Cadillac is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for sweet white wine from the Bordeaux wine region in France. It is located within the Entre-Deux-Mers subregion of Bordeaux, it takes its name from the town of Cadillac. In 2008, the area under cultivation was 128 hectares; the history of wine-growing in the Cadillac area parallels that of the wider Bordeaux wine growing region. Situated within the Premières Côtes de Bordeaux AOC, Cadillac has been a separate AOC since August 10, 1973. Cadillac is a small town tucked between the right bank of the Garonne and the calcareous cliffs of the Entre-Deux-Mers plateau, is about thirty kilometres from Bordeaux; the appellation area includes the communes of Baurech, Cadillac, Cardan, Tabanac, Le Tourne and Villenave-de-Rions. The Cadillac region enjoys the same moderate oceanic climate as the Mérignac meteorological station; the proximity of the Garonne, which runs beneath the wine-growing area, creates a local micro-climate. In autumn the river gives rise to early morning humidity, which dries up in the course of the day, conditions that are conducive to the development of moulds that turn into noble rot.
The appellation area is planted with traditional Bordeaux grape varieties. Sémillon covers 70% of the area. A grape variety with high concentrations of sugar, it has a thin skin which allows the Botrytis cinerea fungus to develop and produce noble rot; the 20% of Sauvignon blanc and Sauvignon gris grapes used add a touch of liveliness to the wine, while the 10% of Muscadelle add a touch of added complexity. The density of planting required is at least 4,500 vines per hectare; the distance between rows should be 2.50 metres at most, the distance between individual vines within the row should be at least 0.85 metres. Pruning of vines should take place annually, before the first leaves have developed. Single and Double Guyot, Cordon de Royat and Gobelet are the permitted pruning methods; the number of buds is limited to a maximum of 12. Once suckering and green harvesting have been completed, the maximum number of clusters allowed per vine is 14. Plots that have been abandoned can no longer be considered part of the AOC area.
Wine-growers must mow or use herbicides to prevent weeds from growing up around the vines, otherwise they could create a humid micro-climate below the leaves that would encourage the development of cryptogamic diseases. They must carry out treatments to keep the occurrence of diseases such as mildew and oidium below the permitted quality thresholds; the proportion of dead or missing vines may not exceed 20% of the total number. If this percentage is exceeded, the final yield must be cut down proportionately. Harvesting is carried out when the grapes are ripe; the degree of ripeness is ascertained by the presence of noble rot or signs of over-maturity, i.e. grapes have begun to dry out on the vine and have become shrivelled, golden-coloured berries. It can be assessed by measuring the sugar content. Before harvesting can begin, it must be shown that the grapes contain at least 255 grams of sugar per litre. Harvesting is carried out manually over multiple successive pickings combined with sorting of the grapes.
The grape-pickers are ordered to pick only those clusters or part-clusters which are either ripe or have heightened sugar content brought about by noble rot. This means. Once they arrive in the wine sheds, the grapes are pressed; the process is carried out in order to allow enough time for the must to be extracted from the dried-out fruits. So, yields of juice are low; the use of machines which break down the grapes is prohibited, i.e. self-emptying tanks with combined rotor crushers and must pumps, continuous screw presses and small diameter screw presses. The must is cooled ready for racking. Afterwards, the must is left to ferment, either in barrels; the fermentation process is lengthy, since the sugar and alcohol slow down the activity of the yeast. Fermentation either stops or is stopped by the wine-grower using cooling and sterile filtering processes: this kind of filtering uses a fine mesh to capture the yeasts that have been anesthetized by the cold. At this stage, the wine is stabilized against possible yeast or bacterial contamination by the addition of sulfites.
