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1. Fortification – Fortifications are military constructions or buildings designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and also used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs, the term is derived from the Latin fortis and facere. From very early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for cities to survive in a changing world of invasion. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were the first small cities to be fortified, in ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae. A Greek Phrourion was a collection of buildings used as a military garrison. These construction mainly served the purpose of a tower, to guard certain roads, passes. Though smaller than a fortress, they acted as a border guard rather than a real strongpoint to watch. The art of setting out a camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called castramentation since the time of the Roman legions. Fortification is usually divided into two branches, permanent fortification and field fortification, there is also an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification. Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the fort or fortress in that they are a residence of a monarch or noble. Roman forts and hill forts were the antecedents of castles in Europe. The Early Middle Ages saw the creation of towns built around castles. Medieval-style fortifications were made obsolete by the arrival of cannons in the 14th century. Fortifications in the age of black powder evolved into much lower structures with greater use of ditches and earth ramparts that would absorb, Walls exposed to direct cannon fire were very vulnerable, so were sunk into ditches fronted by earth slopes. The arrival of explosive shells in the 19th century led to yet another stage in the evolution of fortification, steel-and-concrete fortifications were common during the 19th and early 20th centuries. However the advances in warfare since World War I have made large-scale fortifications obsolete in most situations. Demilitarized zones along borders are arguably another type of fortification, although a passive kind, many military installations are known as forts, although they are not always fortified. Larger forts may be called fortresses, smaller ones were known as fortalicesFortification – Krak des Chevaliers is one of the best-preserved Crusader castles.
2. Kafr Lam – Kafr Lam was a Palestinian Arab village located 26 kilometres south of Haifa on the Mediterranean coast. The name of the village was shared with that of an Islamic fort constructed there early on in the period of Arab Caliphate rule in Palestine. To the Crusaders, both the fort and the village, which they controlled for some time in the 13th century, were known as Cafarlet, Kafr Lam was depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. While the village was destroyed, some of its former structures and their ruins can be seen in the Israeli moshav of HaBonim. According to the Arab geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi, the town of Kafr Lam was established near Qisarya by the Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn ´Abd al-Malik. The fort, constructed in the form, was erected during early Abbasid. Kfar Lam was a fiefdom of the lord of Caesarea during the Crusader era in Palestine, in 1200 Kafr Lam, under the name of Kafarletum, was mentioned as a fief, held by Soquerius al-Shuwayki, from the Lords of Caesarea, Aymar de Lairon. In October 1213, Aymar de Lairon, pledged the casalia of Cafarlet, the Hospitallers transferred ownership over Carfalet to the Templars in 1255. In 1262 the final exchange of the land of Kafr Lam took place between the Templars and the Hospitallers, leaving Kafr Lam under Templar control, the village was captured by Muslim forces in 1265, but retaken by the Crusaders shortly thereafter. In 1291, it was taken by the Mamluks, who ruled over it from that time until the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Palestine in the sixteenth century. During early Ottoman rule in Palestine, in 1596, a farm in Kafr Lam paid taxes to the ruling authorities, pierre Jacotin named the village Kofour el An on his map from 1799. Descriptions of Kfar Lam under later Ottoman rule are available in the writings of European travellers to the region, in 1859, consul Rogers estimated the population to be 120, and the cultivation to be 16 feddans. French explorer Victor Guérin visited in 1870, and noted that Kafr Lam was situated on top of a hill and was inhabited by about 300 villagers. He said that the village stood within a stone enclosure that dated to the time of the Crusades. In 1883, the Palestine Exploration Funds Survey of Western Palestine described Kafr Lam as a village of adobe hovels crowded within the ancient walls. In modern times, the houses of Kafr Lam were made of stone, the villagers were Muslims, and maintained a mosque. A boys elementary school was built in 1882, but it was closed during the period of the British Mandate in Palestine, there were five wells on village lands. The village economy depended on animal husbandry and agriculture and the crops cultivated were various sorts of grainKafr Lam – The fortress of Kafr Lam as seen from the southeast
