The Cadillac ATS is a compact executive 4-door sedan and 2-door coupe manufactured and marketed by Cadillac and developed at the General Motors Technical Center in Warren, Michigan. Cadillac assembles the ATS at the Lansing Grand River Assembly plant in Michigan; the ATS is based on General Motors' Alpha platform and is offered in either rear- or all-wheel drive configurations. The ATS base engine had been a aspirated 2.5-liter I-4 gasoline engine that produces 202 hp, until the 2016 model year. Optional engines include a 2.0-liter turbocharged I-4 gasoline engine that produces 272 hp and a aspirated 3.6-liter V6 gasoline engine that produces 321 hp. The 2.0-liter engine replaced the 2.5-liter engine as the base engine for the 2017 model year. A diesel engine had been planned to be available in the future. All versions were equipped with a 6-speed GM 6L45 Hydra-Matic automatic transmission as standard until the 2015 model year. An 8-speed automatic transmission was introduced for the 2016 model year.
The 2.0-liter turbocharged, rear-wheel drive version can be mated to an optional 6-speed Tremec M3L TR-3160 manual transmission. Cadillac debuted the ATS to the press in the United States in January 2012, placed the ATS into production in July 2012 and began selling the ATS in the United States in August 2012 as a 2013 model. GM began selling the ATS in China in November 2013. Cadillac sells the ATS in the U. S. Canada, Europe, the Middle East, China and South Korea. GM engineers working principally at the General Motors Technical Center in Warren, United States developed the ATS. Prior to the debut of the ATS, Cadillac's smallest vehicle was the mid-size CTS; the CTS was comparable in price to compact competitors like the Audi A4, the BMW 3 Series, the Lexus IS and the Mercedes-Benz C-Class but was comparable in size and weight to the more expensive mid-size BMW 5 Series. Although Cadillac believed that customers would favor a 5 Series sized car at a 3 Series price, that assumption proved to be incorrect.
Cadillac's research found that target customers who owned vehicles like the 3 Series or A4 did not want a larger vehicle. General Motors began development of a smaller car. To establish parameters around which they would design the ATS, GM engineers benchmarked the 1999-2006 BMW E46 3 Series, which ATS chief engineer Dave Masch and his team regarded as the most dynamic and driver-focused iteration of the 3 Series; the engineers emphasized low weight when developing the ATS and their efforts resulted in a finished vehicle that weighs less than the BMW E46 benchmark. To achieve this result, Masch suggested that the engineering team disregarded certain GM product development rules that, had they been followed, would have resulted in a heavier vehicle. Cadillac showed a pre-production styling buck of the ATS to the press on 11 August 2009. Cadillac debuted the production ATS to the press on 8 January 2012. General Motors began selling the ATS in the United States in August 2012 as a 2013 model. Sales in China began on 21 November 2013.
Chinese-market vehicles were imported from the United States by Shanghai GM. A Chinese-assembled ATS-L was launched in China in October 2015. During the early development of the ATS, GM engineers determined that downsizing the GM Sigma II platform that underpinned the second-generation CTS would result in a vehicle, too heavy and that using an economical, front-wheel drive platform would sacrifice performance. Under the leadership of Dave Leone, GM engineers created a brand-new platform, designed to be light and compact, to be capable of handling both rear- and all-wheel drive configurations and to have a near 50/50 weight distribution; the new platform developed by the GM engineers for the ATS is now called the GM Alpha platform. For 2015 model year, the refreshed Cadillac ATS gained most of its styling from its Coupe version, the two-bar grille, redesigned Cadillac emblem, seen on the ATS coupe first, will be placed on every Cadillac lineup. Exterior tweaks for the 2015 Cadillac ATS front fascia has been lowered, more exterior paint choices have been made.