The wine is left to mature in vats or barrels for several months and is not allowed to leave the wine sheds before 31 March of the year following the harvest. Quarterly rackings ensure that the lees held in suspension in the wine are removed. Before being bottled, the wine is filtered and the sulfite level is adjusted; the wine has a golden yellow colour that develops over time to a shade of amber. Aromas are fruity and spicy. On the palate, sweetness of aroma and sugar content are balanced by the wine's acidity; the wine is suitable for aging. The wine must have a minimum acquired alcohol content of 12% by volume; the amount of residual sugar must be at least 51 grams per litre. If the wine has been enriched, the potential alcohol content of the wine may not exceed 19% by volume. Premières Côtes de Bordeaux: Cadillac
Artigues-près-Bordeaux is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Ambarès-et-Lagrave is a commune in the Gironde department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Ambarésiens or Ambarésiennes Ambarès-et-Lagrave is part of the Bordeaux urban area located to the north of the Bordeaux conurbation between the Garonne and Dordogne; the A10 autoroute passes down the eastern side of the commune from north to south with Exit 42 → Ambarès-et-Lagrave, Saint-Loubès in the commune. The commune is urbane with small areas of forest in the north and south and farmland in the west and north. Ambarès-et-Lagrave is surrounded by several cities of the Urban Community of Bordeaux: TER AquitaineThe commune is served by two railway stations: the Grave-d'Ambarès station and La Gorp station which have regular links with Bordeaux. TBC Network Trans Gironde Network In the 12th century the city of Ambarès belonged to a vast feudal domain comprising a large part of the marshes of Entre-deux-Mers; this area became the Barony of Montferrand.
The ancient parish of Ambarès was entirely under the jurisdiction of the Lords of Gua who levied tithes from the 15th century. The Lagrave district was attached to the commune of Ambarès in 1818. List of Successive Mayors Ambarès-et-Lagrave has twinning associations with: Kelheim since 1989. Norton Radstock since 1985. In 2009 the commune had 13,172 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The population of Ambarès-et-Lagrave has more than doubled between 1962 and 1999; this significant increase in the population is due to the its proximity to the city of Bordeaux. Although the tertiary sector is predominant in Ambarès-et-Lagrave, the town has many jobs in industry.
Allocation of Workers:Unemployment rate: 9.8% The commune has many buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments: A Lavoir at La Gorp The Château Beauséjour was rebuilt in the middle of the 19th century but as farm buildings it may be older. The old house was listed as Pouyau in the old Land Registry; the Château du Tillac was the noble house of the Joly de Bonneau family. It was built in the 17th century at the site of an old house as it is located on one of the peaks at the end the peninsula; the Chauvette House at 10 Rue de la Commanderie des Templiers A House at 27 Rue Edmond-Faulat A House at 6-8 Rue Edmond-Faulat The Charron House at 9 Rue Edmond-Faulat The Château de Formont was a former noble house on one of the peaks of the end of the peninsula and is shown on the Belleyme map. The building may have been built in the early 18th century as indicated by the date it bore of 1723, now destroyed; the Café Duthil at 11 Avenue de la Gare A House at 7 Rue Guillaume-Peychaud The Château du Gua was a former noble house of the Laroque and Pineau families.
It was mentioned on the Belleyme map. The house was destroyed and rebuilt in 1866; the Le Gaès Farmhouse at 22 Avenue de la Libération The Rousseau House at 61 Avenue de la Libération A Wine Warehouse at 69 bis Avenue de la Libération The former Covered Market / Town Hall at the Place du Maréchal-Leclerc The Château Saint-Denis was an ancient noble house but not listed as such on the Belleyme map. Built in the 17th century for the Pineau family according to a U-shaped plan, it was the property of the actor Louis Jouvet in 1930. The Château Peychaud was a lordship documented since the 16th century belonging to the Fayet family; the old castle was rebuilt in 1680 and in the early 18th century when it included the current building flanked to the north by agricultural areas. The Château Bellevue was rebuilt in the middle of the 19th century on the site of a former U-shaped house mentioned as Puymanot on the Belleyme map and the old Land Registry, it has been converted into a school since 1980. The Château Durandeau was a former noble house of the Rishon family shown on the Belleyme map.
The building may have been built in the 17th century and rebuilt in the 18th century extensively restored in the middle of the 19th century. The Le Grain House at 32 Avenue du Roy The Beaujet House at 83 Avenue du Roy The Town Hall / School at Place de la Victoire The War Memorial at Place de la Victoire A Monumental Column at Rue de la Vierge Mills Winemakers' Huts Houses and Farms Montferrand Marsh The commune has several religious sites that are registered as historical monuments: The Parish Church of Saint Pierre The Chapel of Saint Denis The Cemetery at Rue Victor-Hugo The Presbytery at 3 Rue Victor-Hugo The former Church of the Templars Notre-Dame-de-la-Grave at Rue de la Vierge Monumental Crosses The Parish Church of Saint Pierre contains a large number of items that are registere
Arès is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department Pilgrims of Arès INSEE
Aillas is a commune of the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
The Garonne is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of 602 kilometres. It flows into the Atlantic Ocean at Bordeaux; the name derives from Garumna, a Latinized version of the Aquitanian name meaning "stony river". The Garonne's headwaters are to be found in the Aran Valley in the Spanish Pyrenees, though three different locations have been proposed as the true source: the Uelh deth Garona at Plan de Beret, the Ratera-Saboredo cirque 42°36′26″N 0°57′56″E), or the slopes of Pic Aneto; the Uelh deth Garona at 1,862 metres above sea level has been traditionally considered as the source of the Garonne. From this point a brook runs for 2.5 kilometres until the bed of the main upper Garonne valley. The river runs for another 38 kilometres until the French border at Pont de Rei, 40.5 kilometres in total. The Ratera-Saboredo cirque is the head of the upper Garonne valley, its upper lake at 2,600 metres above sea level is the origin of the Ruda-Garona river, running for 16 kilometres until the confluence with the Beret-Garona brook, another 38 kilometres until the French border at Pont del Rei, 54 kilometres in total.
