In cryptography, a Caesar cipher known as Caesar's cipher, the shift cipher, Caesar's code or Caesar shift, is one of the simplest and most known encryption techniques. It is a type of substitution cipher in which each letter in the plaintext is replaced by a letter some fixed number of positions down the alphabet. For example, with a left shift of 3, D would be replaced by A, E would become B, so on; the method is named after Julius Caesar. The encryption step performed by a Caesar cipher is incorporated as part of more complex schemes, such as the Vigenère cipher, still has modern application in the ROT13 system; as with all single-alphabet substitution ciphers, the Caesar cipher is broken and in modern practice offers no communications security. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets. For instance, here is a Caesar cipher using a left rotation of three places, equivalent to a right shift of 23: Plain: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Cipher: XYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the "plain" line and writes down the corresponding letter in the "cipher" line.
Plaintext: THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPS OVER THE LAZY DOG Ciphertext: QEB NRFZH YOLTK CLU GRJMP LSBO QEB IXWV ALD Deciphering is done in reverse, with a right shift of 3. The encryption can be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A → 0, B → 1... Z → 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as, E n = mod 26. Decryption is performed D n = mod 26; the replacement remains the same throughout the message, so the cipher is classed as a type of monoalphabetic substitution, as opposed to polyalphabetic substitution. The Caesar cipher is named after Julius Caesar, according to Suetonius, used it with a shift of three to protect messages of military significance. While Caesar's was the first recorded use of this scheme, other substitution ciphers are known to have been used earlier. "If he had anything confidential to say, he wrote it in cipher, that is, by so changing the order of the letters of the alphabet, that not a word could be made out.
If anyone wishes to decipher these, get at their meaning, he must substitute the fourth letter of the alphabet, namely D, for A, so with the others." His nephew, Augustus used the cipher, but with a right shift of one, it did not wrap around to the beginning of the alphabet: "Whenever he wrote in cipher, he wrote B for A, C for B, the rest of the letters on the same principle, using AA for Z." Evidence exists that Julius Caesar used more complicated systems, one writer, Aulus Gellius, refers to a treatise on his ciphers: "There is a rather ingeniously written treatise by the grammarian Probus concerning the secret meaning of letters in the composition of Caesar's epistles." It is unknown how effective the Caesar cipher was at the time, but it is to have been reasonably secure, not least because most of Caesar's enemies would have been illiterate and others would have assumed that the messages were written in an unknown foreign language. There is no record at that time of any techniques for the solution of simple substitution ciphers.
The earliest surviving records date to the 9th century works of Al-Kindi in the Arab world with the discovery of frequency analysis. A Caesar cipher with a shift of one is used on the back of the mezuzah to encrypt the names of God; this may be a holdover from an earlier time. The letters of the cryptogram themselves comprise a religiously significant "divine name" which Orthodox belief holds keeps the forces of evil in check. In the 19th century, the personal advertisements section in newspapers would sometimes be used to exchange messages encrypted using simple cipher schemes. Kahn describes instances of lovers engaging in secret communications enciphered using the Caesar cipher in The Times; as late as 1915, the Caesar cipher was in use: the Russian army employed it as a replacement for more complicated ciphers which had proved to be too difficult for their troops to master. Caesar ciphers can be found today in children's toys such as secret decoder rings. A Caesar shift of thirteen is performed in the ROT13 algorithm, a simple method of obfuscating text found on Usenet and used to obscure text, but not used as a method of encryption.
The Vigenère cipher uses a Caesar cipher with a different shift at each position in the text. If the keyword is as long as the message, chosen random, never becomes known to anyone else, is never reused, this is the one-time pad cipher, proven unbreakable; the conditions are so difficult. Keywords shorter than the message, introduce a cy
Little Caesar Enterprises Inc. is the third-largest pizza chain in the United States, behind Pizza Hut and Domino's Pizza. It operates and franchises pizza restaurants in the United States and internationally in Asia, the Middle East, Canada, Latin America and the Caribbean; the company was founded in 1959 and is based in Detroit, headquartered in the Fox Theatre building in Downtown. Little Caesar Enterprises, Inc. operates as a subsidiary of Inc.. Little Caesars Pizza was founded on May 1959, by Mike Ilitch and his wife Marian Ilitch; the first location was in a strip mall in Garden City, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit, named "Little Caesar's Pizza Treat". The original store closed in October 2018; the company is famous for its advertising catchphrase, "Pizza! Pizza!", introduced in 1979. The phrase refers to two pizzas being offered for the comparable price of a single pizza from competitors; the pizzas were served in a single long package. Little Caesars has since discarded the unwieldy packaging in favor of typical pizza boxes.
