter from Amias to his father: Mr St Aubin has been arrested by Mons Boisrougier of Coutances, after fourteen days imprisonment dismissed with the loss of a goshawk and 20 ells of canvas. I wrote to this Monsieur for redress, but he answered he was sorry he had dismissed his prisoner, that his stock was not better, advising me to look to myself, as he hoped to pluck me out of my house, as he had the Captain of Alderney. If I had the Queen's leave, I would ask no aid but the retinue of this Castle to pluck him out of his house. Amias continued his father's work on strengthening Mont Orguiel Castle, despite the lack of funds available from Elizabeth, he wrote in 1557: "Though I have husbanded Her Majesty's money well I have been constrained to employ more than I received, our walls want a third part yet".
And in 1563: "I am much deceived, considering the depth of the foundation, the height and thickness of the walls, if a greater piece of work hath been done for the like sum". And again in 1573: "A strong piece of work, begun four or five years ago, lacks completion of one third. Four hundred pounds will be needed this year and four hundred next." Like his father, Amias was anti-Catholic, although more Calvinist than Protestant. When the first Huguenot refugees poured into Jersey in 1558 he appointed some of the priests among them as Rectors and ignored his father's wishes, to an extent those of Queen Elizabeth, over which prayer book should be used in island churches, his appointment to the Town Church of Guillaume Morise, a Huguenot minister from Anjou, led to the establishment of what Chroniques de Jersey described as the first "real Reformed Church in Jersey". There was a second influx of Huguenots in 1568 and they, were welcomed by Amias, although his father had reservations and wrote: "I approve my son's zeal in receiving these strangers, but I cannot like their continued abode in the isle.
They should be passed on." But father and son got on well, despite these occasional disagreements, in 1571 Amias was made joint-Governor, becoming sole Governor on his father's death in 1578, although there are no records of the transition. In 1576 Queen Elizabeth raised him to knighthood, appointed him Ambassador to Paris and at the same time put the young Francis Bacon under his charge. Paulet was in this embassy until he was recalled November 1579. In 1579, he took into his household, the young Jean Hotman, son of Francis Hotman, to tutor his two sons Anthony and George; when the family returned to England, the tutor and his two charges settled at Oxford. His duties meant that Amias was absent from the island for long periods, he was appointed resident Ambassador in France for three years in 1576 and appointed Guillaume Lempriere, Seigneur of Trinity, his Lieutenant-Governor. He was well trusted, because Queen Elizabeth's principal secretary Sir Francis Walsingham wrote: "Her Majesty wishes you in matters that concern her service to deal as you think fit, though you have no special direction, such trust she reposes in you."
He was present in Jersey in 1583 for the swearing-in of his son Anthony as Lieutenant-Governor and his brother George as Bailiff, before leaving to join the Privy Council. A fanatical Puritan with a harsh character, Paulet was appointed gaoler of Mary, Queen of Scots, by Elizabeth in January 1585, at Chartley Castle, guarded her strictly, he replaced the more tolerant Sir Ralph Sadler. He remained her keeper until Mary's execution at Fotheringhay Castle on 8 February 1587, he was present at that event. He was the appointed Chancellor of the Order of the Garter, he married Margaret Harvey, a daughter of Antony Harvey, of Columbjohn in Devon, an "expert surveyor", by whom he had three sons and three daughters: Hugh Paulet, the eldest son, who predeceased his father. Anthony Paulet, eldest surviving son and heir, who succeeded his father as Governor of Jersey, his son was 1st Baron Poulett. George Paulet, who married his distant cousin Elizabeth Paulet and heiress of Edward Paulet of Goathurst, in Somerset Joan Paulet, wife of Robert Haydon of Bowood and Cadhay House in Devonshire.
