General Motors Company referred to as General Motors, is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, sells financial services, with global headquarters in Detroit's Renaissance Center. It was founded by William C. Durant on September 16, 1908 as a holding company; the company is the largest American automobile manufacturer, one of the world's largest. As of 2018, General Motors is ranked #10 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. General Motors manufactures vehicles in 37 countries, it owns or holds controlling interest in foreign brands such as Holden, Wuling and Jiefang. Annual worldwide sales volume reached a milestone of 10 million vehicles in 2016. In addition to its twelve brands, General Motors holds a 20% stake in IMM, a 77% stake in GM Korea, it has a number of joint-ventures, including Shanghai GM, SAIC-GM-Wuling and FAW-GM in China, GM-AvtoVAZ in Russia, GM Uzbekistan, General Motors India, General Motors Egypt, Isuzu Truck South Africa.
General Motors does business in more than 140 countries. General Motors is divided into four business segments: GM North America, GM International Operations, GM Cruze, GM Financial; the company operates a mobility division called Maven, which operates car-sharing services in the United States, is studying alternatives to individual vehicle ownership. GM Defense is General Motors' military defense division, catering to the needs of the military for advanced technology and propulsion systems for military vehicles. General Motors led global vehicle sales for 77 consecutive years from 1931 through 2007, longer than any other automaker, in 2012 was among the world's largest automakers by vehicle unit sales. General Motors acts in most countries outside the U. S. via wholly owned subsidiaries, but operates in China through 10 joint ventures. GM's OnStar subsidiary provides vehicle safety and information services. In 2009, General Motors shed several brands, closing Saturn and Hummer, emerged from a government-backed Chapter 11 reorganization.
In 2010, the reorganized GM made an initial public offering, one of the world's top five largest IPOs to date, returned to profitability that year. General Motors Company was formed with an escrow account set up by R S McLaughlin for 15 years of Buick Motors in 1907 on September 16, 1908, in Flint, Michigan, as a holding company controlled by William C. Durant, owner of Buick. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were fewer than 8,000 automobiles in the U. S. and Durant had become a leading manufacturer of horse-drawn vehicles in Flint helped by his purchase of the Carriage Gear patent from the McLaughlin family in Canada, in the 1880s and 1890s, before making his foray into the automotive industry in 1904 by purchasing the fledgling Buick Motor Company. GM's co-founder was Charles Stewart Mott, whose carriage company was merged into Buick prior to GM's creation in 1918. Over the years, Mott became the largest single stockholder in The USA, spent his life with his Mott Foundation, which has benefited the city of Flint, his adopted home.
GM acquired Oldsmobile that year. In 1909, Durant brought in Cadillac, Elmore and several others. In 1909, GM acquired the Reliance Motor Truck Company of Owosso and the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company of Pontiac, the predecessors of GMC Truck. Durant, along with R. S. McLaughlin, lost control of GM in 1910 to a bankers who held the Escrow account' trust, because of the large amount of debt taken on in its acquisitions, coupled with a collapse in new vehicle sales; the next year, Durant started the Chevrolet Motor Car Company in the U. S. and in Canada in 1915, through this, he and McLaughlin in Canada secretly purchased a controlling interest in GM. Durant regained control of the company after one of the most dramatic proxy wars in U. S. business history. Durant reorganized General Motors Holding Company into General Motors Company in 1916, merging Chevrolet with GM and allying General Motors of Canada Limited in 1918 after McLaughlin Traded his Outstanding Stocks for GM stocks to allow the Corporation in the USA.
Shortly thereafter, he again lost control, this time for good, after the new vehicle market collapsed. Alfred P. Sloan was picked to take charge of the corporation, led it to its post-war global dominance when the seven manufacturing facilities operated by Chevrolet before Chevrolet acquired the company began to contribute to GM operations; these facilities were added to the individual factories that were exclusive to Cadillac, Oldsmobile and other companies acquired by the corporation. This unprecedented growth of GM would last into the early 1980s, when it employed 349,000 workers and operated 150 assembly plants in the USA. On July 10, 2009, General Motors emerged from government backed Chapter 11 reorganization after an initial filing on June 8, 2009. Through the Troubled Asset Relief Program the US Treasury invested $49.5 billion in General Motors and recovered $39 billion when it sold its shares on December 9, 2013 resulting in a loss of $10.3 billion. The Treasury invested an additional $17.2 billion into GM's former financing company, GMAC.