3. Moshav – Moshav is a type of Israeli town or settlement, in particular a type of cooperative agricultural community of individual farms pioneered by the Labour Zionists during the second wave of aliyah. A resident or a member of a moshav can be called a moshavnik, the moshavim are similar to kibbutzim with an emphasis on community labour. Workers produced crops and goods on their properties through individual and/or pooled labour and resources and used profit, moshavim are governed by an elected council. Community projects and facilities were financed by a special tax, there are several variants, of which the most common are, Moshav ovdim, a workers cooperative settlement. This is the more numerous type and relies on cooperative purchasing of supplies and marketing of produce, the family or household is, however, Moshav shitufi, a collective smallholders settlement that combines the economic features of a kibbutz with the social features of a moshav. Farming is done collectively and profits are shared equally and this form is closer to the collectivity of the kibbutz, although consumption is family- or household-based, production and marketing are collective. Unlike the moshav ovdim, land is not allotted to households or individuals, the first moshav, Nahalal, was established in the Jezreel Valley on September 11,1921. By 1986 about 156,700 Israelis lived and worked on 448 moshavim, for this reason, the moshav became largely a Mizrahi institution, whereas the kibbutz movement remained basically an Ashkenazi institution. Since the Six-Day War in 1967, both moshavim and kibbutzim have relied increasingly on outside—particularly Palestinian—labour, financial instabilities in the early 1980s hit many moshavim hard, as did their high birth rate and the problem of absorbing all the children who might wish to remain in the community. Federal Research Division, Library of CongressMoshav – Moshav Zekharia
4. HaBonim, Israel – HaBonim is a moshav shitufi in northern Israel. Located 5 km south of Atlit and 3 km north of Kibbutz Nahsholim, in 2015 it had a population of 345. The moshav was founded in 1949 by the HaBonim movement on land that had belonged to the depopulated Arab village of Kafr Lam, the first residents were from the United Kingdom and South Africa. It came to prominence on 11 June 1985 due to the HaBonim disaster, in which a bus and train collided, killing 22 people. A monument was erected at the train crossing, located in the eastern part of the moshav grounds is the ruined medieval fortress of Cafarlet, sometimes referred to as HaBonim Fortress. Agrekal Habonim Industries, a manufacturer of Vermiculite and Perlite, was established in 1950 based on unique technology brought to Israel by the founders of the moshav from South AfricaHaBonim, Israel – Moshav HaBonim, 1950
5. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotationGeographic coordinate system – Longitude lines are perpendicular and latitude lines are parallel to the equator.
6. Crusades – The First Crusade arose after a call to arms in a 1095 sermon by Pope Urban II. Urban urged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, the response to Urbans preaching by people of many different classes across Western Europe established the precedent for later Crusades. Volunteers became Crusaders by taking a vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the church. Some were hoping for apotheosis at Jerusalem, or forgiveness from God for all their sins, others participated to satisfy feudal obligations, gain glory and honour, or find opportunities for economic and political gain. Many modern Historians have polarised opinions of the Crusaders behaviour under Papal sanction, to some it was incongruous with the stated aims and implied moral authority of the papacy and the Crusades, to the extent that on occasions that the Pope excommunicated Crusaders. Crusaders often pillaged as they travelled, while their leaders retained control of captured territory rather than returning it to the Byzantines. During the Peoples Crusade thousands of Jews were murdered in what is now called the Rhineland massacres, Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade rendering the reunification of Christendom impossible. These tales consequently galvanised medieval romance, philosophy and literature, but the Crusades also reinforced the connection between Western Christendom, feudalism, and militarism. Crusade is not a term, instead the terms iter for journey or peregrinatio for pilgrimage were used. Not until the word crucesignatus for one who was signed with the cross was adopted at the close of the century was specific terminology developed. The Middle English equivalents were derived from old French, croiserie in the 13th–15th centuries, croisade appeared in English c1575, and continued to be the leading form till c1760. By convention historians adopt the term for the Christian holy wars from 1095, the Crusades in the Holy Land are traditionally counted as nine distinct campaigns, numbered from the First Crusade of 1095–99 to the Ninth Crusade of 1271/2. Usage of the term Crusade may differ depending on the author, pluralists use the term Crusade of any campaign explicitly sanctioned by the reigning Pope. This reflects the view of the Roman Catholic Church that every military campaign given Papal sanction is equally valid as a Crusade, regardless of its cause, justification, generalists see Crusades as any and all holy wars connected with the Latin Church and fought in defence of their faith. Popularists limit the Crusades to only those that were characterised by popular groundswells of religious fervour – that is, only the First Crusade, Medieval Muslim historiographers such as Ali ibn al-Athir refer to the Crusades as the Frankish Wars. The term used in modern Arabic, ḥamalāt ṣalībiyya حملات صليبية, campaigns of the cross, is a loan translation of the term Crusade as used in Western historiography. The Islamic prophet Muhammad founded Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, the resulting unified polity in the seventh and eighth centuries led to a rapid expansion of Arab power. This influence stretched from the northwest Indian subcontinent, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, southern Italy, tolerance, trade, and political relationships between the Arabs and the Christian states of Europe waxed and wanedCrusades – Madrid Skylitzes illuminated manuscript depicting Byzantine Greeks punishing ninth-century Cretan Saracens
