Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean. Its capital city is Zagreb, which one of the countrys primary subdivisions. Croatia covers 56,594 square kilometres and has diverse, mostly continental, Croatias Adriatic Sea coast contains more than a thousand islands. The countrys population is 4.28 million, most of whom are Croats, the Croats arrived in the area of present-day Croatia during the early part of the 7th century AD. They organised the state into two duchies by the 9th century, tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Petar Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. In 1918, after World War I, Croatia was included in the unrecognized State of Slovenes and Serbs which seceded from Austria-Hungary, a fascist Croatian puppet state backed by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany existed during World War II.
After the war, Croatia became a member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991 Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year, the Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully during the four years following the declaration. A unitary state, Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system, the International Monetary Fund classified Croatia as an emerging and developing economy, and the World Bank identified it as a high-income economy. Croatia is a member of the European Union, United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the service sector dominates Croatias economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue during the summer, with Croatia ranked the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world, the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatias most important trading partner, since 2000, the Croatian government constantly invests in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.
Internal sources produce a significant portion of energy in Croatia, the rest is imported, the origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe. The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, the first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved—leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim, the oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription, where Duke Branimir is styled as Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately, but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, the area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period
Giraffe World Kitchen
Giraffe Restaurants is a United Kingdom restaurant and cafe chain, founded in Hampstead in 1998 by Juliette Joffe, Russel Joffe and Andrew Jacobs. Giraffe was owned by its founders, with financial backing from private shareholders, 3i investment group. 3i invested £10 million in the company in 2006, in a deal valued the chain at £24 million. On 13 March 2013, it was announced that the chain was to be acquired by Tesco for £48. 6m, as part of the acquisition, 3i and Risk Capital Partners sold their shares in the company. In June 2016, Tesco reached an agreement to sell the company to Boparan Holdings, the company has 48 outlets across the UK, including fifteen in London. The companys first outlet in Scotland is in Aberdeens shopping development, a second opened at Siverburn shopping centre in Glasgow on 30 June 2014. In Autumn 2014, branches opened at Tesco stores in Bournemouth, Inverness and it was announced in January 2016 that four restaurants will be closing or moving over to the Tesco Family Dining cafe brand.
The four that closed were Silverburn, Newcastle and Swindon and it was further announced in March 2016 another seven restaurants would close, including those in York, Martlesham and Sutton. After selling Giraffe, Tesco announced the closure of all branches located within their stores, in September 2016, the company introduced a new brand, Giraffe World Kitchen, beginning with its Basingstoke branch. Junior awards, best restaurant commendation Best family restaurant, Hardens Best in Social Media, caterer web awards Best corporate twitter, goldentwits
Harris + Hoole
Harris + Hoole is a British coffeehouse company headquartered in London. It was established in 2012 by Andrew and Laura Tolley, the Harris + Hoole name comes from two coffee-loving characters in Samuel Pepys diary. In February 2016, Tesco purchased the remaining 51% holding in the company that it did not already own to take control of the business. It sold the company to Caffè Nero in June 2016 for an undisclosed sum, the business was launched in 2012 by Nick and Andrew Tolley, with the retailer Tesco taking a 49% stake in the business. Tescos investment in the company was controversial, as Harris + Hoole appeared to be an independent chain competing with the major companies Starbucks, Tesco owned 49% of the company, with Andrew and Laura Tolley owning the remaining 51% of shares. The Tolleys quit the running of the business in July 2015, in April 2015, Ethical Consumer ranked Harris + Hoole the lowest in an assessment of the social and environmental impacts of coffee shops. In response Harris + Hoole stated that their direct trade supplier sourced high quality coffee, Tesco purchased the 51% holding in the company it did not already own in February 2016.
