Maelgwn Gwynedd was king of Gwynedd during the early 6th century. Surviving records suggest he held a pre-eminent position among the Brythonic kings in Wales and their allies in the "Old North" along the Scottish coast. Maelgwn was a generous supporter of Christianity, funding the foundation of churches throughout Wales and far beyond the bounds of his own kingdom. Nonetheless, his principal legacy today is the scathing account of his behavior recorded in De excidio et conquestu Britanniae by Gildas, who considered Maelgwn a usurper and reprobate; the son of Cadwallon Lawhir and great grandson of Cunedda, Maelgwn was buried on Ynys Seiriol, off the eastern tip of Anglesey, having died of the "yellow plague". Maelgwn in Welsh means "Princely Hound" and is composed of the elements mael "prince" and cwn, the old oblique case form of ci "hound, dog"; as "hound" was sometimes used as a kenning for a warrior in early Welsh poetry, the name may be translated as "Princely Warrior". After the collapse of Roman authority in Britain, north Wales was invaded and colonized by Gaelic tribes from Ireland.
The kingdom of Gwynedd began with the reconquest of the coast by northern Britons under the command of Maelgwn's great-grandfather Cunedda Wledig. Generations Maelgwn's father Cadwallon Long-Hand completed the process by destroying the last Irish settlements on Anglesey. Maelgwn was the first king to enjoy the fruits of his family's conquest and he is considered the founder of the medieval kingdom's royal family, he is thus most referenced by appending the name of the kingdom to his own: Maelgwn Gwynedd. By tradition, his llys was located in the Creuddyn peninsula of Rhos. Tradition holds that he died at nearby Llanrhos, was buried there. Other traditions say. There are no historical records to deny these traditions. Historical records of this early era are scant. Maelgwn appears in the royal genealogies of the Harleian genealogies, Jesus College MS. 20, Hengwrt MS. 202. His death in a "great mortality" of 547 is noted in the Annales Cambriae. Tradition holds that he died of the'Yellow Plague' of Rhos, but this is based on one of the Triads, written much later.
The record says only that it was a "great mortality", which followed the outbreak of the great Plague of Justinian in Constantinople by a few years. Maelgwn was a generous contributor to the cause of Christianity throughout Wales, he made donations to support Saint Brynach in Dyfed, Saint Cadoc in Gwynllwg, Saint Cybi in Anglesey, Saint Padarn in Ceredigion, Saint Tydecho in Powys. He is associated with the foundation of Bangor, but hard evidence of this is lacking. In his 1723 Mona Antiqua Restaurata, Henry Rowlands asserts that Bangor was raised to an episcopal see by Maelgwn in 550, but he provides no source for the assertion; the only contemporary information about the person is provided by Gildas, who includes Maelgwn among the five British kings whom he condemns in allegorical terms in his De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae. He says Maelgwn held a regional pre-eminence among the other four kings, going on to say that he overthrew his paternal uncle to gain the throne; the evidence suggests that Maelgwn held a pre-eminent position over the regions ruled by the descendants of Cunedda in the sense of a regional high king.
There is nothing to suggest. Gildas says as much in his condemnation, saying he held a pre-eminence over the other four kings condemned, describing him as the "dragon of the island", where the Isle of Anglesey is the ancient stronghold of the kings of Gwynedd; the fact that Maelgwn's donations to religious foundations are not restricted to the Kingdom of Gwynedd but are spread throughout northern and southern Wales in the regions where the descendants of Cunedda held sway implies that Maelgwn had a responsibility to those regions beyond the responsibilities of a king to his own kingdom. While the context is not definitive, Taliesin implies it, in his Marwnad Rhun that laments the death of Maelgwn's son Rhun, where he says that Rhun's death is "the fall of the court and girdle of Cunedda". In his work On the Ruin and Conquest of Britain written c. 540, Gildas makes an allegorical condemnation of five British kings by likening them to the beasts of the Book of Revelation, 13-2: the lion, leopard and dragon, with the dragon supreme among them.