The shares in Ally were sold on December 2014 for $19.6 billion netting $2.4 billion. A study by the Center for Automotive Research found that the GM bailout saved 1.2 million jobs and preserved $34.9 billion in tax revenue. In 2009 General Motors of Canada Limited was not part of the General Motors Chapter 11 Bankruptcy, the company shed several brands
The Cadillac Catera is a four-door, five passenger luxury sedan manufactured from 1996 to 2001 in Rüsselsheim, Germany, by Opel, marketed in the United States by Cadillac as a rebadged variant of the Opel Omega B—with 95,000 in total sales over five model years. The Catera went on sale in the United States in the fall of 1996 as a 1997 model with a base price of $29,995. Standard features included cloth interior, front bucket seats, dual-zone automatic climate control, AM/FM stereo radio with cassette player and eight-speaker sound system, anti-lock brakes, traction control, keyless entry, security system, alloy wheels, compact spare tire, full instrumentation. Optional equipment included leather interior, heated seats, cassette player and CD player combination, Bose premium sound system, power sunroof, Homelink, OnStar, chrome wheels. A Sport model was offered beginning in 1999 with eight-way power adjustable seats, heated front seats, 17-inch wheels, driver's seat memory, audible theft-deterrent system, three-channel garage door opener, high-intensity discharge headlamps, a rear spoiler.
The Catera received a facelift in 2000 with revised nose, wheels, interior trim, optional HID headlamps, stiffer suspension settings, side airbags. The model's engine was a 200 hp 54° L81 V6 manufactured in England at GM's Ellesmere Port facility, using an FR layout; the GM 4L30-E automatic transmission was manufactured at GM's plant in France. The Catera was marketed with the tagline "the Caddy that zigs," and launch advertisements featuring supermodel Cindy Crawford — who spoke to an animated duck-like character called "Ziggy". Cadillac described the character: "like Catera, Ziggy was hatched in Germany and has the sole mission of bringing fun to the luxury of Cadillac, he was one of six mythical, footless martins or'Merlettes' in the Cadillac Crest before we gave him big feet, a giant beak, turned him around. He's quite a departure from his five brothers who have been part of the Cadillac Crest since the days of the crusades when the crest was the proud symbol of Le Sieur Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac Family.
"Ziggy" was featured through model year 1998. In 1997, John Tinker, a producer of television medical drama Chicago Hope, was inspired by a pun in a Catera commercial saying "Who is Lisa Catera?" and introduced a new character named Dr. Lisa Catera, played by Stacy Edwards. Coincidentally, the main demographic of Chicago Hope viewers were the same demographic Cadillac hoped to attract with the Catera, Cadillac/General Motors management responded positively to the reference, becoming the main advertiser on the show and giving Edwards a complimentary three-year lease on a Catera. In one episode, Edwards' character states "When you can't zig, you zag," a reference to another Catera tagline; the close relative to the Catera's platform continued in use until 2006 in the Pontiac GTO, a US market version of the Holden Monaro coupe, both of which vehicles were manufactured by GM Holden in Australia. These two performance coupes were themselves derived from the sedan platform that originated in the Australian market as the VT-series Holden Commodore in 1997.
The related European Opel Omega was discontinued in 2003. John Phillips. "Cadillac Catera Sport". Car and Driver: 120–125
North American International Auto Show
The North American International Auto Show is an annual auto show held in Detroit, Michigan, at Cobo Center. The show will be held in June from 2020 onwards, it is among the largest auto shows in North America. UPI says the show is "regarded as the foremost venue for manufacturers to unveil new products". In 1899, William E. Metzger helped organize the Detroit Auto Show, only the second of its kind, after the 1898 Paris Auto Show. An auto show was held in Detroit in 1907 at Beller's Beer Garden at Riverside Park and since annually except 1941–1953. During the show's first decades of existence it portrayed only a regional focus. In 1957 international carmakers exhibited for the first time. In 1987 the Detroit Auto Dealers Association proposed; the members of the DADA went to places such as Europe and Japan in the attempt to convince those unveiling their new brands or vehicles in those countries to bring those unveilings to the North American Auto Show. That attempt proved to be successful. Hosted in Detroit, for over a century, since 1965 the show has been held at Cobo Center, where it occupies nearly 1 million square feet of floor space.