Sarah Paulet, second wife of Sir Francis Vincent, 1st Baronet of Stoke d'Abernon, in Surrey. Sir Francis Vincent's third wife was Eleanor Mallet
Mary I of England
Mary I known as Mary Tudor, was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. She is best known for her aggressive attempt to reverse the English Reformation, which had begun during the reign of her father, Henry VIII; the executions that marked her pursuit of the restoration of Roman Catholicism in England and Ireland led to her denunciation as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant opponents. Mary was the only child of Henry VIII by his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, to survive to adulthood, her younger half-brother Edward VI succeeded their father in 1547 at the age of nine. When Edward became mortally ill in 1553, he attempted to remove Mary from the line of succession because he supposed that she would reverse the Protestant reforms that had begun during his reign. On his death, leading politicians proclaimed Lady Jane Grey as queen. Mary speedily assembled a force in East Anglia and deposed Jane, beheaded. Mary was—excluding the disputed reigns of Jane and the Empress Matilda—the first queen regnant of England.
In 1554, Mary married Philip of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession in 1556. During her five-year reign, Mary had over 280 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian persecutions. After Mary's death in 1558, her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her younger half-sister and successor Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn, at the beginning of the 45-year Elizabethan era. Mary was born on 18 February 1516 at the Palace of Placentia in England, she was the only child of his first wife Catherine of Aragon to survive infancy. Her mother had suffered many miscarriages. Before Mary's birth, four previous pregnancies had resulted in a stillborn daughter and three short-lived or stillborn sons, including Henry, Duke of Cornwall. Mary was baptised into the Catholic faith at the Church of the Observant Friars in Greenwich three days after her birth, her godparents included Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey. Henry VIII's cousin once removed, Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, stood sponsor for Mary's confirmation, held after the baptism.
The following year, Mary became a godmother herself when she was named as one of the sponsors of her cousin Frances Brandon. In 1520, the Countess of Salisbury was appointed Mary's governess. Sir John Hussey Lord Hussey, was her chamberlain from 1530, his wife, Lady Anne, daughter of George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent, was one of Mary's attendants. Mary was a precocious child. In July 1520, when scarcely four and a half years old, she entertained a visiting French delegation with a performance on the virginals. A great part of her early education came from her mother, who consulted the Spanish humanist Juan Luis Vives for advice and commissioned him to write De Institutione Feminae Christianae, a treatise on the education of girls. By the age of nine, Mary could write Latin, she studied French, music and Greek. Henry VIII doted on his daughter and boasted to the Venetian ambassador Sebastian Giustiniani, "This girl never cries"; as the miniature portrait of her shows, Mary had, like both her parents, a fair complexion, pale blue eyes and red or reddish-golden hair.
She was ruddy cheeked, a trait she inherited from her father. Despite his affection for Mary, Henry was disappointed that his marriage had produced no sons. By the time Mary was nine years old, it was apparent that Henry and Catherine would have no more children, leaving Henry without a legitimate male heir. In 1525, Henry sent Mary to the border of Wales to preside in name only, over the Council of Wales and the Marches, she was given her own court based at Ludlow Castle and many of the royal prerogatives reserved for the Prince of Wales. Vives and others called her the Princess of Wales, although she was never technically invested with the title, she appears to have spent three years in the Welsh Marches, making regular visits to her father's court, before returning permanently to the home counties around London in mid-1528. Throughout Mary's childhood, Henry negotiated potential future marriages for her; when she was only two years old, she was promised to Francis, the infant son of King Francis I of France, but the contract was repudiated after three years.
In 1522, at the age of six, she was instead contracted to marry her 22-year-old first cousin, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. However, the engagement was broken off within a few years by Charles with Henry's agreement. Cardinal Wolsey, Henry's chief adviser resumed marriage negotiations with the French, Henry suggested that Mary marry the Dauphin's father, King Francis I himself, eager for an alliance with England. A marriage treaty was signed which provided that Mary marry either Francis I or his second son Henry, Duke of Orleans, but Wolsey secured an alliance with France without the marriage. According to the Venetian Mario Savorgnano, by this time Mary was developing into a pretty, well-proportioned young lady with a fine complexion. Meanwhile, the marriage of Mary's parents was in jeopardy. Disappointed at the lack of a male heir, eager to remarry, Henry attempted to have his marriage to Catherine annulled, but Pope Clement VII refused his request. Henry claimed, citing biblical passages, that his marriage to Catherine was unclean because she was the widow of his brother Arthur.
Catherine claimed so was not a valid marriage. Her first marriage had been annulled by a previous pope, Julius II, on t