In addition to pizza, they served hot dogs, chicken and fish. In 1998, Little Caesars filled what was the largest pizza order, filling an order of 13,386 pizzas from the VF Corporation of Greensboro, North Carolina. Starting in 2004, the chain began offering "Hot-N-Ready", a large pepperoni pizza sold for $5; the concept was successful enough to become a permanent fixture of the chain, Little Caesars' business model has shifted to focus more on carryout. Little Caesars was among the first to use a new kind of speed-cooking conveyor oven, the "Rotary Air Impingement Oven". On December 10, 2014, Little Caesars announced plans for a new eight-story, 205,000-square-foot Global Resource Center to be built at Woodward Avenue and Columbia Street in downtown Detroit. Intended to double the size of Little Caesars World Headquarters Campus, the new building's location was chosen near the Fox Office Center building, which houses both the Fox Theatre, 186,000 square feet of office space for Little Caesars, other Ilitch-affiliated ventures.
An overhead pedestrian bridge over Columbia Street was planned to connect the Fox with the new Little Caesars Global Resource Center, workspace for an additional 600 jobs to be brought to Detroit over time. On January 31, 2016, it was announced that the proposed new Little Caesars Pizza Global Resource Center had grown by one floor to be a nine-story building at Woodward and Columbia Street; the building was scheduled to be completed in 2018, but in October of that year, was pushed back due to construction delays. In 2017, to coincide with the opening of Little Caesars Arena, the company launched a updated logo, which removed the Caesar's chest hair, updated the wreath, updated the toga to have hidden letters spelling "LC" for "Little Caesars"; the company started using the updated Caesar in its advertising, replacing the more cartoonish Caesar, used in ads since the 1980s. Ilitch Holdings, Inc. manages professional services to companies owned by Marian Ilitch. These include the Detroit Red Wings of the National Hockey League, the Detroit Tigers of Major League Baseball, Blue Line Foodservice Distribution, Little Caesars Pizza Kits, Champion Foods, Olympia Entertainment, Olympia Development, Uptown Entertainment, the Hockeytown Cafe, the Fox Theatre in downtown Detroit.
While Little Caesars owns the "Pizza! Pizza!" Trademark in the U. S. the unaffiliated Canadian Pizza Pizza restaurant chain owns the Canadian trademark. As a result, Little Caesars cannot directly use the slogan in Canada, due to a copyright claim by JAD Productions Corporation. Instead, the company has used "Two Pizzas!" along with "Delivery! Delivery!", "Quality! Quality!" or other such double-word tag lines in its advertising and packaging in Canada. They have used "Hot'N Ready!" in their TV commercials for their "Hot'N Ready" pizzas. Little Caesars sold its first franchise in 1962 and, by 1987, had restaurants in all 50 states. Throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, Little Caesars were found in Kmart stores, more in Big Kmarts and Super Kmarts; the first Kmart and the first Little Caesars were both built in Michigan. After Kmart's bankruptcy issues, some of today's Kmarts have replaced the Little Caesars with their own branded "K-Cafe". However, several Little Caesars remain. Little Caesars pizza was included in many remodeled Kmart locations.