At the confluence, the Ruda-Garona carries 2.6 cubic metres per second of water. The Ratera-Saboredo cirque has been pointed by many researchers as the origin of the Garonne; the third thesis holds that the river rises on the slopes of Pic Aneto at 2,300 metres above sea level and flows by way of a sinkhole known as the Forau de Aigualluts through the limestone of the Tuca Blanca de Pomèro and a resurgence in the Val dera Artiga above the Aran Valley in the Spanish Pyrenees. This underground route was suggested by the geologist Ramond de Carbonnières in 1787, but there was no confirmation until 1931, when caver Norbert Casteret poured fluorescein dye into the flow and noted its emergence a few hours 4 kilometres away at Uelhs deth Joèu in the Artiga de Lin on the other side of the mountain. From Aigualluts to the confluence with the main river at the bed of the upper Garonne valley at 800 metres above sea level, the Joèu has run for 12.4 kilometres, carrying 2.16 cubic metres per second of water, while the main river is carrying 17.7 cubic metres per second.
Despite the lack of universal agreement upon definition for determining a stream's source, the United States Geological Survey, the National Geographic Society, the Smithsonian Institution agree that a stream's source should be considered as the most distant point in the drainage basin from which water runs. The Ratera-Saboredo cirque is the "most distant point in the drainage basin from which water runs", the source of the Garonne, according to the United States Geological Survey, the National Geographic Society, the Smithsonian Institution convention upon determining a stream's source; the Garonne follows the Aran Valley northwards into France, flowing via Toulouse and Agen towards Bordeaux, where it meets the Gironde estuary. The Gironde flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Along its course, the Garonne is joined by three other major rivers: the Ariège, the Tarn, the Lot. Just after Bordeaux, the Garonne meets the Dordogne at the Bec d'Ambès, forming the Gironde estuary, which after 100 kilometres empties into the Atlantic Ocean.
Other tributaries include the Gers. The Garonne is one of the few rivers in the world. Surfers and jet skiers could ride the tidal bore at least as far as the village of Cambes, 120 kilometres or 75 miles from the Atlantic, further upstream to Cadillac, although the tidal bore appears and disappears in response to changes in the channel bathymetry. In 2010 and 2012, some detailed field studies were conducted in the Garonne's Arcins channel between Arcins Island and the right bank close to Lastrene township. A striking feature of the field data sets was the large and rapid fluctuations in turbulent velocities and turbulent stresses during the tidal bore and flood flow; the European sea sturgeon known as the Atlantic sturgeon or common sturgeon, is now a Critically Endangered species status. This species of sturgeon that can reach a length of 6 m and weigh 400 kg and can reach an age of 100 year Previously found on most coasts of Europe, it has now become so rare that they ONLY breed in the Garonne river basin in France.
Conservation projects are under way to save this fish from extinction with species reintroduction from aquaculture with the first releases being made in 1995. Aran Valley: Vielha, Bossòst Haute-Garonne: Saint-Gaudens, Toulouse Tarn-et-Garonne: Castelsarrasin Lot-et-Garonne: Agen, Aiguillon Gironde: Langon, Bordeaux Following the flow of the river: The Garonne plays an important role in inland shipping; the river not only allows seagoing vessels to reach the port of Bordeaux but forms part of the Canal des Deux Mers, linking the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. From the ocean, ships pass through the Gironde estuary up to the mouth of the Garonne. Ships continue on the tidal river Garonne up to the Pont de Pierre in Bordeaux. Inland vessels continue upstream to Castets-en-Dor