7. Benedictine monastery in Abu Ghosh – The Benedictine monastery in Abu Ghosh, named St Mary of the Resurrection Abbey, is a monastery run by the Olivetan Benedictine order. The Crusaders assumed for a while that the village, which they called Fontenoid, the late Romanesque/early Gothic-style church was built by the Hospitallers in 1140. It was acquired by the French government in 1899 and placed under guardianship of the French Benedictine Fathers. Edward Robinson described it as “obviously from the time of the crusades, the church is built over an ancient spring. From 1956, the monastery was run by the Lazarist Fathers, today a double monastery of nuns and priests worship in the church and offer hospitality, commemorating the Old Testament story of the couple on the Jerusalem–Emmaus road. Official website Video of the History and presentation of the community in Abu GoshBenedictine monastery in Abu Ghosh – Abu Ghosh monastery
8. Az-Zeeb – For the Israeli national park see Achziv. For the self-proclaimed micronation see Akhzivland, Az-Zeeb, was a Palestinian Arab village located 13.5 kilometers north of Acre on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Mentioned in the Bible by its ancient name Achzib, evidence of settlement at the site dates back to the 18th century BCE. By the 10th century BCE, it was a prosperous and fortified Phoenician town, conquered by the Assyrian empire in the 8th century BCE, it was subsequently ruled by the Persians. During the rule of the Roman Empire, it was known as Ecdippa, Arab geographers were referring to it as az-Zeeb by the early Middle Ages. In 1146 the Crusaders established there a settlement protected by a castle and named Casale Huberti or Casal Humberti, there are descriptions of the castle and village by Arab chroniclers in the 12th and 13th centuries, just prior to and during the rule of the Mamluks in the region. The Arab name of the village was az-Zeeb, incorporated into the Ottoman empire in the early 16th century, by its end it formed part of the subdistrict of Akka. Its inhabitants cultivated various crops and raised livestock on which they paid taxes to the Ottoman authorities, at the time of the British Mandate in Palestine, most of the families in az-Zeeb made their living from fishing and agriculture, particularly fruit cultivation. Just before the end to Mandate rule on May 14,1948. The town was depopulated and razed to the ground, the Israeli localities of Saar and Gesher HaZiv were established on the village lands in 1948 and 1949. A domed mosque from the village has since restored and serves as a tourist site. The Arabic name of the village, az-Zeeb is a form of the sites original ancient Canaanite/Phoenician name. Human settlement at the dates to as early as the 18th century BCE. A tell in az-Zeeb excavated between 1941–44 and 1959-1964 found evidence of settlement from the Middle Bronze Age II, through the Roman period, positioned on a passage between the plain of Acre and the city of Tyre, Achzib was an important road station. Between the 10th and 6th centuries BCE, it was a town, with public buildings and tombs with Phoenician inscriptions. Also mentioned in the writings of Pseudo-Scylax, the site likely regained some importance in Hellenistic times, during the Roman period, the imperial authorities called it Ecdippa. At the end of the Roman era, a workshop was located here. By the Early Middle Ages, Arab geographers were referring to the area as az-Zeeb, with the arrival of the Crusaders and after the fall of Acre in 1104, Casal Imbertia or Lambertie was established thereAz-Zeeb – Remains of the village: mukhtar 's home, now museum of Akhzivland.
9. Kingdom of Jerusalem – The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade. The kingdom lasted nearly two hundred years, from 1099 until 1291 when the last remaining possession, Acre, was destroyed by the Mamluks, the sometimes so-called First Kingdom of Jerusalem lasted from 1099 to 1187, when it was almost entirely overrun by Saladin. This second kingdom is called the Second Kingdom of Jerusalem or the Kingdom of Acre. Three other crusader states founded during and after the First Crusade were located north, the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch. While all three were independent, they were tied to Jerusalem. Beyond these to the north and west lay the states of Armenian Cilicia, further east, various Muslim emirates were located which were ultimately allied with the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad. Jerusalem itself fell to Saladin in 1187, and in the 13th century the kingdom was reduced to a few cities along the Mediterranean coast. In this period, the kingdom was ruled by the Lusignan dynasty of the Kingdom of Cyprus, dynastic ties also strengthened with Tripoli, Antioch, and Armenia. The kingdom was soon dominated by the Italian city-states of Venice and Genoa. Emperor Frederick II claimed the kingdom by marriage, but his presence sparked a war among the kingdoms nobility. The kingdom became more than a pawn in the politics and warfare of the Ayyubid and Mamluk dynasties in Egypt, as well as the Khwarezmian. The Mamluk sultans Baibars and al-Ashraf Khalil eventually reconquered all the remaining crusader strongholds, the kingdom was ethnically, religiously, and linguistically diverse, although the crusaders themselves and their descendants were an elite Catholic minority. They imported many customs and institutions from their homelands in Western Europe, the kingdom also inherited oriental qualities, influenced by the pre-existing customs and populations. The majority of the inhabitants were native Christians, especially Greek and Syrian Orthodox, as well as Sunni. The native Christians and Muslims, who were a lower class, tended to speak Greek and Arabic, while the crusaders spoke French. There were also a number of Jews and Samaritans. According to the Jewish writer Benjamin of Tudela, who travelled through the kingdom around 1170, since sets a lower bound for the Samaritan population at 1,500, since the contemporary Tolidah, a Samaritan chronicle, also mentions communities in Gaza and Acre. The First Crusade was preached at the Council of Clermont in 1095 by Pope Urban II, however, the main objective quickly became the control of the Holy LandKingdom of Jerusalem – Flag