Between 2008–2015, Little Caesars was the fastest-growing pizza chain in the United States. As of 2017, the company has 5,463 locations including U. S. and international units. By 1987, the company was operating across the Northern United States, purchasing the Mother's Pizza chain out of receivership in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom in 1989; as of 2018, the company is present in Canada, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Honduras, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Panama, the Philippines, Jordan, Guatemala, Saudi Arabia, El Salvador, Bahrain, Australia and Tobago and Chile. The Little Caesars brand in the Philippines was present since the 1990s but closed down in the 2000s, it reentered the market 25 January 2019, with its launching under a new franchisee and new branch in Ermita, Manila. Little Ca
The Julii Caesares were the most illustrious family of the patrician gens Julia. The family first appears in history during the Second Punic War, when Sextus Julius Caesar was praetor in Sicily, his son, Sextus Julius Caesar, obtained the consulship in 157 BC. Having been granted dictatorial power by the Roman Senate and instituting a number of political and social reforms, he was assassinated in 44 BC. After overcoming several rivals, Caesar's adopted son and heir, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was proclaimed Augustus by the senate, inaugurating what became the Julio-Claudian line of Roman emperors; the first of the Julii Caesares to appear in history was Sextus Julius Caesar, praetor in Sicily in 208 BC. From the filiation of his son, Sextus, "Sex. f. L. n.", we know that his father was named Lucius, but who this Lucius was and whether he bore the surname Caesar is uncertain. On the assumption that the Caesares were descended from earlier notable families of the Julia gens, some scholars have suggested that he was the son of Lucius Julius Libo, consul in 267 BC.
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology says this of the cognomen Caesar: It is uncertain which member of the Julia gens first obtained the surname of Caesar, but the first who occurs in history is Sextus Julius Caesar, praetor in BC 208. The origin of the name is uncertain. Spartianus, in his life of Aelius Verus, mentions four different opinions respecting its origin: That the word signified an elephant in the language of the Moors, was given as a surname to one of the Julii because he had killed an elephant; that it was given to one of the Julii because he had been cut out of his mother's womb after her death. Of these opinions the third, given by Festus, seems to come nearest the truth. Caesar and caesaries are both connected with the Sanskrit kêsa, "hair", it is quite in accordance with the Roman custom for a surname to be given to an individual from some peculiarity in his personal appearance; the second opinion, which seems to have been the most popular one with the ancient writers, arose without doubt from a false etymology.
With respect to the first, the one adopted, says Spartianus, by the most learned men, it is impossible to disprove it as we know next to nothing of the ancient Moorish language. An inquiry into the etymology of this name is of some interest, as no other name has obtained such celebrity — "clarum et duraturum cum aeternitate mundi nomen." It was assumed by Augustus as the adopted son of the dictator, was by Augustus handed down to his adopted son Tiberius. It continued to be used by Caligula and Nero, as members either by adoption or female descent of Caesar's family; when Hadrian adopted Aelius Verus, he allowed the latter to take the title of Caesar. Outside of the Imperial family, the last of the Julii known to have borne the surname of Caesar was Lucius Julius Caesar, consul in 64 BC, and, still living in BC 40. Although other members of the family may have lived after this time, none seem to have achieved sufficient prominence to be recorded in subsequent generations; the genealogy of the Julii Caesares was studied by Wilhelm Drumann in his monumental history of Rome, the following tables are based on his reconstruction of the family.
In most respects, Drumann's genealogy forms the basis for modern scholarship on the family, with one important exception: Drumann believed that the Sextus Julius Caesar, a military tribune in 181 BC and the Sextus, consul in BC 157 were father and son. While chronology suggested that the tribune might be the son of the Sextus, praetor in 208 BC, the consul's filiation indicated that his grandfather's name was Lucius. Accordingly, Drumann inferred the existence of an otherwise unknown Lucius Julius Caesar between the praetor and the military tribune, although in order to make sense chronologically, the praetor would have to have been rather elderly and the tribune young when they held their respective offices. More recent scholarship has concluded that the military tribune and the consul were the same man, which means that his grandfather, was the father of the praetor of 208 BC, rather than his son, it is therefore Sextus, the praetor of BC 208, rather than an otherwise unknown Lucius Julius Caesar, the father of Lucius Julius Caesar, praetor in 183 BC, Sextus, the consul of 157.