The ATS interior is a carryover for 2015, but has seen some modest technology updates for 2015 as well. For the 2016 model year, the ATS replaces the 6-speed 6L45 automatic transmission with the new 8-speed 8L45 and the 3.6L LFX V6 is replaced with a new generation 3.6L LGX V6 featuring a cylinder deactivation system. Automatic start-stop technology was added for the 2.0T and 3.6L V6 models using the 8-speed automatic transmission. GM claimed. General Motors assembles the ATS at the Lansing Grand River Assembly plant in Lansing, United States. GM spent US$190 million to upgrade the Lansing Grand River Assembly plant for ATS production and hired a second shift of workers. GM began assembling vehicles intended for sale to customers on 26 July 2012; the Chinese-market ATS-L is assembled by SAIC-GM in Shanghai. The ATS is a compact five-passenger sedan. A two-door coupe is under development and expected to go on sale in summer 2014 as a 2015 model. Convertible and station wagon variants are expected to be produced, although Cadillac has not yet confirmed those body styles.
The 2013 ATS ranged in price from US$34,000 to US$52,000, about US$1,800 less expensive than the entry level 2012 BMW 328i. The 2014 ATS ranges in price from US$33,065 - US$58,760; the ATS has a curb weight of 3,315 to 3,461 lb, depending on configuration, a 51/49 front to rear weight percentage distribution. The hood, front suspension and cradle are made from aluminum; the front suspension is a Mac
The Cadillac ATS-V is a high performance version of the Cadillac ATS compact sports sedan/coupe. The ATS-V series includes two body styles, which feature a turbocharged DOHC V-6 engine and a sport-tuned suspension; the ATS-V sedan and coupe were introduced for the 2016 model year. The sedan with the automatic transmission can reach 60 mph in 3.7 seconds and can achieve a top speed of 189 mph. The ATS-V is RWD and powered by a LF4 3.6L twin turbocharged V6 producing 464 hp and 445 lb⋅ft of torque. Motor Trend conducted a comparison between the BMW M3, ATS-V, Mercedes-AMG C63-S; the Cadillac managed to accelerate faster than both German vehicles and was the fastest around Willow Springs International Motorsports Park. Cadillac competed at the Pirelli World Challenge from 2015 to 2017 with the Cadillac ATS-V. R, a racecar based on the ATS-V under the GT3 regulations, developed in collaboration with Pratt & Miller. Johnny O'Connell won the championship in 2015, finished fourth in 2016 and sixth in 2017.
In addition, Michael Cooper finished third in 2016 and second in 2017. Official Cadillac America Forum Official ATS-V performance official webpage - United States
The Cadillac Allanté is a two-door, two-seater luxury roadster produced by Cadillac from 1987 until 1993. It used a Cadillac running gear with a body built in Italy by coachbuilder Pininfarina, it was expensive to produce with the complete bodies flown to Detroit for final assembly. Over 21,000 were built during its seven-year production run; the name Allanté was selected by General Motors from a list of 1,700 computer generated selections. Designed to compete with the Mercedes-Benz SL and Jaguar XJS, the Allanté featured a modified variant of the 4.1 L V8 used across Cadillac's model line. This was expanded to 4.5 L in 1989, upgraded to the 4.6 L L37 Northstar in its final year, 1993. The Allanté incorporated an international production arrangement, similar to the early 1950s Nash-Healey two-seat sports car; the Allanté bodies were designed and manufactured in Italy by Pininfarina and were shipped 4,600 mi to the U. S. final assembly with domestically manufactured chassis and engine. Specially equipped Boeing 747s departed Turin International Airport with 56 bodies at a time, arriving at Detroit's Coleman A.
Young International Airport about 3 miles northeast of Cadillac's new Hamtramck Assembly plant, known as the "Allanté Air Bridge". The expensive shipping process stemmed from GM's recent closing of Fisher Body Plant #18, which had supplied Cadillac bodies since 1921, it was not the first time that Cadillac utilized Pininfarina, having farmed out body production for the 1959 Eldorado Brougham and design and coachworks for several one-offs and concept cars. All Allanté models featured a electronic instrument and control panel, angled towards the driver, featured no knobs or manual controls. General Motors implemented electronic controls in its mid-to-late 1980's vehicles such as the Buick Reatta, Buick Riviera, Oldsmobile Toronado Trofeo, although these vehicles included a touchscreen control panel called the Graphic Control Center, which the Allanté did not feature; the front-wheel drive Allanté roadster featured a transverse multi-port fuel injected variant of GM's aluminum 4.1 L HT-Cadillac 4100 V8, along with roller valve lifters, high-flow cylinder heads, a tuned intake manifold.
