Abergwyngregyn is a village and community of historical note in Gwynedd, a county and principal area in Wales. Under its historic name of Aber Garth Celyn it was the seat of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, it lies in the historic county of Caernarfonshire. It is located at grid reference SH653726, adjacent to the A55, five miles east of Bangor, eight miles west of Conwy; the Aber community, which covers an area of 2,970 hectares, has a population of 240. Abergwyngregyn shortened to Aber, is a settlement of great antiquity and pre-conquest importance on the north coast of Gwynedd, its boundaries stretch from the Menai Strait up to the headwaters of the Afon Afon Anafon. Protected to the east by the headland of Penmaenmawr, at its rear by Snowdonia, it controlled the ancient crossing point of the Lafan Sands to Anglesey. A pre-Roman defensive enclosure, Maes y Gaer, which rises above Pen y Bryn on the eastern side of the valley, has far reaching views over Irish Sea with the Isle of Man visible on a clear day.
The Roman road from Chester, linking the forts of Canovium and Segontium, crossed the river at this point. This was the seat of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, the last native Prince of Wales, whose daughter Gwenllian of Wales was born here in June 1282, his wife, Eleanor de Montfort, died here as a result of the birth on 19 June 1282. In June 1283 Dafydd ap Gruffudd, Llywelyn's brother, who assumed the title of Prince of Wales after Llywelyn's murder in December 1282, was captured at Bera Mountain above the present village. Abergwyngregyn was one of ten sites chosen for the Welsh Cultural Heritage Initiative in 2009. Y Mŵd is an earthen mound on the valley floor in the middle of the village, at SH656726; the mound is 22-foot high with a level oval top 57 feet by 48 feet. It has been regarded as the base of a Norman castle, on that basis was renamed'Aber Castle Mound' by the Ancient Monuments Board. E. S. Armitage, in The Early Norman Castles of the British Isles, suggested that it might have been constructed by Hugh d'Avranches, Earl of Chester.
The word Mŵd in early Welsh means'vault' or'arched area', though there are traces of a ditch on the south side, no further defensive features have been identified. Other similar mounds, such as the one on which the Pillar of Eliseg near Llangollen stands, or the one at Scone in Scotland, have been found in northern and western Britain. A large structure on the valley bottom between Y Mŵd, the smithy and the water mill was excavated in 1993 and again in 2010, it appears to be the remains of a high status building from the 14th century contemporary with the last independent princes of Wales or with the early decades after the Conquest. No defensive structures have been found; the floor plan has been interpreted as a medieval hall, 11.2m by 8.0m internally, with large wings at the ends. A separate enclosure may have been used for metalworking; the 1993 dig found a bronze brooch, some medieval pottery, a coin from the years before the conquest. The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales suggests that this site could be associated with the medieval royal llys.
Aber community's population was 240, according to the 2011 census. The 2011 census showed 48.5% of the population could speak Welsh, a rise from 44.0% in 2001. The parish church was closed. Pen y Bryn is a manor house, recorded from the Jacobean period and with earlier lower stonework, on a promontory some two hundred yards to the east of the village centre, it overlooks the Menai Straits to Anglesey. With its adjacent buildings and ground works it forms a double bank and ditch enclosure now known as Garth Celyn; this is claimed to be the site of the pre-Conquest royal llys. A neolithic burial urn was discovered when a driveway was being made to the house in 1824; the valley provides the access to one of Wales's great waterfalls, the Aber Falls as the Afon Goch falls precipitously, some 120 feet over a sill of igneous rock into a marshy area where it is joined by two tributaries. Part way down it becomes known as Afon Aber; the single barrel-vault bridge at SH662720 spans Afon Aber, providing a roadway across the river, some 25 ft in width.