These sons provide the first two branches of the family. We know that Caesar's grandfather was named Gaius, that he married a woman of the Marcia gens. Drumann supposed that he might have been the son of a senator named Gaius Julius, who wrote a Ro
Caesars Entertainment Corporation
Caesars Entertainment Corporation is an American gaming corporation based in Paradise, Nevada that owns and operates over 50 casinos and hotels, seven golf courses under several brands. In 2013, it was the fourth-largest gaming company in the world, with annual revenues of $8.6 billion. Caesars is a public company, majority-owned by a group of private equity firms led by Apollo Global Management and TPG Capital. Caesars's largest operating unit filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on January 15, 2015; the company's background can be traced to October 29, 1937, when Bill Harrah opened a small bingo parlor in Reno, Nevada, a predecessor to Harrah's Reno. In 1955, he expanded to Stateline, Nevada, on the south shore of Lake Tahoe, where he would open Harrah's Lake Tahoe. Harrah's Inc. made its initial public offering in 1971. In 1972, it was listed on the American Stock Exchange and in 1973, Harrah's became the first casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Bill Harrah died on June 30, 1978 of complications from aortic aneurysm and cardiac surgery at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota.
In February 1980, Holiday Inn acquired. Liquidation of Harrah's collection of 7,000 antique automobiles returned the full purchase price of the company to Holiday Inn. Holiday Inn at the time had interests in two casinos: the under-construction Holiday Inn Marina Casino in Atlantic City, a 40 percent stake in the Holiday Casino, adjacent to the Holiday Inn hotel on the Las Vegas Strip. In July 1987, Bill's Casino Lake Tahoe opened. Harrah's Laughlin opened in August 1988; the company now known as Caesars Entertainment was formed in 1990 as The Promus Companies. To effect the sale of the Holiday Inn hotel business to Bass PLC, Promus was created as a corporate spin-off, holding Harrah's, Embassy Suites, Homewood Suites, Hampton Inn; the next year, the company's headquarters moved from Reno to Memphis, TennesseeIn April 1992, the Holiday Casino was rebranded as Harrah's Las Vegas. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw a rapid increase in gambling markets with the growth of Indian gaming and legalization of riverboat casinos.
In 1993 and 1994, the company opened Harrah's Joliet, Harrah's Vicksburg, Harrah's Tunica, Harrah's Black Hawk, Harrah's Central City, Harrah's Shreveport, Harrah's North Kansas City, Harrah's Ak-Chin. In 1995, Promus decided to spin off its non-gaming hotel businesses, in part because they had been undervalued by investors due to perception of the company as a risky gaming stock. Promus Hotel Corp. was established, holding Embassy Suites, Hampton Inn, Homewood Suites, while the parent company, holding 16 casinos, was renamed as Harrah's Entertainment. Harrah's continued its expansion over the next ten years, opening Harrah's Skagit Valley, Harrah's Sky City, Harrah's St. Louis-Riverport, Harrah's Cherokee, Harrah's Prairie Band, Harrah's New Orleans, Harrah's Rincon, acquiring the Southern Belle Casino, Inc. the Rio All Suite Hotel and Casino, Players International, Harveys Casino Resorts, Louisiana Downs, Horseshoe Gaming, the World Series of Poker. In 1997, Harrah's launched its Total Gold loyalty program, developed at a cost of $20 million.
It was the first gaming company to offer a systemwide comps program, allowing points earned at one casino to be redeemed for goods and services at any of the company's other casinos. The system would be credited as a major driver of Harrah's growth over the coming years. Harvard Business School professor Gary Loveman joined Harrah's as chief operating officer in 1998, would go on to serve as chief executive officer from 2003 to 2015. In 1999, the company moved its headquarters from Memphis to Las Vegas. Harrah's made its largest single expansion in 2005, when it acquired Caesars Entertainment, Inc. for $10.4 billion. Negotiations were spurred on by news of a merger agreement between MGM Mirage and Mandalay Resort Group; the two companies sold several properties ahead of the merger to assuage antitrust concerns, including Harrah's East Chicago and Harrah's Mardi Gras. The acquisition increased Harrah's portfolio to 40 casinos, plus four cruise ship casinos; the deal furthered Harrah's goal of gaining a larger presence on the Las Vegas Strip, where Caesars owned four casinos, improved its ability to market to high rollers.
