Government of Australia
The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. The Commonwealth of Australia was formed in 1901 as a result of an agreement among six self-governing British colonies, the terms of this contract are embodied in the Australian Constitution, which was drawn up at a Constitutional Convention and ratified by the people of the colonies at referendums. Separation of powers is implied by the structure of the Constitution, the Australian system of government combines elements of the Westminster and Washington systems with unique Australian characteristics, and has been characterised as a Washminster mutation. Section 51 of the Constitution provides for the Commonwealth Governments legislative powers and allocates certain powers, all remaining responsibilities are retained by the six States. Further, each State has its own constitution, so that Australia has seven sovereign Parliaments, the High Court of Australia arbitrates on any disputes which arise between the Commonwealth and the States, or among the States, concerning their respective functions.
The Commonwealth Parliament can propose changes to the Constitution, the Commonwealth Constitution provides that the States can agree to refer any of their powers to the Commonwealth. This may be achieved by way of an amendment to the Constitution via referendum, more commonly powers may be transferred by passing other acts of legislation which authorise the transfer and such acts require the legislative agreement of all the state governments involved. This transfer legislation may have a clause, a legislative provision that nullifies the transfer of power after a specified period. In addition, Australia has several territories, two of which are self-governing, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, Australian citizens in these territories are represented by members of both houses of the Commonwealth Parliament. The territory of Norfolk Island was self-governing from 1979 until 2016, the other territories that are regularly inhabited—Jervis Bay, Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands—have never been self-governing.
The federal nature of the Commonwealth and the structure of the Parliament of Australia were the subject of protracted negotiations among the colonies during the drafting of the Constitution, the House of Representatives is elected on a basis that reflects the differing populations of the States. Thus New South Wales has 48 members while Tasmania has only five, but the Senate is elected on a basis of equality among the States, all States elect 12 Senators, regardless of population. This was intended to allow the Senators of the smaller States to form a majority, the ACT and the NT each elect two Senators. The third level of government after Commonwealth and State/Territory is Local government, in the form of shires, the Councils of these areas are composed of elected representatives, usually serving part-time. Their powers are devolved to them by the State or Territory in which they are located, with this act, Australian law was made unequivocally sovereign, and the High Court of Australia was confirmed as the highest court of appeal.
The theoretical possibility of the British Parliament enacting laws to override the Australian Constitution was removed, the Legislature makes the laws, and supervises the activities of the other two arms with a view to changing the laws when appropriate. The Australian Parliament is bicameral, consisting of the Queen of Australia, a 76-member Senate, twelve Senators from each state are elected for six-year terms, using proportional representation and the single transferable vote, with half elected every three years. In addition to the state Senators, two senators are elected by voters from the Northern Territory, while another two senators are elected by the voters of the Australian Capital Territory
Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist. The family returned to Perth, and in 1917 moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a cadet at the Adelaide Public Library. Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in a gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologists Assistant to Arthur Mills Lea and he had already published thirty-one papers on entomological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various groupings of Indigenous Australians. This interest began with a trip to Groote Eylandt where an Anindilyakwa man gave Tindale very detailed descriptions of which land was his. This led Tindale to question the orthodoxy of the time which was that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region.
While Tindales methodology and his notion of the tribe have been superseded. Quite a number of now-important record films were made by Tindale, in 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and was assigned the rank of Wing Commander. He had previously tried to enlist in the Australian army at the outbreak of WWII but was rejected due to his damaged eyesight, in 1967, at the age of sixty-six, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Colorado. He was eventually honoured with a doctorate by the Australian National University in 1980, during 1993 Tindale received unofficial confirmation of his appointment as an Officer of the Order of Australia, this was presented posthumously, to his widow Muriel. Also in 1993, the South Australian Museum Boards named a public gallery in his honour, Tindale published extensively, both as sole author and collaborator. Note that the archives contain 2,804 items related to Dr Tindale
The Inner West is the metropolitan area directly to the west of the Sydney central business district, New South Wales, Australia. The suburbs of the Inner West are predominantly located along the shore of Port Jackson. The Inner West is a geographical region. This nation was broken up into a number of Aboriginal clans who tended to live in a geographic area. Each clan contained about 50 to 100 people and, to avoid genetic problems, so the clans were interrelated and members from one clan would frequently travel in the territory of others, including to hunt and perform ceremonies. They didnt consider themselves owners of the land, rather custodians, the topography of the Inner West reflects rolling hills intersected by shallow valleys through which waterways including Iron Cove Creek, Hawthorne Canal, Whites Creek and Johnstons Creek flow. These waterways have been altered since the late 19th century by the means of concrete lining. For example, in the 1860s Iron Cove Creek was a freely flowing waterway which in places broadened into ponds that made excellent and it is now barely a trickle lined by residential areas and fast-food restaurants.
