A practical joke, or prank, is a mischievous trick played on someone causing the victim to experience embarrassment, confusion, or discomfort. A person who performs a practical joke is called a "practical joker". Other terms for practical jokes include jape, or shenanigan. Practical jokes differ from confidence tricks or hoaxes in that the victim finds out, or is let in on the joke, rather than being talked into handing over money or other valuables. Practical jokes are lighthearted and without lasting impact, thus most practical jokes designed to encourage laughter. However, practical jokes performed with cruelty can constitute bullying, whose intent is to harass or exclude rather than reinforce social bonds through ritual humbling; some countries in Western culture traditionally emphasize the carrying out of practical jokes on April Fools' Day. A practical joke is "practical" because it consists of someone doing something physical, in contrast to a verbal or written joke. For example, the joker, setting up and conducting the practical joke might hang a bucket of water above a doorway and rig the bucket using pulleys so when the door opens the bucket dumps the water.
The joker would wait for the victim to walk through the doorway and be drenched by the bucket of water. Objects can feature in practical jokes, like fake vomit, chewing-gum bugs, exploding cigars, stink bombs and whoopee cushions. Practical jokes occur in offices to surprise co-workers. Examples include covering computer accessories with Jell-O, wrapping a desk with Christmas paper or aluminium foil or filling it with balloons. Practical jokes commonly occur during sleepovers, when teens play pranks on their friends as they come into the home, enter a room or as they sleep. American humorist H. Allen Smith wrote a 320-page book in 1953 called The Compleat Practical Joker that contains numerous examples of practical jokes; the book became a best seller - not only in the United States but in Japan. Moira Marsh has written an entire volume about practical jokes. - she found that in the USA males perpetrate such gags more than females. A practical joke recalled as his favorite by the playwright Charles MacArthur, concerns the American painter and bohemian character Waldo Peirce.
While living in Paris in the 1920s, Peirce "made a gift of a big turtle to the woman, the concierge of his building". The woman doted on the lavished care on it. A few days Peirce substituted a somewhat larger turtle for the original one; this continued for some time, with larger and larger turtles being surreptitiously introduced into the woman's apartment. The concierge was beside herself with happiness and displayed her miraculous turtle to the entire neighborhood. Peirce began to sneak in and replace the turtle with smaller and smaller ones, to her bewildered distress; this was the storyline behind Esio Trot, by Roald Dahl. Modern and successful pranks take advantage of the modernization of tools and techniques. In Canada, engineering students have a reputation for annual pranks. A similar prank was undertaken by engineering students at Cambridge University, where an Austin 7 car was put on top of the Senate House building. Pranks can adapt to the political context of the era. Students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are known for their "hacks".
Not unlike the Stone Louse of Germany, in the American West the jackalope has become an institutionalized practical joke perennially perpetrated by ruralites on tourists, most of whom have never heard of the decades-old myth. The 2003 TV movie Windy City Heat, consists of an elaborate practical joke on the film's star, Perry Caravallo, led to believe that he is starring in a faux action film, Windy City Heat, where the filming, ostensibly for the film's DVD extras documents the long chain of pranks and jokes performed at Caravallo's expense
Radio is the technology of signalling or communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 300 gigahertz, they are generated by an electronic device called a transmitter connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, received by a radio receiver connected to another antenna. Radio is widely used in modern technology, in radio communication, radio navigation, remote control, remote sensing and other applications. In radio communication, used in radio and television broadcasting, cell phones, two-way radios, wireless networking and satellite communication among numerous other uses, radio waves are used to carry information across space from a transmitter to a receiver, by modulating the radio signal in the transmitter. In radar, used to locate and track objects like aircraft, ships and missiles, a beam of radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter reflects off the target object, the reflected waves reveal the object's location. In radio navigation systems such as GPS and VOR, a mobile receiver receives radio signals from navigational radio beacons whose position is known, by measuring the arrival time of the radio waves the receiver can calculate its position on Earth.
In wireless remote control devices like drones, garage door openers, keyless entry systems, radio signals transmitted from a controller device control the actions of a remote device. Applications of radio waves which do not involve transmitting the waves significant distances, such as RF heating used in industrial processes and microwave ovens, medical uses such as diathermy and MRI machines, are not called radio; the noun radio is used to mean a broadcast radio receiver. Radio waves were first identified and studied by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in 1886; the first practical radio transmitters and receivers were developed around 1895-6 by Italian Guglielmo Marconi, radio began to be used commercially around 1900. To prevent interference between users, the emission of radio waves is regulated by law, coordinated by an international body called the International Telecommunications Union, which allocates frequency bands in the radio spectrum for different uses. Radio waves are radiated by electric charges undergoing acceleration.