He says that Maelgwn is the "dragon of the island", goes on with a litany of moral accusations, in the process describing him as a regional high king over the other kings. The Isle of Anglesey was the base of power of the kings of Gwynedd, so describing Maelgwn as the "dragon of the island" is appropriate. Gildas restricts his attention to the kings of Gwynedd, Penllyn, Damnonia/Alt Clud, the unknown region associated with Caninus; the Welsh kingdoms are all associated with the conquest of the Gaels by Cunedda, while Alt Clud had a long and ongoing relationshi
Bodysgallen Hall is a manor house in Conwy county borough, north Wales, near the village of Llanrhos. Since 2008 the house has been owned by The National Trust, it is a Grade I listed building used as a hotel. This listed historical building derives from the 17th century, has several additions. Bodysgallen was constructed as a tower house in the Middle Ages to serve as defensive support for nearby Conwy Castle. According to tradition, the site of Bodysgallen was the 5th century AD stronghold of Cadwallon Lawhir, King of Gwynedd, who had wide ranging exploits as far as Northumberland; the ruins of Cadwallon Lawhir's residence are on a woodland knoll above the present Bodysgallen Hall. By 1835 it was a ruin overgrown by thorns. According to the ancient record of Caernarvon, Bod Caswallon was one of the townships called Tre Welyog, meaning it was a unit of hereditary land held in common by members of a wider family unit in medieval Wales, divided and subdivided among heirs to the fourth generation.
This might have been one of three gwelyau belonging to Gloddaeth. The site was first occupied, by Cadwallon Lawhir. Cadwallon Lawhir succeeded to the sovereignty of North Wales in AD 442 and lived until 517; the 1620 block, built by Robert Wynn, finds its main entrance on the northwest exposure and has a 19th-century three storey gabled porch bay addition. On the ground floor the porch bay has a four-central headed doorway by first floor features of a transformed window and three mullioned windows to the attic. Behind the porch, this doorway latch. On the southwest exposure the bay nook windows on both ground and first floor are of 17th century mullioned construct. Robert and Katherine Wynn owned the property in the early 17th century, they developed the present-day building core with severe rectilinear architecture with pink limestone mullions. The initials K. W. and R. W. appear in the 1620 date stone on the southwest gable. The largest rooms of the 17th century addition are the ground floor or terrace level low hall and the great hall above.
Both rooms feature an unusual southwest corner construction of an unusual bay with windows on the south and west and a fireplace on the north side of the bay. Both fireplaces feature overmantels. In the great hall, these arms display the shouldered form rendered in Plas Mawr, an Elizabethan townhouse in Conwy founded by a branch of the Wynns; the arms include the motto of Auxilium Meum a Domino. Richard Mostyn, the High Sheriff of Carnarvonshire, as it was called owned Bodysgallen in Elizabethan times. On the marriage of Richard Mostyn's daughter Margaret to Hugh Wynn that Bodysgallen, along with Berthdu, passed to the Wynn family. Richard Mostyn's son, Colonel Roger Mostyn, is thought to have added the northwest wing to Bodysgallen, while Roger's son Dr Hugh Wynn, Prebendary of St Paul's Cathedral and Salisbury Cathedral, is responsible for the northeast wing which had a date stone of 1730; when Dr Hugh Wynn died in 1761, his daughter Margaret inherited Bodysgallen to add to her estates of Berthdu and Plas Mar.
In 1776 she married Sir Roger Mostyn, 5th Baronet and thus returned Bodysgallen to the Mostyn lineage after 156 years of Wynn ownership. The first recorded history of the site is in the mid 14th century in the "Record of Caernarvon"; the core element of Bodysgallen Hall is the late 13th century watchtower, intended to assist in defense of Conwy Castle. This five-storey tower is made of on site quarried pink sandstone with grit dressings and has a slate roof; the square tower has a five storey ascending anti-clockwise spiral staircase with one small room on each floor. Independent masonry analysis of this staircase dates it to the late 13th century; the staircase becomes narrower with height. The treads are 60 cm wide at the top with maximum tread depth of 31 cm; the core tower has additions of global wings, with consistent vernacular style:. Bodysgallen is situated on the west facing slope of Bryn Pydew hill within a broadleaf forest ecosystem between the first and second ridges south of the Great Orme and Little Orme headlands.