Prior to being held at the Cobo Center, the show was held at other well known places in the Metro Detroit area, including the Light Guard Armory, Wayne Gardens pavilion, Michigan State Fairgrounds. Record attendance was with 838,066 attendees. In 2009, attendance had dropped to 650,517. In 2016, there were 815,575 in ticketed attendance, after reaching 803,451 in 2015. Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz were not present at the 2019 edition, following recent absences of other luxury manufacturers like Porsche, Land Rover and Volvo. In July 2018, the Detroit Auto Dealers Association announced they would move the show to downtown Detroit in June 2020, adding outdoor displays and on-road vehicle demonstrations with the better weather; the NAIAS is the only auto show in the United States sanctioned by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles. Over 800,000 attended during the days the show was open to the general public in 2018, it is estimated. The show begins with industry preview days and a charity preview event.
The charity preview raises money for local children's charities. In 2004 and 2005, the charity preview attracted 17,500 people at $400 a ticket and raised $7 million in total. 2006 was the sixth consecutive year. 35,711 tickets were sold for the industry preview representing people from 24 countries in 2005 and 6,897 credentialed press from 63 countries. Two major awards are presented at the auto show: the EyesOn Design Awards for Design Excellence, the Car and Utility of the Year Award, founded in 1994. At the North American Car and Utility Vehicle of the Year awards, awarded in the preview period of the auto show, around 55 automotive journalists serve as judges, they evaluate "value, design, safety and driver satisfaction."EyesOn Design Awards for Design Excellence 2004: Winners were the Mazda Kabura concept for "Aesthetics & Innovation", the Ferrari FXX prototype for "Functionality", the Chevrolet Camaro model for "Concept Implementation".2007: Winners were the 2007 Chrysler Nassau concept for "Aesthetics & Innovation", the Kia Kue concept for "Functionality", the 2008 Cadillac CTS production model for "Concept Implementation", the Jeep Trailhawk concept for "Spirit of Industrial Design".2008: The Cadillac CTS concept and the Chrysler ecoVoyager won the awards for concept car and truck.
The 2009 Cadillac CTS-V and the BMW X6 received the Design Excellence awards for best production car and truck.2009: The Audi Sportback and the Cadillac Converj won the "Excellence in Design Award" for concept vehicles debuted at the Detroit. The Audi R8 V10 and the BMW Z4 received the Design Excellence award for production vehicles.2010: The GMC Granite won the Excellence in Design Award for concept vehicles debuted at the Detroit show and the Audi A8 received the top honor for production vehicles.2011: The Porsche 918 RSR won for concept vehicles debuted at the Detroit show and the 2011 Audi A6 received the award for production vehicles.2012: The Lexus LF-LC won the "Excellence in Design Award" for concept vehicles debuted at the Detroit show and the 2013 Ford Fusion received the top honor for production vehicles.2013: The 2014 Cadillac ELR won the "Production Category" at the Detroit show while the Nissan Resonance concept and the Ford Atlas concept tied for the "Concept Category" award.2014: The 2015 Ford Mustang won "Best Production Vehicle" while the Volvo Concept XC Coupé took awards for both "Best Concept Vehicle" and "Best Use of Color and Materials".2015: The Ford GT won "Best Designed Production Vehicle" award while the Buick Avenir was selected as both "Best Concept Vehicle" and "Best Use of Color and Materials" and the Audi Q7 received Best Designed Interior.
Car and Utility of the Year Award 2007: The Saturn Aura and Chevrolet Silverado received the North American Car and Truck of the Year awards.2008: Won by the 2008 Chevrolet Malibu and Mazda CX-9.2009: Won by the Hyundai Genesis and Ford F-150.2010: Won by the Ford Fusion Hybrid and Ford Transit Connect.2011: Won by the Chevrolet Volt and Ford Explorer.2012: Won by the Hyundai Elantra and Range Rover Evoque.2013: Won by the Cadillac ATS and Ram 1500.2014: Won by the Chevrolet Corvette Stingray and Chevrolet Silverado.2015: Won by the VW Golf
Midnight Club 3: Dub Edition
Midnight Club 3: DUB Edition is a racing game developed by Rockstar San Diego and published by Rockstar Games. It is the third installment in the Midnight Club series. Like previous installments in the series, the game is an arcade-style racer and focuses on wild, high-speed racing, rather than realistic physics and driving; the name is derived from a partnership between Rockstar and DUB Magazine, which features in the game in the form of DUB-sponsored races and DUB-customized vehicles as prizes. Players race through open world recreations of San Diego and Detroit listening to 98 licensed music tracks that include hip-hop and more; the game features a number of graphical views after the player crashes into certain objects, or travels across particular stretches of road. There is the ability to customize a player's vehicle. Other than modifying the external looks, the vehicle's performance can be improved. Midnight Club 3: DUB Edition is the first game in the series to feature licensed vehicles.
