South Wales is the region of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, mid Wales to the north, west Wales to the west. With an estimated population of around 2.2 million, three-quarters of the whole of Wales, Cardiff has 400,000, Swansea has 250,000 and Newport has 150,000. The region is loosely defined, but it is considered to include the historic counties of Glamorgan and Monmouthshire, extending westwards to include Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire. In the western extent, from Swansea westwards, local people would recognise that they lived in both south Wales and west Wales; the Brecon Beacons national park covers about a third of South Wales, containing Pen y Fan, the highest British mountain south of Cadair Idris in Snowdonia. Between the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284 and the Laws in Wales Act 1535, crown land in Wales formed the Principality of Wales; this was divided into a Principality of North Wales. The southern principality was made up of the counties of Ceredigion and Carmarthenshire, areas, part of the Welsh kingdom of Deheubarth.
The legal responsibility for this area lay in the hands of the Justiciar of South Wales based at Carmarthen. Other parts of southern Wales were in the hands of various Marcher Lords; the Laws in Wales Acts 1542 created the Court of Great Sessions in Wales based on four legal circuits. The Brecon circuit served the counties of Brecknockshire and Glamorgan while the Carmarthen circuit served Cardiganshire and Pembrokeshire. Monmouthshire was attached to the Oxford circuit for judicial purposes; these seven southern counties were thus differentiated from the six counties of north Wales. The Court of the Great Sessions came to an end in 1830, but the counties survived until the Local Government Act 1972 which came into operation in 1974; the creation of the county of Powys merged one northern county with two southern ones. There are thus different concepts of south Wales. Glamorgan and Monmouthshire are accepted by all as being in south Wales, but the status of Breconshire or Carmarthenshire, for instance, is more debatable.
In the western extent, from Swansea westwards, local people might feel that they live in both south Wales and west Wales. Areas to the north of the Brecon Beacons and Black Mountains are considered to be in Mid Wales. A further point of uncertainty is whether the first element of the name should be capitalized:'south Wales' or'South Wales'; as the name is a geographical expression rather than a specific area with well-defined borders, style guides such as those of the BBC and The Guardian use the form'south Wales'. The South Wales Valleys and upland mountain ridges were once a rural area noted for its river valleys and ancient forests and lauded by romantic poets such as William Wordsworth as well as poets in the Welsh language, although the interests of the latter lay more in society and culture than in the evocation of natural scenery; this natural environment changed to a considerable extent during the early Industrial Revolution when the Glamorgan and Monmouthshire valley areas were exploited for coal and iron.
By the 1830s, hundreds of tons of coal were being transported by barge to ports in Cardiff and Newport. In the 1870s, coal was transported by rail transport networks to Newport Docks, at the time the largest coal exporting docks in the world, by the 1880s coal was being exported from Barry, Vale of Glamorgan; the Marquess of Bute, who owned much of the land north of Cardiff, built a steam railway system on his land that stretched from Cardiff into many of the South Wales Valleys where the coal was being found. Lord Bute charged fees per ton of coal, transported out using his railways. With coal mining and iron smelting being the main trades of south Wales, many thousands of immigrants from the Midlands, Ireland and Italy came and set up homes and put down roots in the region. Many came from other coal mining areas such as Somerset, the Forest of Dean in Gloucestershire and the tin mines of Cornwall such as Geevor Tin Mine, as a large but experienced and willing workforce was required. Whilst some of the migrants left, many settled and established in the South Wales Valleys between Swansea and Abergavenny as English-speaking communities with a unique identity.
Industrial workers were housed in cottages and terraced houses close to the mines and foundries in which they worked. The large influx over the years caused overcrowding which led to outbreaks of Cholera, on the social and cultural side, the near-loss of the Welsh language in the area; the 1930s inter-war Great Depression in the United Kingdom saw the loss of half of the coal pits in the South Wales Coalfield, their number declined further in the years following World War II. This number is now low, following the UK miners' strike, the last'traditional' deep-shaft mine, Tower Colliery, closed in January 2008. Despite the intense industrialisation of the coal mining valleys, many parts of the landscape of South Wales such as the upper Neath valley, the Vale of Glamorgan and the valleys of the River Usk and River Wye remain distinctly beautiful and unspoilt and have been designated Sites of Special Scientific Interest. In addition, many once industrialised sites have reverted to wilderness, some provided with a series of cycle tracks and other outdoor amenities.