The date of construction is unknown, but its existence was marked on the Ordnance Survey map of 1822. The bridge provided a safe crossing for drovers leading animals on a Drovers road up the valley. Large stones in the river under the bridge mark the site of an earlier ford. Aber is the coastal crossing point for the ancient drovers and Roman road that led across the Lafan Sands to Anglesey; the Roman road from Chester crossed the river Conwy south of Tal-y-Cafn, connected with the fort at Conovium Caerhun by a short branch led up via Rowen and Bwlch-y-Ddeufaen, the Pass of the Two Stones, as an engineered overlay on top of the earlier British trackway, into Snowdonia. The Roman road descends down Rhiwiau, the valley between Llanfairfechan and Aber, follows the coastal route west, crosses the river by means of a ford, passes by the church and leads towards the major Roman fort at Segontium, Caernarfon; the drovers road from Anglesey came into the settlement on the valley bottom on the west bank of the valley bottom, where provision was made for the animals to be penned and shod, the feet of the geese to be coated in pitch, followed the valley to join with the Roman road.
Three Roman milestones have been discovered in the area. Two of these, found in 1883 in a field called Caegwag, on the farm Rhiwiau Uchaf SH6790727 are now in the Br
Abergynolwyn is a village in southern Gwynedd, located at the confluence of the Nant Gwernol and the Afon Dysynni. The population of the community, named after the village of Llanfihangel-y-Pennant was 339 at the 2011 census; the village was part of Merionethshire and its main industry was slate quarrying. The village was founded in the 1860s to house workers at the nearby Bryn Eglwys quarry; the quarry brought in migrant workers from other areas of Wales and at one time the village had an Anglican church and three nonconformist chapels. The slate was shipped to the coast on the Talyllyn Railway. A decline in the demand for Welsh slate caused reductions in the workforce, the quarry closed in 1948. Today farming and tourism are the major local industries; the village pub, the Railway Inn, is named after the Talyllyn Railway whose narrow gauge branch once reached into the heart of the village down an incline from a ledge on the hillside above. The railway now terminates at Nant Gwernol station above the village, although for many years the terminus was at Abergynolwyn Station outside the village.
Llyn Mwyngil, just upstream from Abergynolwyn is an unspoilt lake created when a massive landslide blocked the valley long ago. Hiking trails to the summit of Cadair Idris start from here; the Iron Age fort on Craig yr Aderyn shows that the area was strategically important in prehistoric times. In 1221, the mediaeval Welsh castle of Castell y Bere near Llanfihangel-y-pennant was built by Llewellyn the Great, occupied by the Welsh and besieged by forces under Edward I of England in 1282. Village website
Arfon (Assembly constituency)
Arfon is a constituency of the National Assembly for Wales, created for the 2007 Assembly election. It elects one Assembly Member by the first past the post method of election. However, it is one of nine constituencies in the North Wales electoral region, which elects four additional members, in addition to nine constituency members, to produce a degree of proportional representation for the region as a whole; the constituency has the boundaries of the Arfon Westminster constituency within the preserved county of Gwynedd, which will come into use for the 2010 United Kingdom general election. The new constituency merged areas within the Caernarfon constituency and the Conwy constituency; the Caernarfon constituency was within the preserved county of Gwynedd. The Conwy constituency was a Gwynedd constituency and within the preserved county of Clwyd; the North Wales region was created for the first Assembly election, in 1999. For the 2007 election, however, it had new boundaries, it includes the constituencies of Aberconwy and Deeside, Clwyd South, Clwyd West, Vale of Clwyd and Ynys Môn.
This can be considered a safe Plaid Cymru seat having a 20.8% majority of the Welsh Labour Party. Party averages from 5 elections: Plaid Cymru - 54.6%, Labour - 29%, Conservative - 10.1%, Lib Dem - 4.9% In general elections for the National Assembly for Wales, each voter has two votes. The first vote may be used to vote for a candidate to become the Assembly Member for the voter's constituency, elected by the first past the post system; the second vote may be used to vote for a regional closed party list of candidates. Additional member seats are allocated from the lists by the d'Hondt method, with constituency results being taken into account in the allocation
Bethesda is a town and community on the River Ogwen and the A5 road on the edge of Snowdonia, in Gwynedd, north-west Wales. It is the 5th largest Community in Gwynedd. In 1823, the Bethesda Chapel was built and the town subsequently grew around it; the chapel has now been converted into flats and is known as Arafa Don. The town grew around the slate quarrying industries. At its peak, the town exported purple slate all over the world. Penrhyn Quarry suffered a three-year strike led by the North Wales Quarrymen's Union between 1900 and 1903; this led to the creation of the nearby village of Tregarth, built by the quarry owners, which housed the families of those workers who had not struck. The A5 road runs through Bethesda and marked the border between Lord Penrhyn's land, the freehold land. Most of the town is to the east and north east of the road, with housing packed onto the hillside in irregular rows, built on the commons. On the current high street, all the public houses are found on the north side of the road.