Surrounding lands, still owned by the estate, exhibit sheep pasture and forests not different from conditions 1000 years earlier. Thus it was natural to develop the gardens in a terraced form consistent with the surrounding forests; the tourist Richard Fenton noted in 1810 that Bodysgallen was "embosomed in woods of Noble growth, which are suffered to luxuriate their own way, without any fear of the axe". The original garden design dates from 1678 and is credited to Robert Wynn, son of Hugh Wynn, the original Wynn owner; the centerpiece sundial bears the date 1678. Robert laid the principal garden out in Dutch fashion, a sunken, high walled garden that became popular throughout Great Britain in the early 17th century. Today this garden consists of a low-growing topiary maze. Below and to the east is the larger walled.
Gildas — known as Gildas the Wise or Gildas Sapiens — was a 6th-century British monk best known for his scathing religious polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, which recounts the history of the Britons before and during the coming of the Saxons. He is one of the best-documented figures of the Christian church in the British Isles during the sub-Roman period, was renowned for his Biblical knowledge and literary style. In his life, he emigrated to Brittany where he founded a monastery known as St. Gildas de Rhuys. Differing versions of the Life of Saint Gildas exist, but both agree that he was born in what is now Scotland on the banks of the River Clyde, that he was the son of a royal family; these works were written in the eleventh and twelfth centuries and are regarded by scholars as unhistorical. He is now thought to have his origins further south. In his own work, he claims to have been born the same year as the Battle of Mount Badon, he was educated at a monastic centre Cor Tewdws under St. Illtud, where he chose to forsake his royal heritage and embrace monasticism.
He became a renowned teacher, converting many to Christianity and founding numerous churches and monasteries throughout Britain and Ireland. He is thought to have made a pilgrimage to Rome before emigrating to Brittany, where he took on the life of a hermit. However, his life of solitude was short-lived, pupils soon sought him out and begged him to teach them, he founded a monastery for these students at Rhuys, where he wrote De Excidio Britanniae, criticising British rulers and exhorting them to put off their sins and embrace true Christian faith. He is thought to have died at Rhuys, was buried there. There are two different historical versions of the life of Gildas, the first written by an anonymous monk in the 9th century, the other written by Caradoc of Llancarfan in the middle of the 12th century; some historians have attempted to explain the differences in the versions by saying that there were two saints named Gildas, but the more general opinion is that there was only one St. Gildas and that the discrepancies between the two versions can be accounted for by the fact that they were written several centuries apart.
The 9th century Rhuys Life is accepted as being more accurate. The First Life of St. Gildas was written by an unnamed monk at the monastery which Gildas founded in Rhuys, Brittany in the 9th century. According to this tradition, Gildas is the son of Caunus, king of Alt Clut in the Hen Ogledd, the Brythonic-speaking region of northern Britain, he had four brothers. Gildas was sent as a child to the College of Theodosius in Glamorgan, under the care of St. Illtud, was a companion of St. Sampson and St. Paul of Léon, his master St. Illtud taught him with special zeal, he was supposed to be educated in liberal arts and divine scripture, but elected to study only holy doctrine, to forsake his noble birth in favour of a religious life. After completing his studies under St. Illtud, Gildas went to Ireland where he was ordained as a priest, he returned to his native lands in northern Britain where he acted as a missionary, preaching to the pagan people and converting many of them to Christianity. He was asked by Ainmericus, high king of Ireland, to restore order to the church in Ireland, which had altogether lost the Christian faith.