Large areas of forestry and open moorland contribute to the amenity of the landscape. Merthyr Tydfil grew around the Dowlais Ironworks, founded to exploit the locally abundant seams of ir
Cardiff city centre
Cardiff city centre is the city centre and central business district of Cardiff, Wales. The area is bound by the River Taff to the west, the Civic Centre to the north and railway lines and two railway stations – Central and Queen Street – to the south and east respectively. Cardiff became a city in 1905; the city centre in Cardiff consists of principal shopping streets: Queen Street, St. Mary's Street and the Hayes, as well as large shopping centres, numerous arcades and lanes that house some smaller, specialized shops and boutiques; the city centre has undergone a number of redevelopment projects, including St. David's 2, which extended the shopping district southwards, creating 100 new stores and a flagship John Lewis, the only branch in Wales and the largest outside London. Compared to nearby cities, the new St David's Centre has more retail space than the whole of Newport or Swansea. In 2008–9, the annual footfall of shoppers was 55 million, is expected to have risen to 66 million by 2009–10.
Cardiff is the sixth most successful shopping destination in the United Kingdom – behind London, Birmingham and Liverpool. Cardiff was granted city status by Edward VII in 1905. In the 1960s, planners described Cardiff city centre as "worn out, inconvenient and dangerous"; the centre had escaped the extensive wartime bomb damage inflicted on other cities, so little redevelopment took place in the 1950s and 1960s. The Buchanan Plan of 1964 envisaged a ambitious extended city centre, crossed with urban motorways; the council scrapped the proposed motorway network and focused on the small commercial core of the city. By the time the legal agreement to implement'Centreplan 70' was signed, the 1973 property crash had made it unviable. However, one legacy of the scheme was the future segregation of office and retail development, with the west end of Newport Road as the principal office area with secondary concentrations on Churchill Way, Greyfriars Road and Westgate Street. Development in the 1970s and 80s was more piecemeal than envisaged in Centreplan, with the building of the St. David's Centre and St David's Hall, new multi‑storey car parks, the grant‑supported construction of the 14‑storey Holiday Inn and World Trade Centre, which gave a fillip to the city's conference and exhibition business.
In the mid–1980s developers returned to Queen Street, creating three medium‑sized malls, helping it to become one of the best performing shopping streets in the country in terms of footfall and rental levels. In the 1990s the Mill Lane cafe quarter was developed in partnership with the Welsh Development Agency, a pedestrian forecourt was created for the refurbished Central railway station, a new walkway was constructed alongside the Taff and the Millennium Stadium was built on the site of the National Stadium and Empire Pool; the latter became, according to one of the icons of Cardiff's new image. The Castle Quarter includes some of Cardiff's Victorian and Edwardian arcades: Castle Arcade, High Street Arcade and Duke Street Arcade, principal shopping streets: St Mary Street, High Street, Castle Street and Duke Street. Development of the area began in February 2010 and is expected to be completed by July 2011. Cardiff Council says that work to create the Castle Quarter as a pedestrian friendly environment for High Street and St Mary Street is designed to enhance the city centre.
Castle Street follows on from Cowbridge Road East from Canton and begins after Cardiff Bridge, over the River Taff. It becomes Duke Street after the junction with High Street before turning north and becoming Kingsway, leading to Cardiff Civic Centre. From west to east, streets that begin from the southern side of this stretch are Westgate Street, Womanby Street, High Street, St Johns Street, Queen Street and Greyfriars Road. Cardiff Castle and Bute Park dominate the northern side of the street. On the southern side are pubs, bars and hotel units. Castle Arcade and Duke Street Arcades begin from this stretch. St. Mary Street and High Street; the former street is named after the 11th century church of St. Mary, the largest in Cardiff until it was destroyed by the Bristol Channel floods of 1607. Today the stretch of road is the home of a number of bars, night clubs and restaurants, as well as branches of many major banks. Fronting onto the street is Howells department store, which stretches from just after Cardiff Central Market to the corner of Wharton Street.