On 23 June 2016 Tesco announced the sale of the company to Caffè Nero in order to focus on its core UK supermarket business, in March 2014, the company announced it planned to increase its number of shops to 60. In August that year, it announced that six unprofitable shops would be closed, as of April 2016, the chain has 43 coffee shops
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. It is headquartered at Broadcasting House in London, the BBC is the worlds oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total,16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting, the total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed contract staff are included. The BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, and used to fund the BBCs radio, TV, britains first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920. It was sponsored by the Daily Mails Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian Soprano Dame Nellie Melba, the Melba broadcast caught the peoples imagination and marked a turning point in the British publics attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications.
By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts. But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests, John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast. The company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved manufacturers, to this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to inform and entertain. The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate, set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee and this was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired.
The BBCs broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, the BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00, and required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee, by now the BBC under Reiths leadership had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a service rather than a commercial enterprise. The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production and with restrictions on news bulletins waived the BBC suddenly became the source of news for the duration of the crisis.
The crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position, the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PMs own
London Stock Exchange
The London Stock Exchange is a stock exchange located in the City of London in the United Kingdom. As of December 2014, the Exchange had a capitalisation of US$6.06 trillion. The Exchange was founded in 1801 and its current premises are situated in Paternoster Square close to St Pauls Cathedral in the City of London, the Exchange is part of the London Stock Exchange Group. London Stock Exchange is one of the world’s oldest stock exchanges, London Stock Exchange Group was created in October 2007 when London Stock Exchange merged with Milan Stock Exchange, Borsa Italiana. The Royal Exchange had been founded by English financier Thomas Gresham on the model of the Antwerp Bourse and it was opened by Elizabeth I of England in 1571. During the 17th century, stockbrokers were not allowed in the Royal Exchange due to their rude manners and they had to operate from other establishments in the vicinity, notably Jonathans Coffee-House. At that coffee house, a broker named John Casting started listing the prices of a few commodities, exchange rates and certain key provisions such as salt, originally, this was not a daily list and was only published a few days of the week.
This list and activity was moved to Garraway’s coffee house. Public auctions during this period were conducted for the duration that a length of tallow candle could burn, as stocks grew, with new companies joining to raise capital, the royal court raised some monies. These are the earliest evidence of organised trading in securities in London. After Greshams Royal Exchange building was destroyed in the Great Fire of London, it was rebuilt and this was a move away from coffee houses and a step towards the modern model of stock exchange. The Royal Exchange not only housed brokers but merchants and merchandise and this was the birth of a regulated stock market, which had teething problems in the shape of unlicensed brokers. In order to regulate these, Parliament brought out an act in 1697 that levied heavy penalties and it set a fixed number of brokers, which was increased as the size of the trade grew. The street in which they were now dealing was known as Exchange Alley, Parliament tried to regulate this and ban the unofficial traders from the Change streets.
Traders became weary of bubbles when companies rose quickly and fell, after the Seven Years War, trade at Jonathans coffee house boomed again. In 1773, together with 150 other brokers, formed a club and opened a new and this now had a set entrance fee, through which traders could enter the stock room and trade securities. It was, not a location for trading. Fraud was rife during these times and in order to such dealings
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group. The chair presides over meetings of the group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. When the group is not in session, the officers duties include acting as its head, its representative to the outside world. In some organizations, this position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator, the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is often called the speaker. The term chair is used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U. S, president George H. W. Bush used chairman for men and chair for women. A1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as chairman, the Chronicle of Higher Education uses chairman for men and chairperson for women.
An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times, the National Association of Parliamentarians does not approve using chairperson. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called Mr. Chairman, the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using chair or chairperson, rather than chairman. The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the forms are gaining ground. It advocates using chair to refer both to men and to women, the word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be in the chair and is referred to as the chair. Major dictionaries state that the word derives from chair and man, some authorities, including Riddicks Rules of Procedure, suggest that the second part of chairman derives from the Latin manus, and thus claim gender-neutrality for the word.