There are seven types of cars: Tuners, Luxury Sedans, SUVs/Trucks, Muscle Cars, Sport Bikes, Choppers. As the game continues, different clubs that drive a specific type of car will invite the player to race with them: American Royalty Car Club, Big Playas, By Invitation Only, Chopper of America Bike Club, Luxury Rollers, Original Riders and Unbeatable Street Racers. If the player beats a club in three races they unlock a special ability for that class. Tuners, Sport Bikes, the Lexus SC430, Mercedes Benz SL500 and the Cadillac XLR in "Remix" get "Zone", Trucks/SUVs and Luxury Cars get "Agro", Muscle Cars and Choppers get "Roar". Midnight Club 3: DUB Edition is an open world racing video game and the first game in the series to include car modification, both visual and performance. By winning races, the player unlocks new options to customize them with; these options include enhancing the performance, adding vinyls and new paint jobs, physically modifying the car by changing parts such as wheels, spoilers, neon and engine components.
The cars are divided depending on their performance. There are five types of races in the game: Ordered Race, Circuit Race, Unordered Race, Autocross Race and Frenzy. In ordered races the player races through the city on a course marked by yellow-orange flares to reach a finish line. In circuit races the player races along a circuit course through the city for a set number of laps. In unordered races the player is free to go through scattered checkpoints in any order before crossing the finish line. Autocross races take place in a walled-in circuit of the street with no traffic or police, the goal being to finish the circuit faster than a set time. Track events, available in arcade mode, are similar to autocross races, except that the player competes against other races inside the barricaded track taking more damage. Frenzy events available in Arcade, are time trial races where the player gets every 15 second a nitrous boost the handbrake won't work and the race only ends when the time is over.
Players can create their own races in the Race Editor Players can create either a circuit, ordered or unordered race by placing checkpoints throughout the city, can change racing conditions such as traffic and time of day. The game includes an online mode, where players can race with other players from all around the world. There are many clubs available to join, but players can start and manage their own. Most offline modes are available for play online, while in online mode it's possible to chat in-game, including a cruise mode, capture the flag, circuit racing, ordered racing, unordered racing, tag and Autocross. Tracks created via the Race Editor offline can be used Online; the player begins in San Diego by meeting Oscar, the mechanic of Six-One-Nine Customs, a tuning garage in San Diego. Oscar guides the player through the game by providing helpful tips and information about races; the player begins with a choice of six cars: a 1964 Chevrolet Impala, a 1978 Chevrolet Monte Carlo, a 2004 Dodge Neon SRT-4, a 2004 Mitsubishi Eclipse, a Volkswagen Golf R32, or a 2004 Volkswagen Jetta.
As the player wins races new customization options and cars are unlocked for purchase. The street racers available to challenge at the beginning of the game are: Vanessa and Carlos. Beating two of these street racers will allow the player to challenge Phil for ownership of his Hotmatch Cuevito, an invitation to challenge the Chopper of America bike club. Once the player defeats Phil, Vanessa will challenge them again. After defeating all racers and tournaments in San Diego, the player is introduced to Vince, a mechanic from Detroit. Oscar mentions that the player has been building a reputation as a skilled racer, that there are some big time races in Atlanta that the player may be interested in, he tells the player to go to the shipping company to make the trip. The player arrives in a rather nice looking garage in Atlanta called "Apone Team Racing"; the owner, introduces himself, but is distracted by his most prized procession: a 1964 gold painted Chevrolet Impala that he custom
The Cadillac Escalade is a full-size luxury SUV engineered and manufactured by Cadillac. It was Cadillac's first major entry into the SUV market; the Escalade was introduced for the 1999 model year in response to competition from the Mercedes-Benz ML-Class and Lexus LX and to Ford's 1998 release of the Lincoln Navigator. The Escalade project went into production; the Escalade is built in Texas. The word "escalade" refers to a siege warfare tactic of scaling defensive walls or ramparts with the aid of ladders or siege towers; the 1999 Escalade was nearly identical to the 1999 GMC Yukon Denali, but was redesigned for the 2002 model year to make its appearance fall more in line with Cadillac's "art and science" design theme. Escalade production was skipped for the 2001 model year; the Escalade ESV and its former sibling the Escalade EXT were made in Silao, before the 2007 redesign. As of 2015, the Cadillac Escalade is available in every country; the Escalade ESV version is available in the United States, Mexico and the Middle East.