From August 2007 the street was closed to private vehicles, leaving only buses and taxis allowed to access the whole street. The street is closed to all traffic every Friday and Saturday night to allow the efflux from night clubs and pubs located in that part of the street to clear, it is closed when major events take place such as at the Millennium Stadium. The Prince Of Wales is a prominent J D Wetherspoon establishment at the junction with Wood Street, which leads to Central Station. At the northern end of the street is Castle Street and Cardiff Castle. To the south is Callaghan Square. Womanby Street is one of Cardiff's oldest streets, it is home to Clwb Ifor Bach. It is accessed between Westgate Street and High Street. Queen Street is the main thoroughfare in the city, now wholly pedestrianised
Cardiff is the capital of Wales, its largest city. The eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom, it is Wales's chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural institutions and Welsh media, the seat of the National Assembly for Wales. At the 2011 census, the unitary authority area population was estimated to be 346,090, the wider urban area 479,000. Cardiff is a significant tourist centre and the most popular visitor destination in Wales with 21.3 million visitors in 2017. In 2011, Cardiff was ranked sixth in the world in National Geographic's alternative tourist destinations. Cardiff is the county town of the historic county of Glamorgan. Cardiff is part of the Eurocities network of the largest European cities. A small town until the early 19th century, its prominence as a major port for the transport of coal following the arrival of industry in the region contributed to its rise as a major city. In 1905, Cardiff was made a city and proclaimed the capital of Wales in 1955. At the 2011 Census the population was 346,090.
The Cardiff Built-up Area covers a larger area outside the county boundary and includes the towns of Dinas Powys and Penarth. Since the 1980s, Cardiff has seen significant development. A new waterfront area at Cardiff Bay contains the Senedd building, home to the Welsh Assembly and the Wales Millennium Centre arts complex. Current developments include the continuation of the redevelopment of the Cardiff Bay and city centre areas with projects such as the Cardiff International Sports Village, a BBC drama village, a new business district in the city centre. Sporting venues in the city include the Principality Stadium—the national stadium and the home of the Wales national rugby union team—Sophia Gardens, Cardiff City Stadium, Cardiff International Sports Stadium, Cardiff Arms Park and Ice Arena Wales; the city hosted Commonwealth Games. The city was awarded the title of European City of Sport twice, due to its role in hosting major international sporting events: first in 2009 and again in 2014.
The Principality Stadium hosted 11 football matches as part of the 2012 Summer Olympics, including the games' opening event and the men's bronze medal match. Caerdydd derives from the earlier Welsh form Caerdyf; the change from -dyf to -dydd shows the colloquial alteration of Welsh f and dd, was also driven by folk etymology. This sound change had first occurred in the Middle Ages. Caerdyf has its origins in post-Roman Brythonic words meaning "the fort of the Taff"; the fort refers to that established by the Romans. Caer is Welsh for fort and -dyf is in effect a form of Taf, the river which flows by Cardiff Castle, with the ⟨t⟩ showing consonant mutation to ⟨d⟩ and the vowel showing affection as a result of a genitive case ending; the anglicised form Cardiff is derived from Caerdyf, with the Welsh f borrowed as ff, as happens in Taff and Llandaff. As English does not have the vowel the final vowel has been borrowed as; the antiquarian William Camden suggested that the name Cardiff may derive from *Caer-Didi, a name given in honour of Aulus Didius Gallus, governor of a nearby province at the time when the Roman fort was established.
Although some sources repeat this theory, it has been rejected on linguistic grounds by modern scholars such as Professor Gwynedd Pierce. Archaeological evidence from sites in and around Cardiff: the St Lythans burial chamber near Wenvoe,. A group of five Bronze Age tumuli is at the summit of the Garth, within the county's northern boundary. Four Iron Age hill fort and enclosure sites have been identified within Cardiff's present-day county boundaries, including Caerau Hillfort, an enclosed area of 5.1 hectares. Until the Roman conquest of Britain, Cardiff was part of the territory of the Silures – a Celtic British tribe that flourished in the Iron Age – whose territory included the areas that would become known as Breconshire and Glamorgan; the 3.2-hectare fort established by the Romans near the mouth of the River Taff in AD 75, in what would become the north western boundary of the centre of Cardiff, was built over an extensive settlement, established by the Romans in the 50s AD. The fort was one of a series of military outposts associated with Isca Augusta that acted as border defences.