10. Acre, Israel – Acre is a city in the northern coastal plain region of the Northern District, Israel at the northern extremity of Haifa Bay. The city occupies an important location, as it sits on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, traditionally linking the waterways and this location helped it become one of the oldest cities in the world, continuously inhabited since the Middle Bronze Age some 4000 years ago. Acre is the holiest city of the Baháí Faith, and as such receives many Bahai pilgrims, in 2015 the population was 47,675. Acre is a city, that includes Jews, Muslims, Christians. The mayor is Shimon Lankri, who was reelected in 2011, Acres etymology is a matter of controversy, though most likely deriving from the early Canaanite language. According to Biblical tradition, the name is derived from Canaanite Adco, meaning a border, the city was known as Ptolemais during the Hellenistic and Roman-Byzantine periods. During the Crusades it was known as St. John dAcre after the Knights Hospitaller, Acre is therefore counted among the oldest continuously inhabited sites in the region. Egyptian sources seem to be mentioning Acre, starting possibly with execration texts from ca.1800 BCE, the name Aak, which appears on the tribute lists of Thutmose III, may be a reference to Acre. The Amarna letters also mention a place named Akka, as well as the Execration texts, First settlement at the site of Ancient Acre appears to have been in the Early Bronze Age, or about 3000 BC. In the Hebrew Bible, Akko is one of the places from which the Israelites did not drive out the Canaanites and it is later described in the territory of the tribe of Asher and according to Josephus, was ruled by one of Solomons provincial governors. Throughout Israelite rule, it was politically and culturally affiliated with Phoenicia, around 725 BC, Akko joined Sidon and Tyre in a revolt against Shalmaneser V. Greek historians refer to the city as Ake, meaning cure, according to the Greek myth, Heracles found curative herbs here to heal his wounds. Strabo refers to the city as once a rendezvous for the Persians in their expeditions against Egypt, about 165 BC Judas Maccabeus defeated the Seleucids in several battles in Galilee, and drove them into Ptolemais. About 153 BC Alexander Balas, son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, contesting the Seleucid crown with Demetrius, seized the city, which opened its gates to him. Demetrius offered many bribes to the Maccabees to obtain Jewish support against his rival, including the revenues of Ptolemais for the benefit of the Temple in Jerusalem, Jonathan Apphus threw in his lot with Alexander and in 150 BC he was received by him with great honour in Ptolemais. Some years later, however, Tryphon, an officer of the Seleucid Empire, the city was captured by Alexander Jannaeus, Cleopatra and Tigranes the Great. Here Herod the Great built a gymnasium, the Christian Acts of the Apostles reports that Luke the Evangelist, Paul the Apostle and their companions spent a day in Ptolemais with the Christian brethren there. A Roman colonia was established at the city, Colonia Claudii Cæsaris, the Romans enlarged the port and the city, that flourished for six centuries even as a Christian centerAcre, Israel – עַכּוֹ
11. Arsuf – For the modern community, see Arsuf, Hof HaSharon. Apollonia was an ancient city in Hellenistic and Roman Judea, in the late Roman era renamed to Sozusa and it was situated on a cliff above the Mediterranean Sea, about 34 kilometres south of Caesarea. It fell to the Muslim conquest in 640 and was fortified against Byzantine attacks and it was re-conquered by the kingdom of Jerusalem in 1101, and was a strategically important fortress in the Third Crusade, during which the Battle of Arsuf was fought nearby. The fortress fell to the Mamluks in 1265 and was destroyed, the site of Arsuf is now in Herzliya municipality, Israel. The site was excavated from 1994. In 2002, the site was named Apollonia National Park, the city is first recorded under its Greek name Apollonia in the final decades of the Persian period. The Semitic name ršp would then have been restored in the medieval Arabic toponym of Arsūf, the Saramitan chronicle of Abu l-Fath record a toponym rʿšfyn. Izre’el considers the possibility of identifying this toponym with the Arabic Arsūf, a tradition connecting the name with the biblical Resheph, a grandson of Ephraim, is spurious. The name of the nearby Israeli settlement of Rishpon was given in 1936, the renaming is paralleled in at least three other cities called Apollonia, Sozusa in Cyrenaica, Sozopolis in Pisidia and Sozopolis in Thrace. The identification of ancient Apollonia with Byzantine-era Sozusa is due to Stark, the site is variously referred to as Appolonia, Arsin, Arsuf, Arsuph, Arsur, Arsuth, Assur, Orsuf and Sozusa in Crusader-era documents. Although some Chalcolithic and Iron Age remains were uncovered at the site and it is mentioned in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax. During the Hellenistic period it was a town, ruled by Seleucids. Under Roman rule, the town prospered and grew into the commercial and industrial centre of the region between the Poleg and Yarkon rivers. In AD113, Apollonia was destroyed partially by an earthquake, Apollonia is mentioned by Pliny, Hist. nat. V,14, and Ptolemy, V, xv,2, XIII, xv,4, Appianus, Hist. rom. The Roman proconsul, Gabinius, found it ruined in 57 BC, Apollonia is depicted in the Tabula Peutingeriana, on the coastal highway between Joppa and Caesarea, at the distance of 22 miles from Caesarea, confirming the identification of Arsuf with Apollonia. There was no coin minting in Apollonia, confirming that the town did not have the role of a Roman provincial center but was considered a medium-sized coastal town like Jamnia. Sozusa in Palaestina was the name of the city in the late Roman province of Palaestina Prima, and its see was a suffragan of CaesareaArsuf – An aerial view of the Tel.