They are generated artificially by time varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing back and forth in a metal conductor called an antenna. In transmission, a transmitter generates an alternating current of radio frequency, applied to an antenna; the antenna radiates the power in the current as radio waves. When the waves strike the antenna of a radio receiver, they push the electrons in the metal back and forth, inducing a tiny alternating current; the radio receiver connected to the receiving antenna detects this oscillating current and amplifies it. As they travel further from the transmitting antenna, radio waves spread out so their signal strength decreases, so radio transmissions can only be received within a limited range of the transmitter, the distance depending on the transmitter power, antenna radiation pattern, receiver sensitivity, noise level, presence of obstructions between transmitter and receiver. An omnidirectional antenna transmits or receives radio waves in all directions, while a directional antenna or high gain antenna transmits radio waves in a beam in a particular direction, or receives waves from only one direction.
Radio waves travel through a vacuum at the speed of light, in air at close to the speed of light, so the wavelength of a radio wave, the distance in meters between adjacent crests of the wave, is inversely proportional to its frequency. In radio communication systems, information is carried across space using radio waves. At the sending end, the information to be sent is converted by some type of transducer to a time-varying electrical signal called the modulation signal; the modulation signal may be an audio signal representing sound from a microphone, a video signal representing moving images from a video camera, or a digital signal consisting of a sequence of bits representing binary data from a computer. The modulation signal is applied to a radio transmitter. In the transmitter, an electronic oscillator generates an alternating current oscillating at a radio frequency, called the carrier wave because it serves to "carry" the information through the air; the information signal is used to modulate the carrier, varying some aspect of the carrier wave, impressing the information on the carrier.
Different radio systems use different modulation methods: AM - in an AM transmitter, the amplitude of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FM - in an FM transmitter, the frequency of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FSK - used in wireless digital devices to transmit digital signals, the frequency of the carrier wave is shifted periodically between two frequencies that represent the two binary digits, 0 and 1, to transmit a sequence of bits. OFDM - a family of complicated digital modulation methods widely used in high bandwidth systems such as WiFi networks, digital television broadcasting, digital audio broadcasting to transmit digital data using a minimum of radio spectrum bandwidth. OFDM has higher spectral efficiency and more resistance to fading than AM or FM. Multiple radio carrier waves spaced in frequency are transmitted within the radio channel, with each carrier modulated with bits from the incoming bitstream
Kenny Everett was a British comedian and radio disc jockey known for his irreverent, offbeat comedic style and easy-going personality. After spells on pirate radio and Radio Luxembourg in the mid 1960s, he was one of the first DJs to join BBC radio's newly-created Radio 1 in 1967, it was here he developed his trademark voices and surreal characters which he adapted for TV. Everett was sacked from the BBC in 1970 after making remarks about a government minister’s wife, he returned to commercial radio when it joined Capital Radio. Starting in the late 1970s, he transitioned to television where he made numerous comedy series on ITV and BBC appearing with Cleo Rocos, whose glamorous and curvaceous figure was used to comic effect. Everett was a politically right-of-centre media star who supported the British Conservative Party and made publicity appearances at conferences and rallies. However, as a gay man, he faced criticism for supporting the UK Conservative government after it had enacted Section 28, a clause of the Local Government Act which allowed councils to opt-out of'promoting' homosexual issues.
Everett was a versatile performer, able to write his own scripts, compose jingles and operate advanced recording and mixing equipment. His personality made him a regular guest on chat shows and panel programmes like Blankety Blank, he was diagnosed with HIV in 1989. He died in 1995. Maurice James Christopher Cole was born in Seaforth, into a Catholic family as Maurice James Christopher Cole. Everett attended the local secondary modern school, St Bede's Secondary Modern School in Crosby, now part of Sacred Heart Catholic College, he attended a junior seminary at Stillington, North Yorkshire near York with an Italian missionary order, the Verona Fathers, where he was a choirboy. After he left school, he worked in a bakery and in the Advertising Department of The Journal of Commerce and Shipping Telegraph. Everett's first break came when he sent a tape to the British Broadcasting Corporation in 1962, he was interviewed at the BBC by Charles Fletcher and offered a job as a presenter on the Light Programme, the forerunner to BBC Radio 2.
He declined, however, in favour of the less constrained world of pirate radio, where he began his career as a DJ for Radio London. It was while working here, he adopted the name "Everett" from a childhood hero, the American film comic actor Edward Everett Horton. He teamed up with Dave Cash for the Kenny & Cash Show, one of the most popular pirate radio programmes, his offbeat style and likeable personality gained him attention, but in 1965 he was sacked after some outspoken remarks about religion on air. Like most of the pirate stations, Radio London carried sponsored American evangelical shows and Everett's disparaging remarks about The World Tomorrow caused its producers to threaten to withdraw their lucrative contract with the station. Everett returned six months however, before being given his own show by Radio Luxembourg in 1966. Johnny Beerling, a BBC producer, secretly visited Radio London at this time and observed Everett at work: "I saw this man Everett doing everything. In the old way of doing things, the DJ sat in one room with a script.