It is Cadillac's largest luxury oriented, passenger- and load-carrying vehicle, a niche filled by the Cadillac Commercial Chassis. The introduction of the Lincoln Navigator in the 1998 model year necessitated that General Motors be able to compete in the burgeoning American market for full-size luxury-type trucks; this generation was only a five-seat SUV. Fearing the growing hegemony of the Lincoln Navigator, the Escalade was rushed through the design process to reach dealers quickly. Little more than a badge-engineered GMC Yukon Denali, the SUV's aesthetics were similar to the Denali and the final vehicle was smaller than the Navigator; the Escalade's underpinnings were borrowed from the Yukon Denali line, with the GMC logos on the center caps replaced with Cadillac's crest. The Escalade used the same 5.7 L Vortec 5700 V8 at 255 hp, underpowered compared to the Navigator's 300 hp and 365 lb⋅ft 5.4 Liter InTech V8. All first-generation Escalades featured Auto-Trac selectable 4x4; the 1999-2000 Escalade achieves 11 mpg‑US city and 15 mpg‑US highway based on U.
S. EPA test protocols; the interior featured leather seats. The Escalade included a Bose surround system; the Escalade gauge cluster differed from the cluster used in the Tahoe and Yukon. The Escalade gauges features white needles instead of orange and the speedometer reads to 120 mph. According to information from the Highway Loss Data Institute, the Cadillac Escalade is the most stolen vehicle in the U. S. Unlike its Chevrolet and GMC siblings, which launched for the 2000 model year, Cadillac delayed the Escalade's switch to the GMT820 chassis until February 2001 as a 2002 model, the last of the three General Motors full-size truck and SUV brands to switch to the new chassis. Rear-wheel drive was standard, as was a 5.3 L V8. All-wheel drive was standard on the ESV and EXT, was optional on the short wheelbase Escalade; the special high-output Vortec 6.0 L V8 engine was the sole engine choice on all-wheel drive models whether it was the short wheel base, ESV, or EXT until 2005 when the 5.3L was dropped altogether.
In 2005 all rear-wheel drive and all-wheel drive Escalades came with the high output 6.0L Vortec V8. All models offered seating up to eight people; the "StabiliTrak" electronic stability control system was upgraded to a four-wheel version, High Intensity Discharge low beam headlights, power-adjustable pedals and signal outside mirrors were added as a standard feature in 2003, along with a Bulgari-branded clock. For 2004, XM Satellite Radio, second-row bucket seats, a tire pressure monitoring system were made standard on all Escalades except the EXT. In 2004, the Platinum edition Escalade ESV was introduced at a base price of $71,025; the OnStar system was upgraded for the 2005 model year and had become a digital system instead of the analog system, in use. 2002–2003 5.3L LM7 Vortec V8, 285 hp 2004–2006 5.3L LM7 Vortec V8, 295 hp 2002–2003 6.0L LQ4 Vortec V8, 310 hp 2004–2006 6.0L LQ9 HO Vortec V8, 345 hp The Escalade moved to the new GMT900 platform for the 2007 model year, as the GMT900 platforms together were launched together for that year.
The regular Escalade was again joined by a stretched ESV version as well as a new EXT sport utility truck. The 2006 Escalade was the official vehicle of Super Bowl XL, with MVP Hines Ward being awarded one of the first Escalades produced. Production of the redesigned Escalade began at Arlington Assembly in January 2006, it is priced from US$57,280, though the rear-wheel drive version at this price was not produced until August. The more expensive all-wheel drive version was produced first, followed by the long wheelbase ESV and EXT pickup in June. Th
Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor
The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor is a fifth-generation, single-seat, twin-engine, all-weather stealth tactical fighter aircraft developed for the United States Air Force. The result of the USAF's Advanced Tactical Fighter program, the aircraft was designed as an air superiority fighter, but has ground attack, electronic warfare, signal intelligence capabilities; the prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, built most of the F-22's airframe and weapons systems and conducted final assembly, while Boeing provided the wings, aft fuselage, avionics integration, training systems. The aircraft was variously designated F-22 and F/A-22 before it formally entered service in December 2005 as the F-22A. After a protracted development and despite operational issues, the USAF considered the F-22 critical to its tactical air power; when the aircraft was introduced, the USAF stated that it was unmatched by any known or projected fighter. The F-22's combination of stealth, aerodynamic performance, situational awareness gives the aircraft unprecedented air combat capabilities.