12. Ashkelon – Ashkelon is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast,50 kilometres south of Tel Aviv, and 13 kilometres north of the border with the Gaza Strip. The ancient seaport of Ashkelon dates back to the Neolithic Age, the Arab village of al-Majdal or al-Majdal Asqalan, was established a few kilometres inland from the ancient site by the late 15th century, under Ottoman rule. In 1918, it part of the British Occupied Enemy Territory Administration. Al-Majdal on the eve of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War had 10,000 Arab inhabitants and in October 1948, al-Majdal was the forward position of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force based in Gaza. The town was initially named Migdal Gaza, Migdal Gad and Migdal Ashkelon by the new Jewish inhabitants, most of the remaining Arabs were evicted by 1950. In 1953, the neighborhood of Afridar was incorporated and the name Ashkelon was readopted to the town. By 1961, Ashkelon was ranked 18th among Israeli urban centers with a population of 24,000, in 2015 the population of Ashkelon was 130,660. The name Ashkelon is probably western Semitic, and might be connected to the root š-q-l perhaps attesting to its importance as a center for mercantile activities, scallion and shallot are derived from Ascalonia, the Latin name for Ashkelon. Ashkelon was the oldest and largest seaport in Canaan, one of the five cities of the Philistines, north of Gaza, the Neolithic site of Ashkelon is located on the Mediterranean coast,1.5 km north of Tel Ashkelon. It is dated by Radiocarbon dating to ca.7900 bp and it was discovered and excavated in 1954 by French archaeologist Jean Perrot. In 1997–1998, a large scale salvage project was conducted at the site by Yosef Garfinkel on behalf of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, a final excavation report was published in 2008. In the site over a hundred fireplaces and hearths were found and numerous pits, various phases of occupation were found, one atop the other, with sterile layers of sea sand between them. This indicates that the site was occupied on a seasonal basis, the main finds were enormous quantities of animal bones and 20,000 flint artifacts. Usually at Neolithic sites flints far outnumber animal bones, the bones belong to domesticated and non-domesticated animals. When all aspects of this site are taken into account, it appears to have used by pastoral nomads for meat processing. The nearby sea could supply necessary for the conservation of meat. The city was built on a sandstone outcropping and has a good underground water supply. It was relatively large as an ancient city with as many as 15,000 people living inside the walls, Ashkelon was a thriving Middle Bronze Age city of more than 150 acresAshkelon – אַשְׁקְלוֹן (help · info)
13. Yazur – Yazur was a Palestinian Arab town located 6 kilometers east of Jaffa. Mentioned in 7th century BCE Assyrian texts, the village was a site of contestation between Muslims and Crusaders in the 12th-13th centuries, during the Fatimid period in Palestine, a number of important people were born in Yazur. In modern times the town was the birthplace of Ahmed Jibril, the Israeli town of Azor now stands on the former town lands of Yazur, which was depopulated and mostly destroyed during the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine. The village is mentioned in the annals of the Assyrian ruler Sennacherib as Azuro, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries CE, Muslim and Crusader forces fought for control of the village and it changed hands several times, before finally falling under the control of the Mamluks. In 1586, the Maqam Imam ´Ali in Yazur was seen by Zuallart, across the road there is a well or cistern. In 1596, Yazur was a village in the nahiya of Ramla, villagers paid taxes to the authorities for the crops that they cultivated, which included wheat, barley, fruit, and sesame as well as on other types of property, such as goats and beehives. In 1602, Seusenius described the Maqam Imam ´Ali as a mosque with nine cupolas the one in the middle being the highest, while still under the rule of the Ottoman Empire in 1870, Charles Netter from Alliance Israélite Universelle founded the Mikveh Israel southeast of Jaffa. Through a firman of the sultan, he received land for the school which then had been worked by the fellahin of the village of Yazur. The peasants therefore became bitter enemies of the school farm, in the late summer of 1870, the governor of Damascus visited Jaffa. The Pasha, riding on the side, asked Ernst for his riding crop. The Wali accepted a petition handed him by a shaykh, incidentally, modern Yazur was divided into four quarters, one for each of four clans that lived there. The houses were made of stone or adobe brick and straw and were built in groups called ahwash, each house in such a group opened onto a common courtyard that had a single entrance, often an arched gate. The village had two schools, one for boys and another for girls. The boys´school occupied 27 dunums and had its own artesian well, in 1947,430 boys and 160 girls were registered in these schools. The remains of an old Crusader church built by Richard the Lionheart in 1191, called Castel des Plaines, were visible on a hill inside the village. The Crusader church had been rebuilt to serve as Yazurs mosque. According to a census conducted in 1931 by the British Mandate authorities, Yazur had a population of 2,337 inhabitants in,419 houses. According to a 1945 census conducted by the Mandatory authorities in Palestine, Yazur had a population of 4,030, agriculture constituted the backbone of the economy, in 1944, citrus was planted on 6,272 dunums and 1,441 dunums were allocated to cereals. Agriculture was both rainfed and irrigated,1,689 dunums were irrigated or used for orchards, during World War II, the villagers also started raising Holstein cows, and by 1947 numerous artesian wells were being used for irrigationYazur – Tomb (Maqam) of Imam ´Ali, now housing the Sha´arei Zion Synagogue