The fort may have been abandoned in the early 2nd century. However, by this time a civilian settlement, or vicus, was established, it was made up of traders who made a living from the fort, ex-soldiers and their families. A Roman villa has been discovered at Ely. Contemporary with the Saxon Shore Forts of th
Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales
The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales, established in 1908, is a Welsh Government sponsored body concerned with the archaeological and historic environment of Wales. It is based in Aberystwyth; the RCAHMW maintains and curates the National Monuments Record of Wales, whose online archive is called Coflein. The Royal Commission has a national role in the management of the archaeological and maritime heritage of Wales as the originator and supplier of authoritative information for individual and governmental decision-makers and the general public. To this end it. In 1882 Sir John Lubbock pioneered the First British Ancient Monuments Act; this Act, concerned principally with prehistoric monuments rather than with medieval structures, encouraged owners to voluntarily transfer important sites into the safekeeping of Her Majesty's Commissioners of Works. It discouraged the public from damaging monuments by threatening to impose stiff penalties; the first Schedule of monuments resulted from a nationwide inquiry among interested local antiquarian societies.
In order to add monuments to this Schedule, the First Inspector of Ancient Monuments, General Pitt-Rivers, travelled the British Isles examining the known sites, searching for new ones. Only limited information was available to him and his helpers about the nature and condition of many monuments, there was no easy way to assess the potential national significance or value of any given site. In Wales, there were only three monuments on the first Schedule; these were Plas Newydd megalith, Arthur's Quoit, Gower and the megalith at Pentre Ifan, Pembrokeshire. By the turn of the century it was becoming clear that a census of archaeological sites was needed, so that a selection of the best could be put forward for Statutory Protection. By 1908 the administrative frameworks were in place to establish individual Royal Commissions on Ancient Monuments separately in Scotland and Wales, their original remit was to encompass not only Historic Monuments, but Constructions. On 10 August 1908 a Royal Commission was authorised and appointed by King Edward VII to'make an inventory of the Ancient and Historical Monuments and Constructions connected with or illustrative of the contemporary culture and conditions of life of the people in Wales and Monmouthshire from the earliest times, to specify those which seem most worthy of preservation'.
This last injunction was the most urgent purpose of the Commission in the eyes of the legislators, but the inventory was its essential preliminary. The protection of significant sites under the Ancient Monuments Act of Queen Victoria's reign had been hampered by a basic lack of knowledge of the country's stock of monuments. So it was felt that an independent and official body was needed to prepare a reliable inventory from which examples could be selected and recommended for statutory protection; this need was not peculiar to Wales, in 1908 identical Royal Commissions were established for Scotland and England too. The early commissioners were distinguished men who were notable figures in Welsh cultural life, each with a distinctive contribution to make to the task ahead, their involvement in such long-established scholarly institutions as the Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion proved invaluable to the Royal Commission from the beginning. For the first four decades of its existence it was based, like other Royal Commissions, in London, which allowed easy access to the British Museum, the Public Record Office and the Cymmrodorion Society, which had its headquarters in the capital.
The Royal Commission's first chairman was Sir John Rhys and professor of Celtic at Oxford University. He oversaw the publication of the first four inventory volumes, which appeared in quick succession: for Montgomeryshire, Flintshire and Denbighshire; the second chairman was Evan Vincent Evans. By profession an accountant and journalist, he was a friend of Welsh politicians and a stalwart of eisteddfodau and the Cymmrodorion; the early commissioners, included Edward Anwyl, another philologist, professor of Welsh and Comparative Philology at the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. Griffith Hartwell Jones was an Anglican clergyman living in Surrey but chairman of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion. Robert Hughes was a former lord mayor of Cardiff, created a city. Henry Owen, a lawyer, was a notable Pembrokeshire historian and another leading light of the Cymmrodorion. J. A. Bradney, the pre-eminent historian of Monmouthshire, was appointed a commissioner during the Great War, when he was a lieutenant-colonel in the militia.