Gildas obeyed the king's summons and travelled all over the island, converting the inhabitants, building churches, establishing monasteries. He travelled to Rome and Ravenna where he performed many miracles, including slaying a dragon while in Rome. Intending to return to Britain, he instead settled on the Isle of Houat off Brittany where he led a solitary, austere life. At around this time, he preached to Nonnita, the mother of Saint David, while she was pregnant with the saint, he was sought out by those who wished to study under him, was entreated to establish a monastery in Brittany. He built an oratory on the bank of today known as St. Gildas de Rhuys. Fragments of letters that he wrote reveal that he composed a Rule for monastic life, somewhat less austere than the Rule written by Saint David. Ten years after leaving Britain, he wrote an epistolary book in which he reproved five of the British kings, he died at Rhuys on 29 January 570, his body was placed on a boat and allowed to drift, according to his wishes.
Three months on 11 May, men from Rhuys found the ship in a creek with the body of Gildas still intact. They buried it there; the second "Life" of St. Gildas was written by Caradoc of Llancarfan, a friend of Geoffrey of Monmouth and his Norman patrons. However, Llancarfan's work is most historically inaccurate, as his hagiographies tend towards the fictitious, rather than the historical. Llancarfan's "Life" was written in the 12th century, includes many elements of what have come to be known as mythical pseudo-histories, involving King Arthur and Glastonbury Abbey, leading to the general opinion that this "life" is less accurate than the earlier version. For example, according to the dates in the Annales Cambriae, Gildas would have been a contemporary of King Arthur: however, Gildas' work never mentions Arthur by name though he gives a history of the Britons, states that he was born in the same year as the Battle of Badon Hill, in which Arthur is supposed to have vanquished the Saxons. In the Llancarfan Life, St. Gildas was the son of king of Scotia.
Nau had all victorious warriors. Gildas studi
Kingdom of Gwynedd
The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd was a Roman Empire successor state that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain. Based in northwest Wales, the rulers of Gwynedd rose to dominance and were acclaimed as "King of the Britons" before losing their power in civil wars or invasions; the kingdom of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn—the King of Wales from 1055 to 1063—was shattered by a Saxon invasion in 1063 just prior to the Norman invasion of Wales, but the House of Aberffraw restored by Gruffudd ap Cynan recovered and Llywelyn the Great of Gwynedd was able to proclaim the Principality of Wales at the Aberdyfi gathering of Welsh princes in 1216. In 1277, the Treaty of Aberconwy granted peace between the two but would guarantee that Welsh self-rule would end upon Llewelyn's death, so it represented the completion of the first stage of the conquest of Wales by Edward I. Welsh tradition credited the founding of Gwynedd to the Brittonic polity of Gododdin from Lothian invading the lands of the Brittonic polities of the Deceangli and Gangani in the 5th century.
The sons of their leader, were said to have possessed the land between the rivers Dee and Teifi. The true borders of the realm varied over time, but Gwynedd Proper was thought to comprise the cantrefs of Aberffraw and Cantref Rhosyr on Anglesey and Arllechwedd, Dunoding, Dyffryn Clwyd, Llŷn, Rhos and Tegeingl at the mountainous mainland region of Snowdonia opposite; the name Gwynedd is believed to be an early borrowing from Irish, either cognate with the Old Irish ethnic name Féni, "Irish People", from Primitive Irish *weidh-n- "Forest People"/"Wild People", or Old Irish fían "war band", from Proto-Irish *wēnā. The 5th-century Cantiorix Inscription now in Penmachno church seems to be the earliest record of the name, it is in memory of a man named Cantiorix, the Latin inscription is Cantiorix hic iacit/Venedotis cives fuit/consobrinos Magli magistrati: "Cantiorix lies here. He was a citizen of Gwynedd and a cousin of Maglos the magistrate"; the use of terms such as "citizen" and "magistrate" may be cited as evidence that Romano-British culture and institutions continued in Gwynedd long after the legions had withdrawn.