The high cost of the aircraft, a lack of clear air-to-air missions due to delays in Russian and Chinese fighter programs, a ban on exports, development of the more versatile F-35 led to the end of F-22 production. A final procurement tally of 187 operational production aircraft was established in 2009, the last F-22 was delivered to the USAF in 2012. In 1981, the U. S. Air Force identified a requirement for an Advanced Tactical Fighter to replace the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon. Code named "Senior Sky", this air superiority fighter program was influenced by the emerging worldwide threats, including development and proliferation of Soviet Su-27 "Flanker"- and MiG-29 "Fulcrum"-class fighter aircraft, it would take advantage of the new technologies in fighter design on the horizon, including composite materials, lightweight alloys, advanced flight control systems, more powerful propulsion systems, stealth technology. The request for proposals was issued in September 1985. Of the seven bidding companies and Northrop were selected on 31 October 1986.
Lockheed teamed with Boeing and General Dynamics while Northrop teamed with McDonnell Douglas, the two teams undertook a 50-month demonstration/validation phase, culminating in the flight test of two technology demonstrator prototypes, the YF-22 and the YF-23 respectively. The program was managed by the Advanced Tactical Fighter Systems Program Office located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base; each team produced one for each of the two engine options. The Lockheed-led team employed thrust vectoring nozzles on YF-22 for enhanced maneuverability in dogfights. Efforts to control the ATF's weight and cost drove out certain requirements during development. Side-looking radars were deleted, the dedicated infra-red search and track system was downgraded from multi-color to single color and deleted as well; however and cooling provisions were retained to allow for future addition of these components. The ejection seat requirement was downgraded from a fresh design to the existing McDonnell Douglas ACES II.
After the flight test demonstration/validation of the prototypes, on 23 April 1991, Secretary of the USAF Donald Rice announced the YF-22 as the winner of the ATF competition. The YF-23 design was considered faster, while the YF-22 was more maneuverable; the aviation press speculated that the Lockheed-led team's design was more adaptable to the U. S. Navy's Navalized Advanced Tactical Fighter, but by 1992, the Navy had abandoned NATF. While the overall shapes are similar, the F-22 would have several notable differences from the YF-22; the swept-back angle of the leading edge was decreased from 48° to 42°, while the vertical stabilizers were shifted rearward and decreased in area by 20%. To improve pilot visibility, the canopy was moved forward 7 inches, the engine intakes moved rearward 14 inches; the shapes of the wing and stabilator trailing edges were refined to improve aerodynamics and stealth characteristics. Increasing weight during development caused slight reductions in maneuver performance.
Prime contractor Lockheed Martin Aeronautics manufactured the majority of the airframe and performed final assembly at Dobbins Air Reserve Base in Marietta, Georgia. F-22 production supported over 1,000 subcontractors and suppliers from 46 states and up to 95,000 jobs, which increased Congressional support. Production spanned 15 years at a peak rate of two airplanes per month; the first F-22, an Engineering. Manufacturing and Development aircraft with tail number 4001, was unveiled at Marietta, Georgia, on 9 April 1997, first flew on 7 September 1997. In 2006, the F-22 development team won the Collier Trophy, American aviation's most prestigious award. Due to the aircraft's advanced nature, contractors have been targeted by cyberattacks and technology theft; the USAF envisioned ordering 750 ATFs at a total program cost of $44.3 billion and procurement cost of $26.2 billion in fiscal year 1985 dollars, with production beginning in 1994. The 1990 Major Aircraft Review led by Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney reduced this to 648 aircraft beginning in 1996.