The last of these early commissioners to be appointed was John Morris-Jones and professor of Welsh in the University College of North Wales, Bangor. None of these men were practising archaeologist by the definition of the term. Two other commissioners, included W. E. Llewellyn Morgan, on the army retired list, had spent several decades penning field descriptions of monuments. Robert Carr
Channel 4 is a British public-service free-to-air television network that began transmission on 2 November 1982. Although commercially-self-funded, it is publicly-owned. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter group in Wales to digital terrestrial broadcasting on 31 March 2010, Channel 4 became a UK-wide TV channel for the first time; the channel was established to provide a fourth television service to the United Kingdom in addition to the licence-funded BBC One and BBC Two, the single commercial broadcasting network ITV. Before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services: BBC1, BBC2, ITV; the Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, Channel 4, along with its Welsh counterpart, was formally created by an Act of Parliament in 1982. After some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982; the notion of a second commercial broadcaster in the United Kingdom had been around since the inception of ITV in 1954 and its subsequent launch in 1955.
Indeed, television sets sold throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare tuning button labelled "ITV/IBA 2". Throughout ITV's history and until Channel 4 became a reality, a perennial dialogue existed between the GPO, the government, the ITV companies and other interested parties, concerning the form such an expansion of commercial broadcasting would take, it was most politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of three decades before the second commercial channel became a reality. One clear benefit of the "late arrival" of the channel was that its frequency allocations at each transmitter had been arranged in the early 1960s, when the launch of an ITV2 was anticipated; this led to good coverage across most of the country and few problems of interference with other UK-based transmissions. At the time the fourth service was being considered, a movement in Wales lobbied for the creation of dedicated service that would air Welsh-language programmes only catered for at "off peak" times on BBC Wales and HTV.
The campaign was taken so by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, that he threatened the government with a hunger strike were it not to honour the plans. The result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel Pedwar Cymru. Operated by a specially created authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh made by HTV, the BBC and independent companies. Limited frequency space meant that Channel 4 could not be broadcast alongside S4C, though some Channel 4 programmes would be aired at less popular times on the Welsh variant, a practice that carried on up until the closure of S4C's analogue transmissions in 2010 when S4C became a Welsh channel. Since carriage on digital cable and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available; the first voice heard on Channel 4's opening day of Tuesday 2 November 1982 was that of continuity announcer Paul Coia who said: Good afternoon. It's a pleasure to be able to say to you, welcome to Channel Four.
Following the announcement, the channel headed into a montage of clips from its programmes set to the station's signature tune, "Fourscore", written by David Dundas, which would form the basis of the station's jingles for its first decade. The first programme to air on the channel was the teatime game show Countdown, at 16:45 produced by Yorkshire Television; the first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Ted Moult being the second. The first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Whiteley's Countdown co-host Carol Vorderman but a lexicographer only identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words: As the countdown to a brand new channel ends, a brand new countdown begins. On its first day, Channel 4 broadcast controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran until 2003. On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, an agenda in part set out by its remit which required the provision of programming to minority groups.
In step with its remit, the channel became well received both by minority groups and the arts and cultural worlds during this period under founding chief executive Jeremy Isaacs, where the channel gained a reputation for programmes on the contemporary arts. Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashley's ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives, which it premiered over several episodes in 1984; the channel did not receive mass audiences for much of this period, however, as might be expected for a station focusing on minority interest. Channel 4 began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombay, during this time. In 1992, Channel 4 faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in Nick Broomfield's documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife. In September 1993, the channel broadcast the direct-to-TV documentary film Beyond Citizen Kane, in which it displayed the dominant position of the Rede Globo television network, discussed its influence and political connections in Brazil.
After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Co
Bus transport in Cardiff
Bus transport in Cardiff, the capital and most populous city in Wales, forms the major part of the city's public transport network, which includes water, air travel and an urban rail network. Cardiff is a major city of the United Kingdom and a centre of employment, business, culture, media and higher education. Most of the city's comprehensive bus network is operated by Cardiff Bus, owned by Cardiff County Council; the main hub and terminus of the network was Cardiff Central bus station known as Central station which closed for redevelopment of the site in the autumn of 2015. Cardiff Bus operates the X91 to Llantwit Major omitting Cardiff Airport, now served by the TrawsCymru T9 route. Other operators such as Stagecoach South Wales and Newport Bus link the city with other urban areas in South Wales. TrawsCymru operates a long distance route to Aberystwyth, Cardiff Airport and West Wales, whereas National Express and Megabus operate long distance coaches to towns and cities throughout Wales and England.