Vladimir Lenin, for example, officially functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president, note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong, Chairman Mao. In the absence of the chairman and vice chairman, groups sometimes elect a chairman pro tempore to fill the role for a single meeting. In some organizations that have titles, deputy chairman ranks higher than vice chairman, as there are often multiple vice chairs
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub native to Asia. After water, it is the most widely consumed drink in the world, Tea originated in Southwest China, where it was used as a medicinal drink. It was popularized as a drink during the Chinese Tang dynasty. Portuguese priests and merchants introduced it to Europe during the 16th century, during the 17th century, drinking tea became fashionable among Britons, who started large-scale production and commercialization of the plant in India to bypass the Chinese monopoly. The term herbal tea usually refers to infusions of fruit or herbs made without the tea plant, such as steeps of rosehip and these are sometimes called tisanes or herbal infusions to prevent confusion with tea made from the tea plant. The tea industry often uses the term fruit tea to refer to what are in fact fruit-flavored black teas. The Chinese character for tea is 茶, originally written with a stroke as 荼.
The word is pronounced differently in the different varieties of Chinese, such as chá in Mandarin, zo and dzo in Wu Chinese, there were other ancient words for tea, though ming is the only other one still in common use. Most Chinese languages, such as Mandarin and Cantonese, pronounce it along the lines of cha and these two pronunciations have made their separate ways into other languages around the world. Starting in the seventeen century, the Dutch played a dominant role in the early European tea trade via the Dutch East India Company. The Dutch borrowed the word for tea from Min Chinese, either through trade directly from Fujian or Formosa where they had established a port, or from Malay traders in Bantam, Java. The Dutch introduced to other European languages this Min pronunciation for tea, including English tea, French thé, Spanish té and this pronunciation is the most common form worldwide. The Portuguese adopted the Cantonese pronunciation chá, and spread it to India, the Korean and Japanese pronunciations of cha were borrowed into Korean and Japanese during earlier periods of Chinese history.
A third form, the increasingly widespread chai, came from Persian چای chay, both the châ and chây forms are found in Persian dictionaries. English has all three forms, cha or char, attested from the 16th century, from the 17th, the form chai refers specifically to a black tea mixed with honey and milk in contemporary English. Tea plants are native to East Asia, and probably originated around the points of the lands of north Burma. Tea drinking may have begun in the Yunnan region during the Shang Dynasty in China, Chinese legends attribute the invention of tea to Shennong in 2737 BC, although evidence suggests that tea drinking may have been introduced from the southwest of China. The earliest written records of tea come from China, in the Chronicles of Huayang, it was recorded that the Ba people in Sichuan presented tu to the Zhou king
Cyprus, officially the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean. It is located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel and Palestine, north of Egypt, the earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia. Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC, Cyprus was placed under British administration based on Cyprus Convention in 1878 and formally annexed by Britain in 1914. While Turkish Cypriots made up 18% of the population, the partition of Cyprus and creation of a Turkish state in the north became a policy of Turkish Cypriot leaders, following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus was granted independence in 1960. On 15 July 1974, a coup détat was staged by Greek Cypriot nationalists and elements of the Greek military junta in an attempt at enosis and these events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute.
The Cyprus Republic has de jure sovereignty over the island of Cyprus, as well as its territorial sea and exclusive economic area, another nearly 4% of the islands area is covered by the UN buffer zone. The international community considers the part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. The occupation is viewed as illegal under law, amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union. Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean, on 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone. The earliest attested reference to Cyprus is the 15th century BC Mycenaean Greek
Gerry Ford (businessman)
Gerry Ford is an American businessman and Chief Executive of Caffè Nero. It is the UKs third-largest coffee chain and he is the son of an American university Professor of Education. He accompanied his father on sabbaticals to European countries and he grew up in Silicon Valley. He first attended Stanford University, where he studied Politics and International Relations and he gained an MBA in 1984 from INSEAD at Fontainebleau, south of Paris, as well as a Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. He did a PhD in US-European relations at the University of Oxford and his first job was as a financial analyst for Hewlett-Packard. He cites Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard as role models and he came to work in the UK for Apax Partners, a private equity company, where he stayed for three years. He co-founded Paladin Partners, an equity company, in 1991, Caffè Nero had been established as a restaurant in Kensington in 1990 by Ian Semp, it was not a coffee house.