The narrow gauge Penrhyn Quarry Railway opened in 1801 to serve Penrhyn Quarry. It connected the quarry with Port Penrhyn on the coast and operated until 1962. In 1884, a branch of the London and North Western Railway's network from Bangor was opened; the line closed to passengers in 1951 and to freight in 1963. The trackbed of the Penrhyn Quarry Railway towards Porth Penrhyn is taken over by the Lôn Las Ogwen cycle path; the peak population of Bethesda was 10,000. Current opportunities for employment in the town are limited: there are a few manufacturing businesses. For employment with higher earning potential, residents tend to commute to towns along the North Wales coast. Bangor is the most popular destination. Ysgol Dyffryn Ogwen is a bilingual comprehensive school, with 374 pupils, established in 1951. Zip World Velocity in Penrhyn Quarry is the longest zipline in Europe, at just over 1,600 metres long, brings the town hundreds of visitors; the architecture and layout of the town is utilitarian.
Most of the buildings are constructed of stone with slate roofs. Some are constructed wholly of slate blocks, although such buildings tend to suffer from damp and structural slippage because the flat and smooth surfaces of slate do not bind well to mortar; the town has 40 Grade II listed buildings, including three pubs, in addition to the substantial and imposing Grade I listed Nonconformist Jerusalem ChapelThe upper parts of Carneddi and Tan y Foel owe more to stone quarrying on the nearby hills rather than slate quarrying that supported the lower end of the town. At the eastern limits, the town is bounded by the rising land of the Carneddau mountains which form some of the more remote landscapes of Snowdonia. Much of Bethesda once consisted of discrete villages such as Gerlan, Tregarth and Braichmelyn. Bethesda is noted for both the number of chapels in the town; the town was named after the Bethesda Chapel, converted into residential flats. Llanllechid, on the outskirts of Bethesda, is the home of the Popty Bakery, the origins of which date back to the bakery opened by O. J. Williams in the early 1900s.
The product range focuses on traditional Welsh cakes and Bara Brith and these lines are retailed throughout Wales and parts of England through outlets including Aldi, Asda, Co-Op, Morrisons and Tesco. There are ten pubs not including Tregarth; the Douglas Arms, on the High Street, was named after the family which owned the nearby Penrhyn Quarry. Other pubs include the Bull, The Kings Head, Y Sior, The Victoria Arms, the Llangollen; the village has its own micro brewery known as Cwrw Ogwen. It manufactures one beer named Cwrw Caradog, named after the writer Caradog Prichard; the dominant language of the town is Welsh, can be seen written and heard spoken in most settings. According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, 77.0% of the residents are Welsh-speaking, higher than the average for both Gwynedd and Wales as a whole. The S4C series Amdani! was based on a fictitious women's rugby team in Bethesda, many of the location shots were filmed in the area. The series was based by Bethan Gwanas, who lived in the town.