Suspension was independent strut rear, with Bosch ABS III four-wheel disc brakes. A removable aluminum hardtop, Delco-GM/Bose Symphony Sound System, the industry's first power retractable AM/FM/Cellular Telephone antenna, a complex lamp-out module that substituted an adjacent lamp for a burned-out bulb in the exterior lighting system until the dead one could be replaced were all standard; the only option was a cellular telephone, installed in a lockable center console. For 1988, the Allanté featured revised front seat headrests, a power decklid pulldown as standard equipment. Analog instruments, in place of the standard digital dash cluster, were now available as a no-charge option; the base price was raised to $56,533, with the cellular telephone still being the only extra-cost option. In 1989, the price rose to $57,183. Allanté's engine, the new 273ci V8, produced 200 hp, with 270 lb⋅ft of torque, it provided the most torque from any front-wheel-drive automobile in the world. Unlocking the trunk unlocked the side doors – similar to Mercedes-Benz and BMW.
As a theft-deterrent, Allanté added GM's Pass Key, utilizing a resistor pellet within the ignition key that has the ability to render the fuel system and starter inoperative if an incorrect ignition key is used. Allanté received a new speed-sensitive damper system called Speed Dependent Damping Control, or SD²C; this system firmed up the suspension at 25 mph and again at 60 mph. The firmest setting was used when starting from a standstill until 5 mph. Another change was a variable-assist steering system. In 1990, Cadillac offered a lower-priced companion model with a cloth convertible roof and without the removable aluminum hardtop, a model including the hardtop at $58,638. By midyear, prices were dropped to $57,813 for the hardtop/convertible and $51,500 for the convertible, which included a $650 Gas Guzzler Tax along with $550 destination charge; the integrated cellular telephone, equipped from the factory on just 36 cars this year, was available for an additional $1,195. Allanté's bumper-to-bumper new car warranty, seven years and 100,000 mi, was three years longer than other Cadillacs, an additional 50,000 mi of coverage.
Allanté owners received a special toll-free number to call for service or concerns. Headlamp washers and dual 10-way Recaro seating remained standard. A driver's side airbag was added to the leather-wrapped steering wheel, eliminating the telescoping steering wheel — which retained its tilt feature; the analog instrument cluster – introduced the previous year – was standard on the convertible, with a total of 358 cars equipped with the analog cluster. The power mirror control moved from the right of the steering column on the instrument panel to a new location on the upper end of the driver's door armrest, while the power seat switches were relocated to the lower side trim of the seat base facing the door panels; the 3-channel garage door opener base mounted on the header panel above the windshield was eliminated when a new sun visor design was introduced this year. Traction control was added – the first front-wheel drive automobile with a V8 to be equipped as such; the system was designed to cut fuel to up to four cylinders to reduce power and optimize trac
Cadillac Series 61
The Cadillac Series 61 replaced the Series 60/65 in Cadillac's 1939 model range. It in turn was replaced by the Series 62 in 1940 only to return to production in model year 1941. Apart from model years 1943–1945 It remained in production through 1951; the Fisher-bodied Series 61 used a 126 in wheelbase. It was available as sedan. All Cadillacs shared the same 346 in³ L-head V8 in 1939, with power at 135 hp and rising to 150 hp for 1941; the 1941 Series 61 had a fastback design. The Series 63 was similar to the 61, it rode on the same wheelbase. By the time the decision was made to drop the LaSalle for 1941, at least three wood and metal mockups had been made for potential LaSalle models. One was based on the notchback GM C platform which ended up being shared by the Cadillac Series 62, Buick Roadmaster and Super, the Oldsmobile 90 and the Pontiac Custom Torpedo. A second was based on the fastback GM B platform which ended up being shared by the Cadillac Series 61, the Buick Century and Special, the Oldsmobile 70 and the Pontiac Streamliner Torpedo.