Harrah's began to push for a larger international presence in 2005, announcing joint venture agreements to build casinos in Spain and the Bahamas, applying for a license to build a major resort in Singapore, though none of these projects would come to fruition. Harrah's acquired London Clubs International in 2006, the Macau Orient Golf club in 2007. From 2005 to 2010, the company consolidated control of a long stretch of the east side of the Las Vegas Strip, acquiring the Bourbon Street, Imperial Palace, Barbary Coast, Planet Hollywood casinos, along with large tracts of land behind the Strip properties. In 2005 and 2006, Harrah's closed its Lake Charles casino due to damage from Hurricane Rita, sold the Flamingo Laughlin, sold Grand Casino Gulfport. Loveman at some point sought advice from private equity tycoon David Bonderman about the possibility of spinning off ownership of Harrah's real estate as a separate real estate investment trust, hoping to attain the higher price-to-earnings ratios at which hotel companies traded, compared to gaming companies.
In 2006, the discussions evolved toward the idea of a leveraged buyout of Harrah's by Bonderman's company, TPG Capital. Another private equity firm, Apollo Global Management, approached Loveman about a buyout, he encouraged them to collaborate with TPG. By the end of the year, an agreement was announced fo
Bernhard Caesar Einstein
Bernard Caesar Einstein was a Swiss-American physicist, the son of Hans Albert Einstein. Of the three known biological grandchildren of Albert Einstein, all sons of Hans, he was the only one to survive childhood. Bernard Einstein was the son of Hans Albert Einstein and Frieda Einstein, who had married in 1927 in Switzerland, he was born on 10 July 1930 in Dortmund, where Hans Albert was involved in a bridge building project. Hans Albert was the only one of Albert Einstein's three children to have children. Hans Albert's sister, Lieserl Einstein, is assumed to have died in infancy, although it has been suggested that she was given up for adoption. Hans Albert's younger brother Eduard Einstein developed severe schizophrenia in early adulthood and died at age 55, had no children. Bernard's brother Klaus died at age 6 of diphtheria in Clemson, South Carolina. Frieda had David, who died in early infancy. Hans Albert and Frieda adopted a girl, shortly after she was born in 1941. Frieda died in 1958. Bernard spent his early years in Switzerland until the age of eight, when his family moved to South Carolina.
Albert Einstein was worried about the rise of Nazi Germany and encouraged his son Hans Albert to emigrate to the United States as he himself had done in 1933. Hans Albert heeded this advice, moved his family to Greenville, South Carolina, where he was a civil engineer working with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. Bernard spent his teenage years in Pasadena, where his father was a professor at the California Institute of Technology, in Berkeley. Bernard first met his grandfather Albert; as a boy he travelled alone to spend time with Albert in New Jersey, at Saranac Lake in upstate New York. Einstein recounted to his son Thomas that he used to irritate his grandfather because he would urinate out the window directly above Albert's study in Princeton. At Saranac Lake he enjoyed sailing with his grandfather. Albert Einstein's favorite time to sail was when there was little wind. According to Bernard, his grandfather enjoyed the challenge of harnessing whatever little bit of breeze he could capture.
The sailing tradition was carried on by Albert's son, Hans Albert, Bernard's children on the San Francisco Bay. Albert Einstein died in April 1955. Having shared his love of music with his grandson, he bequeathed Bernard his violin in addition to a modest sum of money. In 1954, Bernard married Doris Aude Ascher, with whom he had five children: Thomas Martin Einstein Paul Michael Einstein Eduard Albert "Ted" Einstein Mira Einstein-Yehieli Charles Quincy Ascher "Charly" Einstein Einstein was not a serious student in high school, or in his first two years of college at University of California at Berkeley, he excelled only in German language at UC. He enlisted in the US Army in 1954, finished basic training at Fort Ord, near Monterey, California, he was stationed in southern Germany where he met his first wife, Doris Aude Ascher, whom he married in 1954. Einstein credited the army for giving him self-discipline, after discharge he applied and was admitted to Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland.