14. Bayt Jibrin – The village had a total land area of 56,185 dunams or 56.1 km2, of which 0.28 km2 were built-up while the rest remained farmland. During the 8th century BCE, the village was part of the Kingdom of Judah, during the days of Jewish king Herod the town was the administrative center for the district of Idumea. After the turmoil of the First Jewish-Roman War and the Bar Kokhba revolt the town became a thriving Roman colony, in the early 7th century CE, Bayt Jibrin was conquered by Muslim forces led by Amr ibn al-As. Under the Crusaders in the 12th century, it was known as Beth Gibelin and it fell to the Mamluks and then the Ottoman Turks. In the 19th century, the family took control of Bayt Jibrin and unsuccessfully attempted to rebel against the Ottomans, ending in the exile. Under the British Mandate of Palestine, Bayt Jibrin again served as a center for surrounding villages. It was captured by Israeli forces during the 1948 War, causing its inhabitants to flee eastward, today, many of the refugees of Bayt Jibrin and their descendants live in the Bayt Jibrin and Fawwar camps in the southern West Bank. The kibbutz of Beit Guvrin was established on Bayt Jibrins lands in 1949, the underground caves of Bayt Jibrin have been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The town was renamed over the centuries and its Aramaic name Beth Gabra, preserved by the geographer Ptolemy in the Greek variation of Βαιτογάβρα, translates as the house of the man or house of the mighty one. The antecedent might be seen in the name of an Edomite king, Ḳaus-gabri or Kauš-Gabr, the Romans gave it a Greek name, Eleutheropolis, meaning City of the Free. In the Peutinger Tables in 393 CE, Bayt Jibrin was called Beitogabri, in the Talmud, compiled between the 3rd and 4th centuries, it was known as Beit Gubrin. To the Crusaders, it was known as Bethgibelin or Gibelin, another name in medieval times may have been Beit Jibril, meaning house of Gabriel. In Arabic, Bayt Jibrin or Jubrin means house of the powerful, and the town was probably called Bayt Jibrin or Beit Jibril throughout its rule by various Muslim dynasties. The excavations have revealed no remains older than the Iron Age and this corresponds to several Hebrew Bible mentions of Maresha. However, local folklore tells that the former Arab village of Bayt Jibrin was first inhabited by Canaanites, after the destruction of the Kingdom of Judah in 586 BCE, the city of Maresha became part of the Edomite kingdom. In the late Persian period a Sidonian community settled in Maresha, during the Maccabean Revolt, Maresha was a base for attacks against Judea and suffered retaliation from the Maccabees. In 40 BCE, the Parthians devastated completely the strong city, after this date, nearby Beit Guvrin succeeded Maresha as the chief center of the area. In the Jewish War, Vespasian slaughtered or enslaved the inhabitants of Betaris, however, it continued to be a Jewish-inhabited city until the Bar Kokhba revoltBayt Jibrin – Historic Bayt Jibrin mansion
15. Belvoir Fortress – Belvoir Fortress is a Crusader fortress in northern Israel, on a hill 20 kilometres south of the Sea of Galilee. Gilbert of Assailly, Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller, began construction of the castle in 1168, the restored fortress is located in Belvoir National Park. It is the best-preserved Crusader fortress in Israel, the Knights Hospitaller purchased the site from Velos, a French nobleman, in 1168. Standing 500 metres above the Jordan River Valley, the plateau commanded the route from Gilead into the Kingdom of Jerusalem, to the north is the Sea of Galilee and west are hills. The site of Belvoir Castle dominated the area, and in the words of Abu Shama the castle is, set admidst the stars like an eagles nest. As soon as the Knights Hospitaller purchased the land they began construction of Belvoir Castle, while Gilbert of Assailly was Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller the order gained around thirteen new castles, among which Belvoir was the most important. The fortress of Belvoir served as an obstacle to the Muslim goal of invading the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem from the east. It withstood an attack by Muslim forces in 1180, during the campaign of 1182, the Battle of Belvoir Castle was fought nearby between King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem and Saladin. Following Saladins victory over the Crusaders at the battle of the Horns of Hattin, the siege lasted a year and a half, until the defenders surrendered on 5 January 1189. An Arab governor occupied it until 1219 when the Ayyubid ruler