A third was a modified notchback design, derived from the fastback B-body, but described as "A-body-like", that ended up being used by the Cadillac Series 63. Any or all of these could have ended up being part of the next LaSalle line. However, it has been inferred that of the three, the third design was most to have been a LaSalle, with that platform being assigned to LaSalle, that the second design, whose platform was shared with the Series 61, was the next most likely. Sales of the Series 63 were 5,030 in 1941. After the War, the Series 61 returned on a 126 in wheelbase; the engine remained the same 346 in³ L-head V8 as before. The formerly-smaller Series 61 was moved to the Series 62's General Motors C-Body platform, making them similar. Major design changes marked the C-bodied Cadillacs for 1948, they featured General Motors first all-new postwar body with styling advances including tailfins inspired by the Lockheed P-38 fighter plane. There was an attractive eggcrate grille, higher in the middle than on the sides.
The front of the car was protected by a heavier and more massive bumper bar that curved around the fenders. The Cadillac crest was centered low in a "V" above the radiator grille. Chrome headlamp rims were used. Cars in the 61 series lacked under-taillight trim. A new dashboard with "rainbow" style instrument cluster and leather grained panels extending to the carpets was seen only this year; the big news at Cadillac in 1949 centered on engineering, with the release of a new overhead valve V8 engine. This 331 in³ engine produced 160 hp. Only minor appearance changes were seen, they included a more massive grille treatment with grooved extension panels housing the front parking lights and chevron slashes below the taillamps on the coupes. Once again the cars in this line lacked front fender gravel shields and rocker panel moldings and had plainer interior trim. A larger luggage compartment lid was seen on all sedans except early production units. Standard equipment now included. Cadillacs had extensive styling changes in 1950, as its appearance is similar to cross-town rival Chrysler Imperial and the Chrysler New Yorker in 1949, less so with yearly appearance changes.
They looked heavier and had low sleek contours with longer rear decks, more sweeping front fenders and a broken rear fender line. The hood was underlined by a more massive eggcrate grille. Round parking lights were used, but as in the past, when buyers chose fog lamps an additional bulb and larger housing were used; this setup combined the directional signals. One piece windshields were introduced and the leading edge of the rear fenders which had a broken-off look, was highlighted by chrome imitation air slots; the rear fenders were longer and ended in a swooping tailfin design. The Cadillac script again appeared on the sides of the front fenders, but was now positioned closer to the front door opening gap; as far as Series 61 models went a big styling change was a return to marketing this line on the shorter wheelbase B-body than used on the Series 62. This led to some styling differences. For example the Series 61 Sedan had no rear window ventipanes and featured a rear wraparound backlight. An identifying feature on both models was the absence of rocker panel moldings and rear quarter panel chrome underscores.
The Series 61 was 4 inches shorter than in the previous season. A minor face lift and small trim variations were the main Cadillac styling news in 1951. Miniature eggcrate grilles were set into the outboard grille extension panels below the headlights. Larger, bullet shaped bumper guards were used; the features list included handbrake. On the dashboard "idiot lights" were used to monitor oil pressure and electrical charge rate instead of gauges; the smaller body was once again used on the 61s and again identified by the lack of chrome underscores. However a new medallion appeared on the rear roof pillar of the Series 61, above the upper beltline molding. In 1950, Briggs Cunningham and his team bought 2 Series 61 DeVilles to the 1950 24 Hours of Le Mans. One of the Cars was modified for racing, dubbed "LeMonstre"; the other was boug
The Cadillac Eldorado is a personal luxury car, manufactured and marketed by Cadillac from 1952 to 2002 over ten generations. Competitors and similar vehicles included the Continental Mark series, Buick Riviera, Oldsmobile Toronado and Chrysler's Imperial Coupe; the Eldorado was near the top of the Cadillac line during early model years. The original 1953 Eldorado convertible and the Eldorado Brougham models of 1957–1960 were the most expensive models that Cadillac offered those years, the Eldorado was never less than second in price after the Cadillac Series 75 until 1966; the Eldorado carried the Fleetwood designation from 1965 through 1972, was a modern revival of the pre-war Cadillac V-12 and Cadillac V16 roadsters and convertibles. The nameplate Eldorado is a contraction of two Spanish words that translate as "the gilded one" — and refers to El Dorado, the mythical South American "Lost City of Gold" that fascinated Spanish explorers. Chosen in an internal competition for a 1952 concept vehicle celebrating the company's golden anniversary, the name Eldorado was proposed by Mary-Ann Marini, a secretary in Cadillac's merchandising department — and was subsequently adopted for a limited-edition convertible for model year 1953.