The suburbs within the region are characterised by medium to high-density housing and include some of the constructions in Sydney such as the terraced houses of Glebe, Newtown. Parts of the inner west have been subject to gentrification, particularly in Marrickville, patricks College, Trinity Grammar School, Newington College and its preparatory school Wyvern House, Meriden School, Santa Sabina College and Rosebank College. The Inner Wests two oldest schools are Newington College and Rosebank College, public transport in the region includes trains, buses and light rail. Sydney Trains Airport, Inner West & South Line runs from Central station, largely running south of Parramatta Road to Strathfield and to Macarthur via Granville. The North Shore, Northern & Western Line follows the route to Strathfield and branches off to the north to Epping, with stops at North Strathfield, Concord West. The Bankstown Line provides train services to such as Erskineville, St Peters, Marrickville. There are various bus routes provided largely by Sydney Buses, Sydney Ferries operates services in the inner harbour and Parramatta river.
The Dulwich Hill Line of Sydneys light rail network connects Pyrmont, Lilyfield, Parramatta Road runs through the middle of this area. Although still playing only a part in the overall transport task. Denser populations and shorter distances mean cycling is often quicker and more convenient than driving or taking public transport, a network of bicycle paths, signed bicycle routes on local streets and other aids to safe and convenient cycling is developing
Eastern Suburbs (Sydney)
The Eastern Suburbs is the metropolitan area directly to the east and south-east of the Sydney central business district in Sydney, Australia. This can include the suburbs within the government areas of the Municipality of Woollahra, Waverley Council, City of Randwick, and parts of Bayside Council. The Australian Bureau of Statistics Eastern Suburbs Statistical Subdivision includes only the Woollahra, according to the 2011 Census, the regions population was 249,546, up from 230,757 in 2006. The Eastern Suburbs of Sydney extends from the peninsula of South Head at Watsons Bay in the north to La Perouse in the South, the landscape in these areas is characterized by winding crescent-like streets, large homes and harbourside beaches and villages. The landscape in areas is characterized by modest yet modern homes, ocean beaches. To the west of Bondi Junction are the inner-city suburbs of Centennial Park, Surry Hills, Moore Park, the landscape in these areas is dominated by overhanging trees, renovated terrace houses and modernized pubs and bars.
The largest commercial areas in the Eastern Suburbs are found at Bondi Junction, North Randwick, the Eastern Suburbs features some of Sydneys well-known beaches such as Bondi Beach, Bronte Beach, and Coogee Beach. The University of New South Wales is one of Australias leading universities located in Kensington, the Roosters have represented Sydneys east as its flagship team in a major sporting premiership, since the establishment of the club at the Paddington Town Hall in 1908
Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The harbour is an inlet of the Tasman Sea and it is the location of the Sydney Opera House and Sydney Harbour Bridge. The location of the first European settlement in Australia, Port Jackson has continued to play a key role in the history and development of Sydney. Many recreational events are based on or around the harbour itself particularly the Sydney New Years Eve celebrations, the waterways of Port Jackson are managed by the Roads & Maritime Services. Sydney Harbour National Park protects a number of islands and foreshore areas, swimming spots, bushwalking tracks, the land around Port Jackson was occupied at the time of the European arrival and colonisation by the Eora clans, including the Gadigal and Wangal. The Gadigal occupied the land stretching along the side of Port Jackson from what is now South Head.
The Cammeragal lived on the side of the harbour. The area along the banks of the Parramatta River to Rose Hill belonged to the Wangal. The Eora occupied Port Jackson, south to the Georges River, the first recorded European discovery of Sydney Harbour, was by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770 - Cook named the inlet after Sir George Jackson. His ships log notation states at noon we were. about 2 or 3 miles from the land, eighteen years later, on 21 January 1788, after arriving at Botany Bay, Governor Arthur Phillip took a longboat and two cutters up the coast to examine Cooks Port Jackson. Phillip first stayed over night at Camp Cove, moved down the harbour, landing at Sydney Cove, Phillip returned to Sydney Cove in HM Armed Tender Supply on 26 January 1788, where he established the first colony in Australia, to become the city of Sydney. From 1938, seaplanes landed in Sydney Harbour on Rose Bay, in 1942, to protect Sydney Harbour from a submarine attack, the Sydney Harbour anti-submarine boom net was constructed.