He followed in both his grandfather's and his father's footsteps to study physics at the ETH. When he obtained his diploma at ETH, Einstein returned to the United States and worked as an engineer for Texas Instruments in Dallas, Texas. Einstein moved to California and worked at Litton Industries in the San Francisco Bay Area, his area of expertise was electron tube technology, light amplification devices for night vision. He filed and obtained four U. S. patents related to light amplification technology. In 1974 Bernard moved back to Switzerland and worked in laser technology at the Swiss Army Research Lab in Thun, obtaining a further US patent. Terry Kirby. Grandson tells of life with Einstein; the Independent, 8 November 2005. Michele Zackheim. "Einstein — Children of a Lesser God: For the Offspring of a Science Deity, the Legacy Is More Burden Than Blessing". Discover magazine, March 2008, published online February 2008 at discovermagazine.com. Retrieved 2009-07-16 Biography – Thomas Einstein, M.
D. Anesthesiologist. Www.ezinearticles.com website, retrieved 2009-07-* Physical Review – PHYS REV X, vol. 150, no. 2, pp. 619–631, 1966
Augustus was a Roman statesman and military leader, the first emperor of the Roman Empire, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history; the reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. The Roman world was free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession. Augustus was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia, his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir. Along with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, he formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators.
The Triumvirate was torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Octavian in 31 BC. After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward façade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, the legislative assemblies. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, those of tribune and censor, it took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He rejected monarchical titles, instead called himself Princeps Civitatis; the resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. Augustus enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Pannonia and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, completing the conquest of Hispania, but suffered a major setback in Germania.
Beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, rebuilt much of the city during his reign. Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of 75 from natural causes. However, there were unconfirmed rumors, he was succeeded as emperor by his adopted son Tiberius. As a consequence of Roman customs and personal preference, Augustus was known by many names throughout his life: Gaius Octavius Thurinus: He received his birth name, after his biological father, in 63 BC. "Gaius" was his praenomen, "Octavius" was his nomen, "Thurinus" was his cognomen. His rival Mark Antony used the name "Thurinus" as an insult, to which Augustus replied, surprised that "using his old name was thought to be an insult".
Gaius Julius Caesar: After he was adopted by Julius Caesar, he adopted Caesar's name in accordance with Roman naming conventions. While he dropped all references to the gens Octavia, people colloquially added the epithet Octavianus to his legal name, either to differentiate him from his adoptive father or to highlight his more modest origins. Modern historians refer to him using the anglicized form "Octavian" between 44 BC and 27 BC. Gaius Julius Caesar Divi Filius: Two years after his adoption, he founded the Temple of Caesar additionally adding the title Divi Filius to his name in attempt to strengthen his political ties to Caesar's former soldiers, following the deification of Caesar. Imperator Caesar Divi Filius: From 38 BC, Octavian opted to use Imperator, the title by which troops hailed their leader after military success, his name is translated as "Commander Caesar, Son of the Divine". Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus: Following his 31 BC defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on his own insistence, the Roman Senate granted him the additional name, "Augustus", which he added to his previous names thereafter.
Historians use this name to refer to him from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri 40 kilometres from Rome, Augustus was born in the city of Rome on 23 September 63 BC, he was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill close to the Roman Forum. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen commemorating his father's victory at Thurii over a rebellious band of slaves. Suetonius wrote: "There are many indications that the Octavian family was in days of old a distinguished one at Velitrae; this man was leader in a war with a neighbouring town..." Due to the crowded nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his father's home village at Velletri to be raised. Octavius mentions his father's equestrian family only in his memoirs, his paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War. His grandfather had served in several lo
Caesar (Massie novel)
Caesar is a 1993 historical novel by Scottish writer Allan Massie, the third in the author's series of novels about the early Roman Emperors. It is written as the memoirs of Decimus Brutus, one of Caesar’s assassins, in custody, awaiting judgement and certain death for his part in the slaying. Brutus insists that he has no need to make an apology and sets out his reasons and succinctly, celebrating the charmed life of Caesar though tempering his remarkable achievements with the great man’s overpowering ambition and ruthless determination to end the Roman Republic and install himself as Dictator for life; as he writes in hindsight of the unfolding conspiracy, Brutus paints himself as a patriot, willing to destroy his own life and the legacy of his ancient family name to prevent Caesar from carrying out the unthinkable and ending over 500 years of republicanism