Ptolemy marks the Llŷn Peninsula as the "Promontory of the Gangani", a name he recorded in Ireland. In the late and post-Roman eras, Irish from Leinster may have arrived in Anglesey and elsewhere in northwest Wales, with the name Llŷn derived from Laigin, an Old Irish form that means "of Leinster"; the region became known as Venedotia in Latin. The name was attributed to a specific Irish colony on Anglesey, but broadened to refer to Irish settlers as a whole in North Wales by the 5th century. According to 9th century monk and chronicler Nennius, North Wales was left defenseless by the Roman withdrawal and subject to increasing raids by marauders from the Isle of Man and Ireland, a situation which led Cunedda, his sons and their entourage, to migrate in the mid-5th century from Manaw Gododdin to settle and defend North Wales against the raiders and bring the region within Romano-British control. According to traditional pedigrees, Cunedda's grandfather was Padarn Beisrudd, Paternus of the red cloak, "an epithet which suggests that he wore the cloak of a Roman officer", according to Davies.
Nennius recounts how Cunedda brought order to North Wales and after his death Gwynedd was divided among his sons: Dynod was awarded Dunoding, another son Ceredig received Ceredigion, so forth. However, this overly neat origin myth has been met with skepticism: Early Welsh literature contains a wealth of stories seeking to explain place-names, doubtless the story is propaganda aimed at justifying the right of Cunedda and his descendants to territories beyond the borders of the original Kingdom of Gwynedd; that kingdom consisted of the two banks of the Menai Straits and the coast over towards the estuary of the river Conwy, the foundations upon which Cunedda's descendants created a more extensive realm. Undoubtedly, a Brittonic leader of substance established himself in North Wales, he and his descendants defeated any remaining Irish presence, incorporated the settlements into their domain and reoriented the whole of Gwynedd into a Romano-British and "Welsh" outlook; the Welsh of Gwynedd remained conscious of their Romano-British heritage, an affinity with Rome survived long after the Empire retreated from Britain with the use of Latin in writing and sustaining the Christian religion.
The Welsh ruling classes continued to emphasize Roman ancestors within their pedigrees as a way to link their rule with the old imperial Roman order, suggesting stability and continuity with that old order. According to Professor John Davies, "here is a determinedly Brythonic, indeed Roman, air to early Gwynedd." So palpable was the Roman heritage felt that Professor Bryan Ward-Perkins of Trinity College, wrote "It took until 1282, when Edward I conquered Gwynedd, for the last part of Roman Britain to fall a strong case can be made for Gwynedd as the last part of the entire Roman Empire and west, to fall to the barbarians." There was quick abandonment of Roman political and ecclesiastical practices and institutions within Gwynedd and elsewhere in Wales. Roman knowledge was lost as the Romano-Britons shifted towards a streamlined militaristic near-tribal society that no longer
A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who attend on a monarch, or another central figure. Hence the word court may be applied to the coterie of a senior member of the nobility. Royal courts may have their seat in a designated place, several specific places, or be a mobile, itinerant court. In the largest courts, the royal households, many thousands of individuals comprised the court; these courtiers included the monarch or noble's camarilla and retinue, nobility, those with court appointments and may include emissaries from other kingdoms or visitors to the court. Foreign princes and foreign nobility in exile may seek refuge at a court. Near Eastern and Eastern courts included the harem and concubines as well as eunuchs who fulfilled a variety of functions. At times, the harem was separate from the rest of the residence of the monarch. In Asia, concubines were a more visible part of the court. Lower ranking servants and bodyguards were not properly called courtiers, though they might be included as part of the court or royal household in the broadest definition.