It spanned the harbour from Green Point, Watsons Bay to the battery at Georges Head, on the night of 31 May 1942, three Japanese midget submarines entered the harbour, one of which became entangled in the western end of the boom nets central section. Unable to free their submarine, the crew detonated charges, killing themselves in the process, a second midget submarine came to grief in Taylors Bay, the two crew committing suicide. The third submarine fired two torpedoes at USS Chicago before leaving the harbour, in November 2006, this submarine was found off Sydneys Northern Beaches. The anti-submarine boom net was demolished soon after World War II, and all that remains are the foundations of the old boom net winch house, the Australian War Memorial has on display a composite of the two midget submarines salvaged from Sydney Harbour. The conning tower of one of the submarines is on display at the RAN Heritage Centre, Garden Island. Fort Denison is a former site and defensive facility occupying a small island located north-east of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Sydney Harbour
Himberrong is a clan of the Anēwan Aboriginal tribe of what is now known as the New England Tablelands region in northeast New South Wales. The territory of the Himberrong clan stretches from the Moonbi Range in the west, past Yarrowitch and Kunderang in the east, border disputes over the Moonbi Range were common between the Himberrong and a clan of the Gamilaraay. The main camp of the Himberrong was on the bank of the Muluerindie/Macdonald River about two miles upriver from where the 140-acre Inglebah Aboriginal Reserve now stands. Inglebah is the Anaiwan word for whirlpools of crayfish, the swamps, traditionally Aboriginal people camped around Inglebah for fishing and ceremonial activities. Inglebah was favored because it was a sheltered, secure camping spot nestled between hills and the banks of the MacDonald River. It has a permanent water supply from the springs in the area, an elicitation of Anaiwan words was recorded on tape by Harry Wright in 1963 as they were spoken by tribesmen coming into Armidale from Inglebah.
At the time of first contact, the Himberrong clan numbered around 600, two Himberrong men by the names of Bungaree and Yarry were the first of their clan to encounter colonists in the early 1800s. On returning from their trips, the clan would have a great corroboree. In the late 1800s, colonists used explosives to massacre the Himberrong clan at their main camp
The Kamilaroi is one of the four largest indigenous nations in Australia. The Kamilaroi language is classified in the Pama–Nyungan family of Australian languages, the Kamilaroi Highway, Sydney Ferries Limiteds vehicular ferry Kamilaroi, and a cultivar of Durum wheat have all been named after the Kamilaroi people. The language is no longer spoken, though parts have bneen reconstructed by late field work. Robert M. W. Dixon and his student Peter Austin recorded some around Moree, while Corinne Williams wrote a thesis on the Yuwaaliyaay dialect spoken at Walgett, the Gamilaroi were hunters and gatherers with a band-level social organization. Important vegetable foods were yams and other roots, as well as a sterculia grain, insect larvae and eggs of several different animals were gathered. Various birds, emus, possums, dingo pups were regarded as a delicacy. Fish were consumed, as were crayfish, men typically hunted and prepared the game for cooking. Women did the cooking, in addition to fishing and gathering.
Individual Kamilaroi did not eat animals that were their totems, the Gamilaroi or Gomilaroi from the word Kamil or Gamil meaning no, are a large nation of Aborigines consisting of many tribes. The Gamilaroi are the second largest Aboriginal nation on the side of Australia. The nation was made up of smaller family groups who had their own parcels of land to sustain them. One of the great Kings of this tribe was Red Chief, the last link with tribal law and custom in Mungindi would be the forebear of the present Cubby family, who was the last known Respected Elder in the tribe. The Kamilaroi were regarded as fierce warriors and there is evidence of intertribal warfare. The Northern Gamilaroi people have a cultural connection with the Bigambul people. Kamilaroi tradition includes Baiame, the ancestor or patron god, the Baiame story tells how Baiame came down from the sky to the land, and created rivers and forests. He gave the people their laws of life, songs and he created the first initiation site.