in Damascus had slighted, in 1241 Belvoir was ceded to the Franks, who controlled it until 1263. In modern times it became an Arab village, Kawkab al-Hawa, the Arab buildings on the site were demolished by the Israeli authorities between 1963 and 1968. The Hebrew name, Kochav Hayarden, meaning Star of the Jordan, preserves the name of Kochava – a Jewish village which existed nearby during the Roman, after the end of the Second World War, the study of Crusader castles experienced a lull. Syria, for instance, declared independence in 1946 and had money to spare for archaeology. In Israel, the study of Crusader castles developed under Joshua Prawer and its most significant discovery was made at Belvoir. Between 1963 and 1968 the Israel Department of Antiquities carried out excavations at the castle, before the investigations, it had been assumed that Belvoir was a simple castle, with just a single enclosure. Excavations in the 1960s demonstrated the complex nature of military architecture in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Belvoirs design bore similarities to that of a Roman castra, the enclosure was rectangular with towers at the corners. Belvoir is an example of the concentric castle plan, which was widely used in later crusader castlesBelvoir Fortress – The remains of Belvoir Castle. Note the two circuits of defensive wall, one inside the other (Concentric castle).
16. Burgata – Burgata, also Burgeta, is a moshav in central Israel. Located in the Sharon plain on Highway 57 between Netanya and Tulkarm, it falls under the jurisdiction of Hefer Valley Regional Council, in 2015 it had a population of 1,128. The date of the construction of the fort is unknown, until 1189, it was property of the Knights Templar. The Maria Latin convent, erected on the site, was acquired by the Knights Hospitallers in 1248, the moshav was founded in 1949 by immigrants from Morocco and Turkey, and was named after the town of Burgata from the Amoraim era. Like many moshavim in Israel, the original homesteads now have given way to new neighbourhoods on the b lands, formally known as Habanim, or in English, originally these lands were cultivated mostly but it was forbidden to build on them. Since the regulations were relaxed, many of the moshavniks began building villas on the acreage in order to compensate for lost revenues in the ever depressing agricultural sector. Whole new neighbourhoods have sprung up in many moshavim sometimes with better municipal services then the original homesteads, due to newer building codesBurgata – Burgata בורגתה, בּוּרְגְתָא
17. Caesarea Maritima – Caesarea Maritima is an Israeli National Park in the Sharon plain, including the ancient remains of the coastal city of Caesarea. The city and harbor were built under Herod the Great during c, 22–10 BC near the site of a former Phoenician naval station known as Stratonos pyrgos. It later became the capital of Roman Judea, Roman Syria Palaestina. It was re-fortified by the Crusaders, and finally slighted by the Mamluks in 1265, the name Caesarea was adopted into Arabic as Qaysaria قيسارية. The location was all but abandoned in 1800, the ruins of the ancient city, on the coast just about 2 km south of modern Caesarea, were excavated in the 1950s and 1960s and the site was incorporated into a new national park in 2011. The site of the former Phoenician naval station was awarded to Herod the Great in 30 BC, Herod built his palace on a promontory jutting out into the sea, with a decorative pool surrounded by stoas. He went on to build a port and a city. In the year AD6, Caesarea became the civilian and military capital of Iudaea Province and the residence of the Roman procurator Antonius Felix. This city is the location of the 1961 discovery of the Pilate Stone and it is likely that Pilate used it as a base, and only went to Jerusalem when needed. It is also the location of Herods tomb. The city was described in detail by the 1st-century Roman Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, Josephus describes the harbor as being as large as the one at Piraeus, the major harbor of Athens. Remains of the buildings erected by Herod and the medieval town are still visible today, including the city walls, the castle. Caesarea grew rapidly, becoming the largest city in Judea, with a population of 125,000 over an urban area of 3.7 square kilometres. According to Josephus, the outbreak of the Jewish revolt of AD66 was provoked by Greeks of a merchant house in Caesarea sacrificing birds in front of a local synagogue. According to Josephus, Caesarea was the scene in AD26 of an act of civil disobedience to protest Pilates order to plant eagle standards on the Temple Mount of Jerusalem. The emperor Vespasian raised its status to that of a Colonia, in AD70, after the Jewish revolt was suppressed, games were held here to celebrate the victory of Titus. Many Jewish captives were brought to Caesarea Maritima, Kasher claims that 2,500 captives were slaughtered in gladiatorial games, Caesarea was one of four Roman colonies for veterans in the Syria-Phoenicia region. Caesarea is mentioned in the 3rd century Mosaic of Rehob, with respect to its non-Jewish population, when it was built in the 1st century BC, Sebastos Harbor ranked as the largest artificial harbor built in the open sea, enclosing around 100,000 m2Caesarea Maritima – The ruins of Caesarea Maritima
