A granitoid or granitic rock is a variety of coarse grained plutonic rock — granite or similar — which mineralogically is composed predominantly of feldspar and quartz. Examples of granitoid rocks include granite, quartz monzonite, quartz diorite, granodiorite and trondhjemite. Many are created by the collision of sialic masses. Volcanic rocks are common with granitoids and have the same origins. However, they are worn away after years of erosion. Many granitoid rocks are located in areas that have experienced crustal thickening during orogenies but others, known as anorogenic granitoids, are unrelated to convergent boundaries or subduction zones; these anorogenic granitoids may represent the deep sources for rift volcanism exposed where erosion has removed the volcanic rocks and other evidence of rifting. These A-type granitoids may have been produced by hotspots or mantle plumes
Raven Cliff Falls (South Carolina)
This article refers to Raven Cliff Falls in South Carolina. Raven Cliff Falls on Matthews Creek in Caesars Head State Park, Greenville County, South Carolina, is the tallest waterfall in South Carolina. Although the waterfall is described as having a 400 foot drop, topographic maps suggest a height between 320 and 350 feet. Description and photos of falls from SCwaterfalls website Profile on GORP Description and photos of falls Raven Cliff Falls Historical Marker
Croft State Park
Croft State Park is a state park located near the town of Spartanburg in Spartanburg County, South Carolina. The park is located on land, used for a US Army training camp and prisoner-of-war camp in World War II known as Camp Croft. Activities available at the park include picnicking, hiking, biking, bird watching, camping. Boats with electric trolling motors are allowed Lake Tom Moore Craig, the 165-acre watershed located within the park. Amenities include a playground, picnic shelters, a skeet shooting range, a 15 mile long bike trail and a park store. Equestrian facilities including a stable with rental stalls, a show ring and many miles of equestrian trails can be found at the park. Official Website
Greenville County, South Carolina
Greenville County is a county located in the state of South Carolina, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 451,225. In 2017, the estimated population of the county was 506,837, its county seat is Greenville. The county is home to the Greenville County School District, the largest school system in South Carolina. County government is headquartered at Greenville County Square. Greenville County is included in SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 795 square miles, of which 785 square miles is land and 9.7 square miles is water. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 451,225 people, 176,531 households, 119,362 families residing in the county; the population density was 574.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 195,462 housing units at an average density of 249.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 73.8% white, 18.1% black or African American, 2.0% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 3.9% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 8.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 13.0% were American, 11.6% were German, 10.9% were English, 10.7% were Irish. Of the 176,531 households, 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.4% were non-families, 27.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age was 37.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $46,830 and the median income for a family was $59,043. Males had a median income of $45,752 versus $33,429 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,931. About 10.8% of families and 14.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.0% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over. As of 2016 the largest self-reported ancestry groups in Greenville County, South Carolina are: CommunityWorks Federal Credit Union was chartered in 2014 to serve the residents of Greenville County.
It is sponsored by CommunityWorks, Inc. a non-profit community development financial institution, receives assistance from the United Way of Greenville County and the Hollingsworth Fund. The 2010 Census lists six cities and 16 census designated places that are or within Greenville County. Fountain Inn Greenville Greer Mauldin Simpsonville Travelers Rest Cleveland Conestee National Register of Historic Places listings in Greenville County, South Carolina Greenville Area Development Corporation Geographic data related to Greenville County, South Carolina at OpenStreetMap Greenville County History and Images
Gneiss is a common and distributed type of metamorphic rock. Gneiss is formed by high temperature and high-pressure metamorphic processes acting on formations composed of igneous or sedimentary rocks. Orthogneiss is gneiss derived from igneous rock. Paragneiss is gneiss derived from sedimentary rock. Gneiss forms at higher pressures than schist. Gneiss nearly always shows a banded texture characterized by alternating darker and lighter colored bands and without a distinct foliation; the word gneiss has been used in English since at least 1757. It is borrowed from the German word Gneis also spelled Gneiss, derived from the Middle High German noun gneist "spark". Gneiss is formed from sedimentary or igneous rock exposed to temperatures greater than 320°C and high pressure. Gneissic rocks are medium- to coarse-foliated. Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent are termed granite gneisses, diorite gneisses, etc. Gneiss rocks may be named after a characteristic component such as garnet gneiss, biotite gneiss, albite gneiss, etc.
Orthogneiss designates a gneiss derived from an igneous rock, paragneiss is one from a sedimentary rock. Gneissose rocks have properties similar to gneiss. Gneiss appears to be striped in bands like parallel lines in shape, called gneissic banding; the banding is developed under high pressure conditions. The minerals are arranged into layers; the appearance of layers, called'compositional banding', occurs because the layers, or bands, are of different composition. The darker bands have more mafic minerals; the lighter bands contain more felsic minerals. A common cause of the banding is the subjection of the protolith to extreme shearing force, a sliding force similar to the pushing of the top of a deck of cards in one direction, the bottom of the deck in the other direction; these forces stretch out the rock like a plastic, the original material is spread out into sheets. Some banding is formed from original rock material, subjected to extreme temperature and pressure and is composed of alternating layers of sandstone and shale, metamorphosed into bands of quartzite and mica.