Palm Springs Life magazine incorrectly attributes the name to the Eldorado Country Club in Indian Wells, California, a favorite resort of General Motors executives in the Coachella Valley — though the resort opened in 1957, five years after Cadillac's own naming competition. Cadillac began using the nameplates "Eldorado Seville" and "Eldorado Biarritz" to distinguish between the hardtop and convertible models while both were offered, from 1956 through 1960 inclusively; the "Seville" name was dropped when the hardtop was discontinued, but the Biarritz name continued through 1964. Beginning 1965, the Eldorado became the'Fleetwood Eldorado'.'Biarritz' returned as an up level trim package for the Eldorado for 1976. The Cadillac Series 62 Eldorado joined the Oldsmobile 98 Fiesta, Chevrolet Corvette and Buick Roadmaster Skylark as top-of-the-line, limited-production specialty convertibles introduced in 1953 by General Motors to promote its design leadership. A special-bodied, low-production convertible, it was the production version of the 1952 El Dorado "Golden Anniversary" concept car.
Along with borrowing bumper bullets from the 1951 GM Le Sabre show car, it featured a full assortment of deluxe accessories and introduced the wraparound windshield and a cut-down beltline to Cadillac standard production. The expansive frontal glass and distinctive dip in the sheetmetal at the bottom of the side windows were beloved by General Motors' styling chief Harley Earl and subsequently copied by other marques. Available in four unique colors. Convertible tops were available in either white Orlon. AC was an option; the car carried no special badging other than a gold-colored "Eldorado" nameplate in the center of the dash. A hard tonneau cover, flush with the rear deck, hid the convertible top in the open car version. Although technically a subseries of the Cadillac Series 62 based on the regular Series 62 convertible, sharing its engine, it was nearly twice as expensive at US$7,750; the 220.8 inches long, 80.1 inches wide vehicle came with such standard features as windshield washers, a signal seeking radio, power windows, a heater.
The Eldorado comprised only.5% of Cadillac's sales in 1953. In 1954, Eldorado lost its unique sheet metal and shared its basic body shell with standard Cadillacs. Distinguished now by trim pieces, this allowed GM to lower the price and see a substantial increase in sales; the Eldorados had golden identifying crests centered directly behind the air-slot fenderbreaks and wide fluted beauty panels to decorate the lower rear bodysides. These panels were made of extruded aluminum and appeared on a unique one of a kind Eldorado coupé built for the Reynolds Aluminum Corporation. Included in the production Eldorado convertible were monogram plates on the doors, wire wheels, custom interior trimmings with the Cadillac crest embossed on the seat bolsters. Two thousand one hundred and fifty Eldorados were sold, nearly four times as many as in 1953. For 1955, the Eldorado's body gained its own rear end styling with high, pointed tailfins; these contrasted with the rather thick, bulbous fins which were common at the time and were an example of the Eldorado once again pointing the way forward.
The Eldorado sport convertible featured extras such as wide chrome body belt moldings and twin round taillights halfway up the fenders. Sales nearly doubled to 3,950. For 1956, a two-door hardtop coupé version appeared, called the Eldorado Seville at which point the convertible was named the "Eldorado Biarritz". An Eldorado script appeared with fender crest on the car, further distinguished by twin hood ornaments. An extra feature on the Eldorado convertible was a ribbed chrome saddle molding extending from the windshield to the rear window pillar along the beltline. With the addition of the Seville, sales rose yet again to 6,050. Eldorados accounted. 1957 saw the Eldorado with a revised rear-end design featuring a low, downswept fenderline capped by a pointed, in-board fin. The rear fenders were referred to as "chipmunk cheeks"; this concept was used for two years, but
Cruise control is a system that automatically controls the speed of a motor vehicle. The system is a servomechanism that takes over the throttle of the car to maintain a steady speed as set by the driver. Speed control was used in automobiles as early as 1900 in the Wilson-Pilcher and in the 1910s by Peerless. Peerless advertised that their system would "maintain speed whether up hill or down"; the technology was adopted by James Watt and Matthew Boulton in 1788 to control steam engines, but the use of governors dates at least back to the 17th century. On an engine the governor adjusts the throttle position as the speed of the engine changes with different loads, so as to maintain a near constant speed. Modern cruise control was invented in 1948 by mechanical engineer Ralph Teetor, his idea was borne out of the frustration of riding in a car driven by his lawyer, who kept speeding up and slowing down as he talked. The first car with Teetor's system was the 1958 Imperial using a speed dial on the dashboard.