Horse buses had run in the city from 1845 until 1909 and horse trams from 1872 until 1904. The first tram route ran from High Street in the city centre to the Cardiff Docks run by the Cardiff Tramway Company. In 1898, Cardiff County Borough Council obtained Parliamentary powers to take over all the tramways in the area and go ahead with the new electric trams, owning them from 1903; the routes formally opened in May 1902 with the first recorded accident that month – a collision with a cyclist. In 1904, more than 23 million passengers had been carried in that year, up from 18 million the previous year, and when Cardiff became a city in 1905, 131 electric trams were operating on the network focusing on the busy Cardiff Docks. In 1928, the network peaked at 19.5 miles route miles. By 1929, the tram network stretched from Victoria Park in the west, to Grangetown and Cardiff Docks in the south, to Roath and Splott in the east, to Gabalfa in the north; the city council refused motor buses in 1907 but allowed them in 1910, operating its own from 1920, although 81 tramcars were introduced by Cardiff Corporation Transport to negotiate the city's low railway bridges.
By 1939, these vehicles were becoming worn out and it was decided to phase out tramcars. In 1942, trolleybuses began to replace tramcars; the last tram service ran to Whitchurch in February 1950, making it the last place in Britain to commence trolleybus operation after Glasgow. Trolleybus routes were the same as tram routes although extensions were made; the furthest and final extension of the network came to Ely, where trams had never run. At this point, the system peaked at 18 route miles. In 1959, the Cardiff Corporation Transport routes, with trolleybus routes in bold, were Trolleybuses stopped on Wood Street, rather than in Cardiff Central bus station. Transition to motor buses began in 1962 and was completed by 1970, bringing to an end 68 years of electric traction on the streets of Cardiff; the city has been served by motor buses since. Cardiff had the largest municipal bus fleet in South Wales with 253 buses; the fleet of 1960s and 70s maroon and cream double-deckers included AEC Regent V, Daimler Fleetline and Guy Arab V.
It operated single deckers including AEC Swift. Between the 1960s and 1980s, Cardiff had many small coach operators:Western Welsh was formed in 1929 and grew to cover an area from St Davids in West Wales to the English border, operating 319 buses in its South Wales fleet by 1970. In 1978 it became National Welsh/Cymru Cenedlaethol which ran Red & White; the two companies closed in 1992. Neath & Cardiff's brown and red AEC Reliance fleet operated to towns to the west, to Bridgend and Swansea in the 1970s, its coaches were known as brown bombers. In June 1970, Alan Barrington Smith operated the 59 service from Newport to Cardiff operated by Davies and Baldwin and Red & White, using Bristol vehicles; this route was acquired by Smiths in 1972 and incorporated into their route 31 that circled Newport, but dropping the extension to Cardiff. CK Coaches Ltd was formed in 1974. In 1981, it gained two routes in the capital charging lower fares and offering the first competition for the Cardiff municipal fleet within the city since 1927.
Leyland buses were bought from London Transport and Leicester City Transport for these routes, one of, the 54 to Cyncoed, had a white and orange livery, similar to that of Cardiff Bus, but making more use of the white colour. Its blue and white double deckers operated a Llanrumney route, serving the populated eastern suburb. CK Coaches operated a route to Llanedeyrn, used Wood Street in the city centre rather than the main stands of Central station; the company's licences were revoked on 31 March 1982. Falconer and Watts operated tours and excursions, private hire and some contracts from Llanishen, a suburb to the north of Cardiff from 1919 to 1982, when they were taken over by Warners Fairfax of Tewkesbury. Thomas Motor Services had a history in Barry since 1914. At one time, it operated the sole bus link between Cardiff via Dinas Powys, its Leyland Tigers ran on the route 304 from 1959 until 1970, Leyland Leopards taking over until 1982. Thomas continued to operate the route using coaches. Greyhound's fleet consisted of around a dozen coaches in a ivory livery.
Some were used for local school contracts, such as at St Teilo's in the Penylan area of Cardiff. Coastal Continental Coach Hire, who ceased trade in 2008, operated Leyland Atlanteans in a red and cream colour on school routes for Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Glantaf in Llandaff North. Over 300 city bus stops have passenger informat