Someone else played. Yet I see this man who has control of everything." An audition tape submitted to the BBC was assessed in March 1967 by a panel: "Member one:'A pseudo-American voice. Sounds seems to fancy his luck. Yes.'Member two:'By far the most original of the young DJs. I found the stilted bits in bad taste but with suitable restraint and encouragement, Kenny Everett could be one of the BBC's best DJs. Yes.'Member three:'Without the hard sell and the occasional phoney American accent, a good pop DJ. Must be made to curb the funnies and the voices. Yes.'Member four:'I found the continuous changes of voices irritating and his personality supercilious but he has some talent. Should be available but would need firm production. Yes.'" He was heard in May 1967 on the BBC's soon-to-be-discontinued Light Programme previewing the Beatles' forthcoming album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, was one of the DJs on the new pop music station Radio 1 from its launch at the end of September 1967. Everett had struck up a friendship with the Beatles and accompanied them on their August 1966 tour of the United States, sending back daily reports for Radio London.
He produced their 1968 and 1969 Christmas records. At Radio 1 Everett continued to develop his unique presentation style, encouraged by producer Angela Bond, who had persuaded her superiors to give him his first programme, although he reacted against her as a representative of the BBC. Everett's Radio 1 show featured zany voices, surreal characters, multi-tracked jingles and trailers, all of his own creation and compilation, it was Everett who had persuaded Johnny Beerling and station controller Robin Scott, at a lunch meeting before his appointment, of the importance of the new station having jingles. Everett's shows on BBC Radio 1 included Midday Spin, in 1968 he took over a Saturday show from 10 a.m. to noon. In 1970, Everett again found himself sacked, this time after suggesting on air that Mary Peyton, the British Transport Minister's wife, had bribed her driving test examiner; the remark was a spontaneous quip, following a news item describing how Peyton had passed after many attempts.
The BBC thought the comment "indefensible", although shortly before the incident Everett had given a controversial interview with Melody Maker contrary to a BBC embargo preventing hi
The Independent is a British online newspaper. Established in 1986 as a politically independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev in 2010; the last printed edition of The Independent was published on Saturday 26 March 2016, leaving only its digital editions. Nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet, but changed to tabloid format in 2003; until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as "free from party political bias, free from proprietorial influence". It tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues; the daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. In June 2015, it had an average daily circulation of just below 58,000, 85 per cent down from its 1990 peak, while the Sunday edition had a circulation of just over 97,000. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format.
It was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds. All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwell's ownership. Marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, Whittam Smith took control of the paper; the paper was created at a time of a fundamental change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and defeated them in the Wapping dispute. Production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition; as a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. The Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a moribund market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years, a price war in the market sector. When The Independent launched The Independent on Sunday in 1990, sales were less than anticipated due to the launch of the Sunday Correspondent four months prior, although this direct rival closed at the end of November 1990; some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although the Sunday paper retained a distinct editorial staff. In the 1990s, The Independent was faced with price cutting by the Murdoch titles, started an advertising campaign accusing The Times and The Daily Telegraph of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black, it featured spoofs of the other papers' mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, with The Independent below the main title. Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O'Reilly's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994.
In March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into O'Reilly's Independent News & Media, MGN, Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, in March 1998, O'Reilly bought the other shares of the company for £30 million, assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in My Trade. Boycott left in April 1998 to join the Daily Express, Marr left in May 1998 becoming the BBC's political editor. Simon Kelner was appointed as the editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent to increase circulation, the paper went through several redesigns. While circulation increased, it did not approach the level, achieved in 1989, or restore profitability.
Job cuts and financial controls reduced the quality of the product. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and a key figure at The Sunday Times, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid-2004, the newspaper was losing £5 million per year. A gradual improvement meant. In November 2008, following further staff cuts, production was moved to Northcliffe House, in Kensington High Street, the headquarters of Associated Newspapers; the two newspaper groups' editorial and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, information technology and payroll. On 25 March 2010, Independent News & Media sold the newspaper to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev for a nominal £1 fee and £9.25m over the next 10 months, choosing this option over closing The Independent and The Independent on Sunday, which would have cost £28m and £40m due to long-term contracts. In 2009, Lebedev had bought a controlling stake in the London Evening Standard. Two weeks editor Roger Alton resigned.