Another cause of banding is "metamorphic differentiation", which separates different materials into different layers through chemical reactions, a process not understood. Not all gneiss rocks have detectable banding. In kyanite gneiss, crystals of kyanite appear as random clumps in what is a plagioclase matrix. Augen gneiss, from the German: Augen, meaning "eyes", is a coarse-grained gneiss resulting from metamorphism of granite, which contains characteristic elliptic or lenticular shear-bound feldspar porphyroclasts microcline, within the layering of the quartz and magnetite bands. Henderson gneiss is found in South Carolina, US, east of the Brevard Shear Zone, it has deformed into two sequential forms. The second, more warped, form is associated with the Brevard Fault, the first deformation results from displacement to the southwest. Most of the Outer Hebrides of Scotland have a bedrock formed from Lewisian gneiss. In addition to the Outer Hebrides, they form basement deposits on the Scottish mainland west of the Moine Thrust and on the islands of Coll and Tiree.
These rocks are igneous in origin, mixed with metamorphosed marble and mica schist with intrusions of basaltic dikes and granite magma. Gneisses of Archean and Proterozoic age occur in the Baltic Shield. List of rock types Blatt and Robert J. Tracy. Petrology: Igneous and Metamorphic, 2nd ed. Freeman, pp. 359–65. ISBN 0-7167-2438-3. Gillen, Con. Geology and landscapes of Scotland. Harpenden. Terra Publishing. ISBN 1-903544-09-2. Harper, Douglas. "gneiss", Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved 2015-03-01. Marshak, Stephen. Essentials of Geology. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-91939-4. McKirdy, Roger Crofts and John Gordon. Land of Mountain and Flood: The Geology and Landforms of Scotland. Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 978-1-84158-357-0. Murray, W. H.. The Hebrides. London. Heinemann. Sacks, Paul E. and Donald T. Secor. "Kinematics of Late Paleozoic continental collision between Laurentia and Gondwana". Science, 250: 1702–05. Doi:10.1126/science.250.4988.1702. "Gneiss". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Gneiss". New International Encyclopedia.
Blue Ridge Mountains
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains range. The mountain range is located in the eastern United States, extends 550 miles southwest from southern Pennsylvania through Maryland, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia; this province consists of northern and southern physiographic regions, which divide near the Roanoke River gap. To the west of the Blue Ridge, between it and the bulk of the Appalachians, lies the Great Appalachian Valley, bordered on the west by the Ridge and Valley province of the Appalachian range; the Blue Ridge Mountains are noted for having a bluish color. Trees put the "blue" in Blue Ridge, from the isoprene released into the atmosphere, thereby contributing to the characteristic haze on the mountains and their distinctive color. Within the Blue Ridge province are two major national parks – the Shenandoah National Park in the northern section, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the southern section – and eight national forests including George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Cherokee National Forest, Pisgah National Forest, Nantahala National Forest and Chattahoochee National Forest.
The Blue Ridge contains the Blue Ridge Parkway, a 469-mile long scenic highway that connects the two parks and is located along the ridge crest-lines with the Appalachian Trail. Although the term "Blue Ridge" is sometimes applied to the eastern edge or front range of the Appalachian Mountains, the geological definition of the Blue Ridge province extends westward to the Ridge and Valley area, encompassing the Great Smoky Mountains, the Great Balsams, the Roans, the Blacks, the Brushy Mountains and other mountain ranges; the Blue Ridge extends as far north into Pennsylvania as South Mountain. While South Mountain dwindles to mere hills between Gettysburg and Harrisburg, the band of ancient rocks that form the core of the Blue Ridge continues northeast through the New Jersey and Hudson River highlands reaching The Berkshires of Massachusetts and the Green Mountains of Vermont; the Blue Ridge contains the highest mountains in eastern North America south of Baffin Island. About 125 peaks exceed 5,000 feet in elevation.
The highest peak in the Blue Ridge is Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet. There are 39 peaks in North Tennessee higher than 6,000 feet. Southern Sixers is a term used by peak baggers for this group of mountains; the Blue Ridge Parkway runs 469 miles along crests of the Southern Appalachians and links two national parks: Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mountains. In many places along the parkway, there are metamorphic rocks with folded bands of light-and dark-colored minerals, which sometimes look like the folds and swirls in a marble cake. Most of the rocks that form the Blue Ridge Mountains are ancient granitic charnockites, metamorphosed volcanic formations, sedimentary limestone. Recent studies completed by Richard Tollo, a professor and geologist at George Washington University, provide greater insight into the petrologic and geochronologic history of the Blue Ridge basement suites. Modern studies have found that the basement geology of the Blue Ridge is made of compositionally unique gneisses and granitoids, including orthopyroxene-bearing charockites.