18. Ein Hemed – Ein Hemed is a national park and nature reserve in the hills seven kilometers west of Jerusalem, Israel. It is also known by its Latin name Aqua Bella, the park is located on the path of an old Roman road, also used in later periods, called Emmaus by the Crusaders. The road connected the coastal plain with the Jerusalem hills, the Kingdom of Jerusalem built fortresses along the road to Jerusalem in order to control the traffic to Jerusalem, and protect pilgrims visiting the Holy City. Farms were built using the water for irrigation. Impressive ruins of a 30x40 meter Crusader structure, whose southern wall survives to a height of 12 meters, are located on the site of the riverbed. The building has several gates and two arched halls, the building was known in Arabic as Deir al Benat. Archeological investigations indicate that it was built in 1140-1160, during the reign of Fulk of Jerusalem, in the period as the fortresses on Tzova. South of the building are a reserve and a Muslim cemetery. The nature reserve and park were established in 1968, the cemetery includes the grave of Sheikh Abdullah, in whose honor the oak and terebinth trees in the nature reserve were never cut down. A picnic site has been created nearby, four layer springs issue from the riverbed and nearby caves, and unite into a flow of water which continues for about 400 meter. Several dams have been built, creating pools, the largest of which is 20 x 20 meters and 1 meter deep, in 1925, an American Jew named Isaac Segal Feller purchased a plot of 600 dunams on a hill above the springs. This land was called Nachalat Yitzchak or Kiryat YaSaF after its founder, during the 1936–1939 Arab revolt and Israeli War of Independence, it served as a base for Hagana training and military operations. Since 1994, there have been disputes over development of the site for residential or tourism purposesEin Hemed – Aqua Bella, Crusader ruins
19. History of Jerusalem during the Crusader period – Jerusalem was conquered by the Christian First Crusade in 1099, after it had been under the Muslim rule for 450 years. It became the capital of the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem, until it was conquered by the Ayyubids in 1187. In 1244, the city was taken by the Khwarazmian dynasty, after 1250, it came under the rule of the Mamluk sultanate and was gradually rebuilt during the later 13th century. The Sixth Crusade put Jerusalem back under Crusader rule, until the city was captured by the Khwarazmian dynasty, the Crusader–Ayyubid conflict ended with the rise of the Mamluks from Egypt in 1260 and their conquest of the Holy Land. The Ayyubid period ended with waves of destruction of the city and this was a short but relatively turbulent and significant period in the history of Jerusalem. For the first time since the destruction of the city in 70 C. E. Jerusalem was the capital of a political entity. The Crusader period in the history of Jerusalem decisively influenced the history of the whole Middle East, radiating beyond the region into the Islamic World and Christian Europe. The Crusades elevated the position of Jerusalem in the hierarchy of places holy to Islam and these turmoils did not spare the Jewish community of Jerusalem, who, despite difficult circumstances, struggled amid the waves of death and destruction, and rebuilt the fallen city. The conquest of Jerusalem became the objective of the First Crusade. Four main crusader armies left Europe in August 1096, on June 7,1099, having given up on the unsuccessful siege of Arqa, the crusaders arrived at Jerusalem. The city was besieged by the army on June 13, attacks on the city walls started on July 14, and on July 15 they raised a siege tower. By noon the Crusaders were on the wall and the Muslim defenses collapsed, with the conquest of Jerusalem, most Crusaders returned home to Europe, and only a small number of pilgrims settled in the Holy Land. They faced vast challenges, including having their capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem outside the trade routes. The Crusaders massacre in Jerusalem created a change in the composition of the population. Muslims and Jews were murdered or deported and banned from the city, heaven-fearing leaders seemed sacrilege which would allow those who were not among the followers of Christianity have such an esteemed residents instead. After the conquest, Jerusalem was emptied of inhabitants, and many houses were abandoned, the Latin citys population was very small and centered around the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Tower of David. William of Tyre wrote, within the walls of cities, in houses, just hard to find a safe place, thieves were attacking at night, breaking into the abandoned cities, whose inhabitants lived far from one another. As a result, some secretly, others openly would have left the property that have acquired, the Crusaders first step was to stop the fleeing population by announcing a law that a person holding an asset for a year becomes its ownerHistory of Jerusalem during the Crusader period – This article needs attention from an expert in Middle Ages. The specific problem is: unsourced and contradictory information. See the talk page for details. WikiProject Middle Ages (or its Portal) may be able to help recruit an expert. (January 2014)