By 1997, funding instability had further cut the total to 339, again reduced to 277 by 2003. In 2004, the Department of Defense further reduced this to 183 operational aircraft, despite the USAF's preference for 381. A multi-year procurement plan was implemented in 2006 to save $15 billion, program's total cost projected to be $62 billion for 183 F-22s distributed
Gran Turismo 5
Gran Turismo 5 is a racing video game developed by Polyphony Digital and published by Sony Computer Entertainment. It was released for PlayStation 3 on November 24, 2010 and is the tenth game overall in the Gran Turismo video game series, it expands on the game's Prologue version and is the first entry of the series to be developed for PlayStation 3. As of 2013, it is one of the best-selling PS3 games and the best selling PS3 exclusive with over 10 million copies sold; the game marks the first entry in the series with online races with support for up to 16 players. A damage model has been included with variations of damage depending on whether the vehicle falls into the "standard" or "premium" category. Over 1,000 cars, 26 different locations, 71 different tracks are available in the game. Night racing returns. World Rally Championship, NASCAR and Super GT licenses are utilized for the first time in the Gran Turismo series. Gran Turismo 5 is the first game in the franchise to provide a damage model, with variations of damage depending on whether a vehicle is a "Standard" or "Premium" car.
The game features weather effects, however they are only available on certain circuits. Optional Stereoscopic-3D resolution and Karting found a place in the game. Furthermore, new visual effects have been introduced, including dynamic skid marks and the ability for drivers to flash their headlights. A course editor which allows the player to create new circuits by using tools that randomly generate track-parts according to certain player-selected specifications, including the number of corners, the time of day and the number of sectors. There are a variety of themes. Themes have an effect on track length and highest elevation; the physics are revised compared with GT4. Gran Turismo 5 is the first game in the franchise to include both mechanical and external damage modelling, including a real-time deformation engine that will process model deformation according to the speed and angle of impact, it is possible to overturn cars for the first time in the series. The cars in GT5 are separated into "standard"- and "premium"-vehicles.
Standard vehicles have a less detailed damage model with dirt and dents appearing on the car in the event of an accident. In addition, standard cars could not receive aftermarket wheels - among other aesthetic upgrades, such as wheel paint. However, as of the version 2.02 update this is no longer the case. "Premium" vehicles feature a more advanced damage model. Gran Turismo 2 included damage, but was limited to mechanical failures only. Gran Turismo 5 allows players to drive 31 different locations or "scenery" and 81 different track layouts. Dunsfold Aerodrome, located in the United Kingdom – the test track of the British automotive television show Top Gear – is included in the game; the playable demo of Gran Turismo 5 at Gamescom 2009 featured the Tokyo Route 246 track, seen in previous incarnations of the game. Various real-life circuits return from previous games in the series; these include Nürburgring, Circuit de la Sarthe, Tsukuba Circuit, Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca and Suzuka Circuit. New real-life circuits included in the game include Indianapolis Motor Speedway, Monza Circuit, Daytona International Speedway and two new Rome and Madrid city circuits.
Many fictional circuits return from previous games in the series including'Trial Mountain','Deep Forest Raceway' and'Autumn Ring'. An official list of all tracks available in the game has been released by Polyphony Digital. A glitch was discovered on the Nurburgring track that allowed players to finish a lap or race faster than normal. By accelerating against any gap between walls, the player could take a'shortcut' through the track and since there was no collision detection beyond the walls, the player could race his way through the scenery and under the paved course and return to the finish line to complete the lap or the race by driving directly beneath the line in the direction of the intended racing path, as if he/she had driven across the entire track. Other tracks known for glitching are Special Stage Route 7, Daytona International Speedway, Laguna Seca. All glitches were fixed within the first few weeks they were found; the online server disallows glitching by reseting the car that has tried to glitch back on the track.
The "Track Pack" downloadable content, includes Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps and Kart Space I/II. On January 17, 2012, Polyphony Digital released the "Speed Test Pack" that includes "Special Stage Route X". In June 2012, Twin Ring Motegi returned to the series as DLC after the 2012 GT Academy. Gran Turismo 5 provides a total of 1,089 cars. Lamborghini and Bugatti make their first home-console appearance in the franchise, following their introduction in Gran Turismo PSP, it has been confirmed the new "gullwing" Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG will appear, along with the Ferrari 458 Italia and the Lexus LFA supercar. McLaren will make their first appearance as a native manufacturer with the inclusion of the McLaren F1 road car, the F1 GTR race edition, the MP4-12C road car.. Le Mans spec cars will make a return appearance. Hybrids were included in Gran Turismo 4 with the Toyota Prius and the Honda Insight. At the 2009 Tokyo Game Show, Yamauchi