Entertainers and others may have been counted as part of the court. A royal household is the highest-ranking example of patronage. A regent or viceroy may hold court during the minority or absence of the hereditary ruler, an elected head of state may develop a court-like entourage of unofficial, personally-chosen advisors and "companions"; the French word compagnon and its English derivation "companion" connote a "sharer of the bread" at table, a court is an extension of the great individual's household. Wherever members of the household and bureaucrats of the administration overlap in personnel, it is reasonable to speak of a "court", for example in Achaemenid Persia, Ming China, Norman Sicily, the Papacy before 1870, the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A group of individuals dependent on the patronage of a great man, classically in ancient Rome, forms part of the system of "clientage", discussed under vassal. Individual rulers differed in tastes and interests, as well as in political skills and in constitutional situations.
Accordingly, some founded elaborate courts based on new palaces, only to have their successors retreat to remote castles or to practical administrative centers. Personal retreats might arise far away from official court centres. Etiquette and hierarchy flourish in structured court settings, may leave conservative traces over generations. Most courts featured a strict order of precedence involving royal and noble ranks, orders of chivalry, nobility; some courts featured court uniforms. One of the major markers of a court is ceremony. Most monarchal courts included ceremonies concerning the investiture or coronation of the monarch and audiences with the monarch; some courts had ceremonies around the sleeping of the monarch, called a levée. Orders of chivalry as honorific orders became an important part of court culture starting in the 15th century, they were the right of the monarch, as the fount of honour, to grant. The earliest developed courts were in the Akkadian Empire, in Ancient Egypt, in Asia in China during the Shang dynasty, but we find evidence of courts as described in the Neo-Assyrian Empire and in Asia in the Zhou Dynasty.
Two of the earliest titles referring to the concept of a courtier were the ša rēsi and mazzāz pāni of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. In Ancient Egypt we find a title translated as high great overseer of the house; the royal courts influenced by the court of the Neo-Assyrian Empire such as those of the Median Empire and the Achaemenid Empire would have identifiable developed courts with court appointments and other features associated with courts. The imperial court of the Achaemenid Empire at Persepolis and Pasargadae is the earliest identifiable complex court with all of the definitive features of a royal court such as a household, court appointments and court ceremony. Though Alexander the Great had an entourage and the rudimentary elements of a court it was not until after he conquered Persia that he took many of the more complex Achaemenid court customs back to the Kingdom of Macedonia to develop a royal court which would influence the courts of Hellenistic Greece and the Roman Empire; the Sasanian Empire adopting and developing the earlier court culture and customs of the Achaemenid Empire would influence again the development of the complex court and court customs of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire.
The imperial court of the Byzantine Empire at Constantinople would contain at least a thousand courtiers. The court's systems became prevalent in other courts such as those in the Balkan states, the Ottoman Empire, Russia. Byzantinism is a term, coined for this spread of the Byzantine system in the 19th century; the courts of Chinese Emperors were among the most complex of all. The Han Dynasty, Western Jin Dynasty, Tang Dynasty occupied the large palace complex at Weiyang Palace located near Chang'an, the Manchu dynasty occupied the whole Forbidden City and other parts of Beijing, the present capital city of China. However, by the Sui Dynasty the functions of the royal household and the imperial government were divided. During the Heian period, Japanese Emperors and their families developed an exquisitely refined court that played an important role in their culture. After the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West, a true court culture can be recognized in the entourage of the Ostrogoth Theodoric the Great and in the court of Charlemagne.
In the Roman East, a brilliant court continued to surround the Byzantine emperors. In
Llaneilian is a village and community in the Welsh county of Anglesey. It is located in the north east of the island, 2.2 miles east of Amlwch, 16.5 miles north west of Menai Bridge and 12.5 miles north of Llangefni. The community includes the villages of Dulas, Pengorffwysfa, Cerrig Man and Penysarn, at the 2001 census had a population of 1,192, decreasing to 1,186 at the 2011 Census; the parish is crowned by its hill, Mynydd Eilian, a HuMP, popular with walkers and ramblers, its beach, Traeth Eilian, popular with holidaymakers and for watersport activities. At the north easternmost point is Point Lynas, while Ynys Dulas lies off the North East coast of the island, east of Dulas Bay; the parish contains the remains of Llys Caswallon and there has been a traditional association of this site with the court of 5th Century King of Gwynedd Cadwallon Lawhir ap Einion - the third generation of the dynasty of Gwynedd, being the grandson of Cunedda, the progenitor of the royal dynasty of Gwynedd. With no visible evidence above ground it had been thought that the site indicated on the Ordnance Survey map of 1889, within a field near Mynnydd Eilian, might be without basis and by the mid 20th century had been discredited as a Llys site.