This is known as a bora, a place where boys were initiated into manhood, when he had finished, he returned to the sky, and people called him the Sky Hero or All Father or Sky Father. He is said to be married to Birrahgnooloo, who is identified as an emu
Admiral Arthur Phillip RN was a Royal Navy officer and the first Governor of New South Wales who founded the British penal colony that became the city of Sydney, Australia. After much experience at sea, Phillip sailed with the First Fleet as Governor-designate of the proposed British penal colony of New South Wales, in January 1788, he selected its location to be Port Jackson. Phillip was a governor who soon saw that New South Wales would need a civil administration. But his plan to bring skilled tradesmen on the voyage had been rejected and his friendly attitude towards the aborigines was sorely tested when they killed his gamekeeper, and he was not able to assert a clear policy about them. Phillip retired in 1805, but continued to correspond with his friends in New South Wales, Arthur Phillip was born on 11 October 1738, the younger of two children to Jacob Phillip and Elizabeth Breach. His father Jacob was born in Frankfurt, Germany and he was a languages teacher who may have served in the Royal Navy as an able seaman and pursers steward.
His mother Elizabeth was the widow of a seaman, John Herbert. At the time of Arthur Phillips birth, his family maintained a modest existence as tenants near Cheapside in the City of London, there are no surviving records of Phillips early childhood. His father Jacob died in 1739, after which the Phillip family may have fallen on hard times, on 22 June 1751 he was accepted into the Greenwich Hospital School, a charity school for the sons of indigent seafarers. In keeping with the curriculum, his education was focused on literacy and navigational skills. He was a competent student and something of a perfectionist and his headmaster, Rev. Francis Swinden observed that in personality, Phillip was unassuming, business-like to the smallest degree in everything he undertakes. Phillip remained at the Greenwich School for two and a half years, considerably longer than the student stay of twelve months. At the end of 1753 he was granted a seven-year indenture as an apprentice aboard Fortune and he left the Greenwich School on 1 December and spent the winter aboard Fortune awaiting the commencement of the 1754 whaling season.
Phillip spent the summer of 1754 hunting whales near Svalbard in the Barents Sea, as an apprentice, his responsibilities included stripping blubber from whale carcasses and helping to pack it into barrels. Food was scarce and Fortunes thirty crew members supplemented their diet with eggs, scurvy grass. The ship returned to England on 20 July 1754, the whaling crew were paid off and replaced with twelve sailors for a winter voyage to the Mediterranean. As an apprentice, Phillip remained aboard as Fortune undertook a trading voyage to Barcelona and Livorno carrying salt and raisins, returning via Rotterdam with a cargo of grains. The ship returned to England in April 1755 and sailed immediately for Svalbard for that years whale hunt, Phillip was still a member of the crew, but abandoned his apprenticeship when the ship returned to England on 27 July
The Sydney Basin is both a structural entity and a depositional area, now preserved on the east coast of New South Wales and with some of its eastern side now subsided beneath the ocean. It has lost area on its side by erosion. The Sydney Basin consists of Permian and Triassic sedimentary rocks and it is named for the city of Sydney which is centred within it and stretches from Newcastle in the north to Batemans Bay in the south, and west to the Great Dividing Range. The basin is home to the major centres of Newcastle and Wollongong. Sydney’s famous harbour and the cliffs of the Blue Mountains are signature formations of relatively hard upper strata of sandstone. The basin contains the UNESCO World Heritage-listed Greater Blue Mountains Area, definitions of the boundaries and what comprises the Sydney basin vary significantly. The Australian Government classifies the basin as an interim Australian bioregion consisting of 3,629,597 hectares, according to NSW Primary Industries, the basin extends through approximately 350 kilometres of coastline from Newcastle in the north to Durras Lake in the south.
From Durras Lake the western boundary continues in a line through Lithgow to around Ulan, to the north the boundary extends 120 kilometres along the Liverpool Range to a point 80 kilometres north of Muswellbrook, and runs 200 kilometres back to the coast at Newcastle. To the east the basin continues to the edge of the continental shelf, the total area of the basin is approximately 44,000 square kilometres onshore plus 5,000 square kilometres offshore. The centre of the basin is located around 30 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district at Fairfield, in addition, some of the rivers of the Hunter-Central Rivers catchment and the Southern Rivers catchment lie mainly in the basin. In the Hunter-Central Rivers catchment, the Hunter River sub-catchment forms the boundary of the basin. In the Southern Rivers catchment, the Illawarra sub-catchment and the Shoalhaven sub-catchment forms the southern boundary
Sydney central business district
The Sydney central business district is the main commercial centre of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It extends southwards for about 3 km from Sydney Cove, the point of first European settlement in which the Sydney region was initially established, due to its pivotal role in Australias early history, it is one of the oldest established areas in the country. Geographically, its north–south axis runs from Circular Quay in the north to Central railway station in the south, at the 2011 Australian Census, the CBD recorded a population of 14,308. Sydney CBD is very used to refer not only to the CBD proper. The Sydney CBD is Australias main financial and economic centre, as well as a hub of economic activity for the Asia-Pacific region. The city centre employs approximately 13% of the Sydney regions workforce and it produced $64.1 billion worth of goods and services in 2011–12. Culturally, the city centre is Sydneys focal point for nightlife and it is home to some of the citys most significant buildings and structures.