In June 2012 Tabernacl Cyf. A non-profit co-operative based in the town, was awarded a grant of around £1 million to renovate Neuadd Ogwen, a performance venue on the High Street, it was due to reopen as a community arts centre in June 2013. In the 1970s and 1980s Bethesda developed a reputation as a hub of musical creativity. Jam sessions and small home studios abounded alongside a burgeoning pub rock scene; as well as the now well-established'Pesda Roc' festival, Bethesda has nurtured the Welsh language bands Maffia Mr Huws and experimentalists Y Jeycsyn Ffeif. In more recent years it continues to spring up bands from the local community such as Radio Rhydd. Bobby Atherton - footballer Ellis William Davies - politician Idris Foster - Jesus Professor of Celtic Studies at the University of Oxford David Ffrangcon-Davies - a Welsh operatic baritone Bethan Gwanas - the author lived and worked in Bethesda. Esyllt Harker - singer and storyteller. Mikael Madeg - Breton language writer, French language assistant at Ysgol Dyffryn Ogwen 1971–72 Frederick Llewellyn-Jones - politician Leila Megane - singer Gwenlyn Parry - writer William John Parry - first
Welsh Ambulance Service
The Welsh Ambulance Service, formally the Welsh Ambulance Services NHS Trust, is the national ambulance service for Wales and one of the three NHS trusts in the country. It was established on 1 April 1998 and has 2,576 staff providing ambulance and related services to the 3.1 million residents of Wales. The Welsh Ambulance Service's headquarters is located at H. M. Stanley Hospital, St Asaph, Denbighshire; the service is divided into three regions: Central and West Region – based at Ty Maes Y Gruffudd, Cefn Coed Hospital, Swansea North Region – based at H. M. Stanley Hospital, St Asaph, Denbighshire South-East Region – based at Vantage Point House, Ty Coch Industrial Estate, CwmbranThe service is investing as part of a five-year modernisation plan, this will see the end of Regions and management will be via Heads of Services aligned to the Health Board areas along with a Head of Service for the Clinical Contact Centres and Head of Service for Production which oversees the resources available within the geographical areas.
The Welsh Ambulance Service provides: Emergency Medical Services - This service responds to emergency 999 calls and GP's urgent calls. A standard crew combination for this service would consist of a Paramedic and an Emergency Medical Technician; however double Paramedic / double Technician crews are not uncommon. As of 2013, the majority of the EMS fleet consists of Wilker Mercedes Benz 519 Sprinter Ambulances and Honda CRV / Ford Focus Rapid Response Vehicles. Non Emergency Patient Transport Service - This service deals with the planned care aspect of ambulance work. NEPTS staff provide transport between home and healthcare facilities or some inter-hospital transfers. Urgent Care Service - This service bridges the gap between NEPTS and EMS, allowing for patients to be transferred between home and hospital or hospital to hospital while meeting the advanced needs that some of these patients may have. UCS ambulance crews may be allocated to EMS calls at times of high demand and following clinical telephony triage by a nurse or face to face triage by Advanced Paramedic Practitioners or Paramedic Practitioners working from a Rapid Response Vehicle.
NHS Direct Wales / 111 Wales is a 24-hour telephone and internet health advice service provided by NHS Wales to enable people to obtain advice when use of the national emergency telephone number does not seem to be appropriate but there is some degree of urgency. NHS Direct Wales / 111 Wales supports EMS Operations by providing clinical triage for "Green 3" calls that are deemed suitable. More than 45% of 999 calls have a disposition of not requiring 999 conveyance. In addition during times of escalation other calls deemed suitable are triaged, it does not replace any of the existing emergency or non-emergency medical services but complements those existing and enables callers who might not be able to diagnose themselves to be directed to care of an appropriate level of urgency, including transport to hospital if the diagnosis merits that action. Community First Responders - CFRs are volunteers from the community trained in basic first aid, oxygen administration and the use of an Automated External Defibrillator.