Paladin Partners established Caffè Nero in 1997 in South Kensington, with five branches, at the time most people drank coffee from instant coffee bought in the supermarket. Now the company has around 570 establishments in the UK, the company format was refined over the first eighteen months, and the eighth version of the format is what is now found today. In March 2001 the company joined the London Stock Exchange and he took the company off the stock exchange in 2007. The companys headquarters are in Covent Garden and he is married to Amanda and has two sons
Costa Coffee is a British multinational coffeehouse company headquartered in Dunstable, and a wholly owned subsidiary of Whitbread. It is the second largest coffeehouse chain in the world behind Starbucks, Costa Coffee was founded in London in 1971 by the Costa family as a wholesale operation supplying roasted coffee to caterers and specialist Italian coffee shops. Acquired by Whitbread in 1995, it has grown to 3,401 stores across 31 countries. The business has 2,121 UK restaurants, over 6,000 Costa Express vending facilities, Italian immigrant brothers Bruno and Sergio Costa founded a coffee roastery in Lambeth, London, in 1971, supplying local caterers. The family had moved to England in the 1960s, Costa branched out to selling coffee in 1978, when its first store opened in Vauxhall Bridge Road, London. In 1985, Sergio bought out Brunos share of the company, Bruno went on to found a tableware company. By 1995, the chain had 41 stores in UK, in 1995, the business was acquired by Whitbread, UKs largest hotel and coffee shop operator, becoming a wholly owned subsidiary.
In 2009, Costa opened its 1, 000th store in Cardiff, in December 2009, Costa Coffee agreed to acquire Coffee Heaven for £36 million, adding 79 stores in central and eastern Europe. Costa Coffee operates 2,121 outlets in the United Kingdom as of May 2016, internationally, it operates 1,280 stores throughout the world in 31 countries. The first Costa store outside the UK opened in Dubai in 1999, smaller sub-units are set up in railway stations and airports throughout the UK. Many of Costa Coffees branches located in airports and hospitals are either individual or corporate franchises, Costa Coffee has small outlets positioned on out-of-town business parks, often among other food retailers, and on-site at various businesses. Costa Coffee currently has branches in many countries, following Whitbreads £59. 5m acquisition of Coffee Nation, a chain of coffee machines, the machines were re-branded as Costa Express. The company plans to expand to target hospitals and transport interchanges and these coffee bars will use the same coffee beans as used in Costa stores and will use fresh milk.
On February 29,2016 Costa announced a partnership with Shell Canada to distribute 150 Costa Express machines throughout its Canadian petrol stations, Costa Coffee has its own roastery. The blend served in retail stores is their own Mocha Italia, it contains a blend of arabica, Costa Coffee employs Gennaro Pelliccia as a coffee taster, who had his tongue insured for £10m with Lloyds of London in 2009. Costa Coffee has its own loyalty scheme called the Costa Coffee Club, using a Loyalty card or an app for Android phones or iPhones, members may gain points which allows them to get free coffee and other goods. Points are added whenever a purchase is made, and the card or app is presented and swiped or scanned, Costa Coffee has been the sponsor of the Costa Book Awards since 2006. List of coffeehouse chains Coffee portal Media related to Costa Coffee at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Chiquito is a UK-based restaurant chain specialising in Tex-Mex foods. The company was established in 1989 and has 68 restaurants across the country and it dubs itself as The Original Mexican Grill & Bar and has been described as the United Kingdoms best-known Mexican chain. Chiquito restaurants are part of the Restaurant Group, dishes such as nachos, chilli poppers, fajitas, sandwiches and steaks from the grill are served in Chiquito. They serve a range of cocktails, such as tequila. Spanish and Mexican music plays throughout the restaurant, in November 2015 the chain was one of seven restaurants surveyed that failed to meet a basic level of sustainability in its seafood