The Sydney CBD is an area of very densely concentrated skyscrapers and other buildings, interspersed by parks such as Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens. George Street is the Sydney CBDs main north–south thoroughfare, the CBD runs along two ridge lines below Macquarie Street and York Streets. Between these ridges is Pitt Street, running close to the course of the original Tank Stream, bridge Street, took its name from the bridge running east–west that once crossed this stream. Pitt Street is the heart of the city which includes the Pitt Street Mall. Macquarie Street is a historic precinct that houses such buildings as the State Parliament House, the Sydney CBD falls under the authority of the local government area of the City of Sydney. The New South Wales state government has authority over some aspects of the CBD, the Sydney CBD is home to some of the largest Australian companies, as well as serving as an Asia-Pacific headquarters for many large international companies. Sydneys CBD is serviced by rail, light rail, buses.
There is a largely-underground CBD rail loop, accessed in both directions via Central, which services five additional CBD stations, plus a spur line to Bondi Junction which services two. The only light rail line currently operating links the southern part of the CBD, both government-run and privately owned, service the CBD along several dozen routes to both inner and more remote suburbs. NightRide is an bus service that operates between midnight and 5, 00am, with most services running from George Street outside the Sydney Town Hall. Sydney Ferries operate largely from Circular Quay, on the edge of the CBD
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney
The Royal Botanic Garden Sydney is a major botanical garden located in the heart of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Opened in 1816, the garden is the oldest scientific institution in Australia and it is open every day of the year and access is free. The first farm by European settlers on the Australian continent, at Farm Cove, was established in 1788 by Governor Phillip, although that farm failed, the land has been in constant cultivation since that time, as ways were found to make the relatively infertile soils more productive. The Botanic Gardens were founded on site by Governor Macquarie in 1816 as part of the Governors Domain. Australias long history of collection and study of plants began with the appointment of the first Colonial Botanist, Charles Fraser, in 1817. The Botanic Gardens is thus the oldest scientific institution in Australia and, bidwell was succeeded the following year by Charles Moore, a Scotsman who had trained in the Botanic Gardens of Trinity College, Dublin. Moore remained Director for 48 years and did much to develop the Botanic Gardens in their modern form and he boldly tackled the problems of poor soil, inadequate water and shortage of funds to develop much of the Gardens as we see them today.
The Palm Grove at the heart of the Garden is a reminder of his skill and foresight, the Botanic Garden once housed a zoo. The zoo was Sydneys first and operated in the Gardens from 1862 until 1883, during these years much of the remnant natural vegetation of the surrounding Domain was removed and planted as parkland. The Moreton Bay Figs, one of the elements of this planting. In 1879 a substantial area of the Domain, south of the Government House stables, was taken for the building of the Garden Exhibition Palace, the International Exhibition held in the Palace attracted over one million visitors. However, the building was destroyed by fire in 1882 and the land, Moore was succeeded by Joseph Henry Maiden who, during his 28-year term, added much to Moores maturing landscape. He organised the construction of a new building, opened in 1901. However, the Botanic Gardens suffered from loss of staff positions during the World War I, and in the Great Depression of the 1930s, both the Herbarium and the living collections languished.
From 1945 Robert Anderson worked to reunify the two, in 1959 the title Royal was granted and the Herbarium and Royal Botanic Garden were administratively reunified under the title Royal Botanic Garden. Knowles Mair achieved reunification and the Royal Botanic Garden began its return to eminence, Dr John Beard and Dr Lawrence Johnson further developed the organisation, and the Robert Brown Building was opened in 1982 to house the Herbarium. The Royal Botanic Gardens celebrated its 175th anniversary in 1991, the Royal Botanic Garden Foundation was established to seek a wider range of support for future needs. In 2014 it was announced that the Royal Botanic Garden Sydney would come under the management of a created entity