They are used by the ambulance service in rural areas to provide basic care, such as Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation before an EMS crew arrives. As CFRs are only sent to local calls in specified communities, they arrive before an EMS ambulance crew without the use of blue lights and sirens. Whilst most CFR teams are the sole responsibility of WAST, a number of teams are made up of regular divisions from St John Ambulance in Wales although this does not give them any exemptions. There are developing numbers of Advanced Paramedic Practitioners in the service who through their extended scope of practice are working toward advancing the service their patients receive with "see and treat" and "see and refer" models of care; this removes the need for some patients to travel in an ambulance to A&E. In 2012 a strategic review of the service was commissioned by the Welsh Government and was conducted by Professor Siobhan McClelland and published in April 2013. National Health Service NHS Direct Wales Welsh Ambulance Service NHS Direct Wales
Aberdaron is a community, electoral ward and former fishing village at the western tip of the Llŷn Peninsula in the Welsh county of Gwynedd. It lies 14.8 miles west of Pwllheli and 33.5 miles south west of Caernarfon, has a population of 965. The community includes Bardsey Island, the coastal area around Porthor, the villages of Anelog, Penycaerau, Rhydlios, Uwchmynydd and Y Rhiw. Y Rhiw and Llanfaelrhys have long been linked by sharing rectors and by their close proximity, but were ecclesiastical parishes in themselves; the parish of Bodferin/Bodverin was assimilated in the 19th century. The village was the last rest stop for pilgrims heading to Bardsey Island, the legendary "island of 20,000 saints". In the 18th and 19th centuries it developed as port; the mining and quarrying industries became major employers, limestone, lead and manganese were exported. There are the ruins of an old pier running out to sea at Porth Simdde, the local name for the west end of Aberdaron Beach. After the Second World War the mining industry collapsed, Aberdaron developed into a holiday resort.
The beach was awarded a Seaside Award in 2008. The coastal waters are part of Pen Llŷn a'r Sarnau Special Area of Conservation, one of the largest marine designated sites in the United Kingdom; the coast itself forms part of the Aberdaron Coast and Bardsey Island Special Protection Area, was designated a Heritage Coast in 1974. In 1956 the area was included in Llŷn Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Conservation Areas have been created in Bardsey Island and Y Rhiw. Aberdaron means "Mouth of the River Daron", a reference to the Afon Daron which flows into Bae Aberdaron in the village; the area around Aberdaron has been inhabited by people for millennia. Evidence from the Iron Age hillfort at Castell Odo, on Mynydd Ystum, shows that some phases of its construction began unusually early, in the late Bronze Age, between 2850 and 2650 years before present; the construction was wholly defensive, but in phases defence appears to have been less important, in the last phase the fort's ramparts were deliberately flattened, suggesting there was no longer a need for defence.
It appears. Ptolemy calls the Llŷn Peninsula "Ganganorum Promontorium"; the church at Aberdaron had the ancient privilege of sanctuary. In 1094 Gruffudd ap Cynan, the exiled King of Gwynedd, sought refuge in the church while attempting to recapture his throne, he regained his territories in 1101, in 1115 Gruffydd ap Rhys, the exiled prince of Deheubarth, took refuge at Aberdaron to escape capture by Gwynedd's ruler. Henry I of England had invaded Gwynedd the previous year, faced by an overwhelming force, Gruffudd ap Cynan had been forced to pay homage and a substantial fine to Henry; the King of Gwynedd, seeking to give up the exiled prince to Henry, ordered that the fugitive prince be dragged from the church by force, but his soldiers were beaten back by the local clergy. Following the conquest of Gwynedd, in 1284, Edward I set about touring his new territories, he visited the castles at Caernarfon. Court was held at Nefyn; the medieval townships of Aberdaron were Isseley, Uwchseley and Bodrydd.
These locatives predate the idea of the modern ecclesiastical parish. Some were or became hamlets in themselves, whereas others have subsequently been divided - for example the modern Bodrydd Farm is only a part of the medieval township. After the English Civil War, when the Parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell introduced a Protestant regime, Catholicism remained the dominant religion in the area. Catholics, who had supported the Royalist side, were considered to be traitors and efforts were made to eradicate the religion; the persecution extended to Aberdaron, in 1657, Gwen Griffiths of Y Rhiw was summoned to the Quarter Sessions as a "papist". Agricultural improvement and the Industrial Revolution came to Aberdaron in the 19th century; the Inclosure Act 1801 was intended to make it easier for landlords to enclose and improve common land, introduce increased efficiency, bring more land under the plough, reduce the high prices of agricultural production. Rhoshirwaun Common, following strong opposition, was enclosed in 1814.