However a geophysical survey in 2009 identified foundations of a rectangular building within a trapezoidal enclosure, for which an early medieval site was a strong possibility. The Lineage of Cadwallon led to the famed reign of Rhodri the Great, who brought the kingdoms of Gwynedd and Seisyllwg under his control, fought the threats of the Anglo Saxons and Vikings, and, killed on the island of Anglesey in 854AD; this lineage led to the most well known of all the medieval kings of Wales, Hywel Dda, who came to rule most of Wales, became synonymous with the codification of medieval Welsh law which became famed for a reputation of justice and early recognition of women's rights. His legacy endured in the form of his laws, which remained in active use throughout Wales until the appointed date of implementation of the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 of Henry VIII of England who asserted his royal descent by blood-line from the House of Aberffraw, via Rhodri Mawr via Hywel Dda, it was this claim to this ancient Brittonic lineage by a British monarch that led to a widespread feeling of the fulfilment of the myth of the Mab Darogan, a messianic figure of Welsh legend destined to reclaim Britain for the Celtic inhabitants.
The legacy of this lineage is represented in the main office buildings of the National Assembly for Wales being named "Tŷ Hywel", within which the former debating chamber of the National Assembly for Wales has been converted into a youth debating chamber, the first of its kind in Europe, named "Siambr Hywel" after Hywel Dda. The coat of arms of this dynasty is represented on the Royal Badge of Wales which appears on Acts of the National Assembly for Wales passed by the National Assembly for Wales. In World War I a wireless telegraphy relay station at Llaneilian was used for communication with airships patrolling the Irish Sea for German submarines. Messages were forwarded by telephone to and from the airship base at RNAS Anglesey near Llangefni. An electoral ward in the same name exists; the ward includes some of Rhosybol community, to give a total population at the 2011 census of 2,264. Saint Eilian's Church is Grade I listed. A Celtic clas church, it has a 12th-century tower, 14th-century chapel and a nave and chancel dating from the 15th century.
In the chancel is a 15th-century rood screen, there are traces of post-medieval wall paintings. A painting of a skeleton bears the inscription "Colyn angau yw pechod"; the Church is named after Saint Eilian. Eilian of Rome known as Eilian of Anglesey was a 6th-century saint who came from Rome to Britain where he lived as a hermit in the area north of Anglesey, his feast day is 13 January. The churchyard contains the war grave of a Royal Navy sailor of World War I. At Dulas is Saint Gwenllwyfo's Church, a mid-19th-century building designed by Henry Kennedy of Bangor, it is Grade II* listed. The nave and chancel contain 15th and 16th century Flemish stained glass, removed from former Roman Catholic churches taken over by Protestants, who considered the images theologically unsound. Other examples are found at the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Burrell Collection in Glasgow, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York; the church was built to replace the medieval church of St Gwenllwyfo, which had served the Llys Dulas settlement, although it stood over a mile away at the other end of the dispersed village.
The old church is now reduced to some low stone walls within a churchyard. The refuge tower on Ynys Dulas was built in 1821 by James Hughes of Llysdulas as a refuge for shipwrecked sailors, it was stocked with essential foodstuffs to enable those stranded to survive. Point Lynas Lighthouse is located on the northern headland; the first lighthouse was built by the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board in 1779. It was replaced in 1835, moved up onto the hilltop, so does not need a tower, it did not come under the care of Trinity House until 1973. By 2001 the lights were automated, so no resident staff were needed. Whilst the light is retained in operational use, the building and associated lighthouse keepers cottages were returned to the Mersey