In July 2011, The Independent's columnist Johann Hari was stripped of the Orwell Prize he had won in 2008 after claims, to which Hari admitted, of plagiarism and inaccuracy. In January 2012, Chris Blackhurst
Thomas Joseph Leykis is an American talk radio personality best known for hosting The Tom Leykis Show from 1994 to 2009, April 2012 to 2018. The show follows the hot talk format, which brought Leykis much success in the Southern California radio market. Due to the provocative nature of the show, Leykis has been described as a shock jock; the show's best-known feature is "Leykis 101", in which he purports to teach men "how to get laid" while spending the least amount of time and effort. Tom Leykis was born August 1, 1956, at a time when his parents and Laura, lived in the Bronx. Leykis spent his early childhood in The Bronx, New York City, New York and has two sisters and a brother. Leykis is of Irish and Ukrainian descent, his Jewish grandfather, who originated in Kiev, emigrated to Lithuania and to the United States at the turn of the 20th century to escape the historical anti-Semitic pogroms in the Russian Empire. Tom Leykis has stated that his lineage is irrelevant to his life and his accomplishments in the radio business.
His father was a union leader at The New York Post. At a point in Leykis' childhood, he moved with his family to Selden, Long Island, where he completed high school and graduated at 16 from Newfield High School, he moved away from the family home to study broadcasting at Fordham University and dropped out due to financial issues. Leykis began his radio career in the state of New York in 1970. At the age of 14, he was once a fill-in host for WBAB working in 1979 for Mark Simone's WPIX-FM talk show comedy titled The Simone Phone where he was featured as the host's sidekick. In the mid-1970s Leykis hosted one of the first public access TV shows on Long Island's Cablevision system, "The Graffiti Hour", a call-in program. Leykis left WPIX went to WBAI leaving in the fall of 1981 to go to Albany to work at WQBK. Leykis contributed to a show called The Phonebooth on WABC that ended in 1981. After his departure from WABC, Leykis was offered a full-time radio hosting job in Staunton, Virginia. Leykis credits his defining moment to pursue a career in radio to an incident that occurred in the early 1980s, in which his then-girlfriend locked him out of their residence because she believed he didn't earn enough money.
A few years Leykis appeared on an episode of 20/20 where she contacted his show in an attempt to resume their relationship and he declined. On Monday, February 27, 1984, the Tom Leykis Show aired on WNWS in Miami to replace the WNWS night show hosted by talk radio personality Neil Rogers. Rogers, who had signed conflicting employment contracts with both WNWS and WINZ, had just won permission from a Miami court to take his act to WINZ and hoped leaving WNWS would be devastating to Leykis' program. Rogers and Leykis became rivals and, in June 1984, just after Denver radio talk show host Alan Berg was assassinated, Leykis told listeners Neil Rogers' real name and urged callers to harass his on-air rival. By January 1985, Leykis had the top-ranking evening talk show in the market. In September 1985, Leykis abruptly left his WNWS job over concern about the pending WNWS-WGBS merger and began work at Phoenix's KFYI; as program director at KFYI, Leykis constructed a politically well-rounded host lineup inserting himself as a "left leaning libertarian" in the afternoons.
Leykis was known for his method of gathering new callers for the station by provoking rival station KTAR. In 1987, Leykis abruptly left KFYI because of differences with station management that still has a shroud of secrecy surrounding the details; as of the late 1990s, KFYI hosts were prohibited from discussing the details of Leykis' departure from the station. While still in Phoenix, Leykis had a local Public-access television show called Backstage Pass. After leaving Phoenix, Leykis moved on to Los Angeles to work for KFI, where he hosted a talk-radio program from 1988 to 1992, as a liberal counterpart to Rush Limbaugh. During this time, KFI was hit with a $6,000 Federal Communications Commission indecency fine over Leykis' on-air comments. During Leykis' tenure at KFI, KFI host Geoff Edwards was suspended and resigned over an incident related to steamrolling a massive collection of Cat Stevens' work sent in by listeners, motivated by Leykis' denouncement of Cat Stevens' comments about Salman Rushdie.
A local Nazi historian likened the stunt as being reminiscent of a Nazi book burning. On September 29, 1992, KFI management dismissed Leykis with only an hour's notice, based on what Leykis claims they called "a business decision". Leykis next moved on to Boston and WRKO, he left the Boston station for a new job in Los Angeles after a publicized domestic disturbance with then-wife Susan at the end of 1993. In March 1994, pretrial probation was granted and the charges stemming from that assault were dropped in exchange for his attendance in a program for batterers. In 1994, Leykis began the nationally syndicated program, The Tom Leykis Show on Westwood One from Culver City, California; the final years of the show were produced from Paramount Pictures studios in Hollywood. Leykis' started the Internet streamcast network The New Normal Network, featuring streams like New Normal Music, in July 2010; the Tom Leykis Show began in 1994 broadcasting from Los Angeles. The show was political in nature