On the industrial front, mining developed as a major source of employment at Y Rhiw, where manganese was discovered in 1827. During the Second World War, Y Rhiw played a vital role in preparations for the Normandy landings. A team of electronic engineers set up an experimental ultra high frequency radio station, from where they were able to make a direct link to stations in
Criccieth is a town and community on the Llyn peninsula in the Eifionydd area of Gwynedd in Wales. The town lies 5 miles west of Porthmadog, 9 miles east of Pwllheli and 17 miles south of Caernarfon, it had a population of 1,826 in 2001. The town is a seaside resort, popular with families. Attractions include the ruins of Criccieth Castle, which have extensive views over the town and surrounding countryside. Nearby on Ffordd Castell is Cadwalader's Ice Cream Parlour, opened in 1927, whilst Stryd Fawr has several bistro style restaurants. In the centre lies Y Maes, part of the original medieval town common; the town is noted for its fairs, held on 23 May and 29 June every year, when large numbers of people visit the fairground and the market which spreads through many of the streets of the town. Famous people associated with the town include the British prime minister, David Lloyd George, who grew up in the nearby village of Llanystumdwy, poet William George. Group Captain Leslie Bonnet, RAF officer and originator of the Welsh Harlequin Duck and his wife Joan Hutt, artist.
Criccieth hosted the National Eisteddfod in 2003 was granted Fairtrade Town status. It won the Wales in Bloom competition each year from 1999 to 2004; the town styles itself the "Pearl of Wales on the Shores of Snowdonia". The earliest recorded form of the place name Criccieth in Welsh is found in Brut y Tywysogion where reference is made to the imprisonment of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn in the'castle of Cruceith'; the form Cruciaith was used by Iolo Goch in a famous 14th century poem addressed to Sir Hywel y Fwyall, custodian of the castle. There are a number of theories as to the meaning, but the most popular is that it comes from Crug Caeth: caeth may mean'prisoner' and thus the name could mean prisoner's rock, a reference to the imprisonment of one of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth's sons in the castle by his brother. However, caeth has the primary meaning in Middle Welsh of'serf' and the name could refer to a bond community nearby. In medieval times the settlement was known as Treferthyr a reference to Saint Catherine, after whom the parish church is named.
The spelling of Criccieth remains controversial today. Many regard this version as an anglicism, arguing that the Welsh form Cricieth should be used instead. Others argue that Criccieth is an anomaly in the Welsh language, in which there is no double C, that the spelling should be preserved; the dispute has resulted in the vandalising of road signs at the entrance to the town. The area around Criccieth was settled during the Bronze Age, a chambered tomb, Cae Dyni, survives on the coast to the east of the town. Evidence from other sites on the Llŷn Peninsula suggests that the area was colonised by a wave of Celtic settlers, who explored the Irish Sea around the 4th century BC. Ptolemy calls the peninsula Ganganorum Promontorium. Although it is thought that Criccieth Castle was built around 1230 by Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, who had controlled the area since 1202, the first record of the building was in 1239, when the administrative centre of Eifionydd was moved from Dolbenmaen. In the years of his life, Llywelyn turned his attention to his successor.
Welsh law stipulated. On Llywelyn's death in 1240, Dafydd sought to secure his position. Dafydd was half English and feared that his pure Welsh half-brother would be able to gather support to overthrow him. Gruffydd was held prisoner in Criccieth Castle, until he was handed over to Henry III of England in 1241, moved to the Tower of London. Dafydd ap Llywelyn died in 1246, without leaving an heir, was succeeded by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, his nephew. Edward I had inherited the English throne in 1272, in 1276 declared Llywelyn a rebel. By 1277, Edward's armies had captured the Isle of Anglesey, were encamped at Deganwy. Dafydd ap Gruffydd, Llywelyn's younger brother, attacked the English forces at Hawarden in 1282, setting off a widespread rebellion throughout Wales. With the final defeat of Gwynedd, Edward set about consolidating his rule in Wales. Criccieth Castle was extended and reshaped, becoming one of a ring of castles surrounding Edward's newly conquered territories. A township developed to support the garrison and a charter was granted in 1284.
Weekly markets were held on Thursdays and there were annual fairs on 25 April and 18 October, the evangelical feasts of Saint Mark and Saint Luke. The new administration soon proved unpopular among the native Welsh, in 1294, Madog ap Llywelyn led a national revolt against English rule. Criccieth was besieged for several months over the winter.