Analysis of zircon minerals in the granite completed by John Aleinikoff at the U. S. Geological Survey has provided more detailed emplacement ages. Many of the features found in the Blue Ridge and documented by Tollo and others have confirmed that the rocks exhibit many similar features in other North American Grenville-age terranes; the lack of a calc-alkaline affinity and zircon ages less than 1,200 Ma suggest that the Blue Ridge is distinct from the Adirondacks, Green Mountains, the New York-New Jersey Highlands. The petrologic and geochronologic data suggest that the Blue Ridge basement is a composite orogenic crust, emplaced during several episodes from a crustal magma source. Field relationships further illustrate that rocks emplaced prior to 1,078–1,064 Ma preserve deformational features; those emplaced post-1,064 Ma have a massive texture and missed the main episode of Mesoproterozoic compression. The Blue Ridge Mountains began forming during the Silurian Period over 400 million years ago.
320 Mya, North America, Europe collided, pushing up the Blue Ridge. At the time of their emergence, the Blue Ridge were among the highest mountains in the world and reached heights comparable to the much younger Alps. Today, due to weathering and erosion over hundreds of millions of years, the highest peak in the range, Mount Mitchell in North Carolina, is only 6,684 feet high – still the highest peak east of the Rockies; the English who settled colonial Virginia in the early 17th century recorded that the native Powhatan name for the Blue Ridge was Quirank. At the foot of the Blue Ridge, various tribes including the Siouan Manahoacs, the Iroquois, the Shawnee hunted and fished. A German physician-explorer, John Lederer, first reached the crest of the Blue Ridge in 1669 and again the following year. At the Treaty of Albany negotiated by Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood, of Virginia with the Iroquois between 1718 and 1722, the Iroquois ceded lands they had conquered south of the Potomac River and east of the Blue Ridge to the Virginia Colony.
This treaty made the Blue Ridge the new demarcation point between the areas and tribes subject to the Six Nati
Table Rock State Park (South Carolina)
Table Rock State Park is a 3,083-acre park at the edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains in northern Pickens County, South Carolina. The park includes Pinnacle Mountain, the tallest mountain within the state; the park features a lodge built by the Civilian Conservation Corps that includes a kitchen and a 72-seat dining room. There are two park lakes that accommodate seasonal swimming and hiking trails that lead to Mill Creek Falls, the Pinnacle Mountain summit, Table Rock summit. A nature center offers educational programs, there are picnic shelters and a playground; the 1.9-mile Carrick Creek Nature Trail loops around two creeks with small cascades and waterfalls and displays wildflowers in season. The 3.5-mile Table Rock Summit Trail is moderately strenuous, rising 2,000 feet above the trailhead and includes a shelter built by the CCC. At 2.5 miles, the trail forks, the left fork following a ridge trail to Pinnacle Mountain and the right fork to the summit at 3,124 feet. The trail ends at an overlook with a view of Table Rock Caesars Head.
The park is the eastern trailhead of the 80-mile Foothills Trail through the Blue Ridge Escarpment. Prior to the signing of the Hopewell Treaty of 1785, the land now encompassed by Table Rock State Park was part of the Lower Cherokee Nation; the Cherokee called the area, "Sah-ka-na-ga," the Great Blue Hills of God, they established many hunting camps in the area. According to folklore, Table Rock Mountain received its name from a Cherokee legend in which the flat-topped mountain served as a table from which the Great Spirit ate his meals. Europeans moved into the Oolenoy River Valley soon after the signing of the Hopewell Treaty, settling at Pumpkintown—named for the unusually large pumpkins grown there. William Sutherland and James Keith operated a wayside lodge for visitors and in 1845, they built the twenty-room Table Rock Hotel, which prospered until the Civil War. Visitors increased again after Reconstruction, Stephen Keith reopened the Table Rock Hotel. In 1899, Keith's family built a new hotel on a new location on the mountain but by 1912 had abandoned it.
In 1935 2,860 acres of land was donated to the state of South Carolina by Pickens County and the city of Greenville. The park was created in the 1930s, first by two companies of World War I veterans employed by the Civilian Conservation Corps; the veterans were too old for the strenuous labor necessary to build a dam and otherwise work in mountainous terrain, in 1936, they were replaced by two junior CCC companies. One of these two companies constructed a concrete dam and spillway to create the twenty-three acre Pinnacle Lake; the other built miles of trails, roads, a bathhouse, a concessions building, fish-rearing pools, eight cabins, picnic shelters, houses for the park superintendent and warden. Most notable was a lodge constructed of logs, an L-shaped building with a great hall on the main level and a dining hall, sun porch, kitchen on the basement level; the CCC landscaped the park using natural vegetation from the Pinnacle Lake bed. The park opened to the public with a ceremony on April 4, 1938.
The Table Rock State Park Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989. Listed in 1989 were the related Civilian Conservation Corps Quarry No. 1 and Truck Trail, Civilian Conservation Corps Quarry No. 2, Roper House Complex and Table Rock Civilian Conservation Corps Camp Site. It is a South Carolina Heritage Trust Site. Media related to Table Rock State Park at Wikimedia Commons Geographic data related to Table Rock State Park at OpenStreetMap Table Rock State Park - official site