This system calculated ground speed based on driveshaft rotations off the rotating speedometer-cable, used a bi-directional screw-drive electric motor to vary throttle position as needed. A 1955 U. S. Patent for a "Constant Speed Regulator" was filed in 1950 by M-Sgt Frank J. Riley, he installed his invention, which he conceived while driving on the Pennsylvania Turnpike, on his own car in 1948. Another inventor named Harold Exline, working independently of Riley invented a type of cruise control, which he first installed on his own car and on cars belonging to friends of his. Exline filed a U. S. Patent for "Vacuum Powered Throttle Control With Electrically Controlled Air Valve" in 1951, the Patent was granted in 1956. Despite these patents, Riley and the subsequent patent holders were not able to collect royalties for any of the inventions using cruise control. In 1965, American Motors introduced a low-priced automatic speed control for its large-sized cars with automatic transmissions; the AMC "Cruise-Command" unit was engaged by a push-button once the desired speed was reached and the throttle position was adjusted by a vacuum control directly from the speedometer cable rather than a separate dial on the dashboard.
Daniel Aaron Wisner invented "Automotive Electronic Cruise Control" in 1968 as an engineer for RCA's Industrial and Automation Systems Division in Plymouth, Michigan. His invention described in two patents filed that year, with the second modifying his original design by debuting digital memory, was the first electronic device in controlling a car. Two decades passed before an integrated circuit for his design was developed by Motorola as the MC14460 Automotive Speed Control Processor in CMOS; the advantage of electronic speed control over its mechanical predecessor was that it could be integrated with electronic accident avoidance and engine management systems. Following the 1973 oil crisis and rising fuel prices, the device became more popular in the U. S. "Cruise control can save gas by avoiding. In 1974, AMC, GM, Chrysler priced the option at $60 to $70, while Ford charged $103; the driver must bring the vehicle up to speed manually and use a button to set the cruise control to the current speed.
The cruise control takes its speed signal from a rotating driveshaft, speedometer cable, wheel speed sensor from the engine's RPM, or from internal speed pulses produced electronically by the vehicle. Most systems do not allow the use of the cruise control below a certain speed - around 25 mph; the vehicle will maintain the desired speed by pulling the throttle cable with a solenoid, a vacuum driven servomechanism, or by using the electronic systems built into the vehicle if it uses a'drive-by-wire' system. All cruise control systems must be capable of being turned off both explicitly and automatically when the driver depresses the brake, also the clutch. Cruise control includes a memory feature to resume the set speed after braking, a coast feature to reduce the set speed without braking; when the cruise control is engaged, the throttle can still be used to accelerate the car, but once the pedal is released the car will slow down until it reaches the set speed. On the latest vehicles fitted with electronic throttle control, cruise control can be integrated into the vehicle's engine management system.
Modern "adaptive" systems include the ability to automatically reduce speed when the distance to a car in front, or the speed limit, decreases. This is an advantage for those driving in unfamiliar areas; the cruise control systems of some vehicles incorporate a "speed limiter" function, which will not allow the vehicle to accelerate beyond a pre-set maximum. On vehicles with a manual transmission, cruise control is less flexible because the act of depressing the clutch pedal and shifting gears disengages the cruise control; the "resume" feature has to be used each time after releasing the clutch. Therefore, cruise control is of most benefit at motorway/highway speeds when top gear is used all the time; some advantages of cruise control include: Its usefulness for long drives across highways and sparsely populated roads. Some drivers use it to avoid subconsciou
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.