Jean Marie Maurice Schérer or Maurice Henri Joseph Schérer, known as Éric Rohmer, was a French film director, film critic, novelist and teacher. Rohmer was the last of the post-World War II French New Wave directors to become established, he edited the influential film journal, Cahiers du cinéma, from 1957 to 1963, while most of his colleagues—among them Jean-Luc Godard and François Truffaut—were making the transition from film critics to filmmakers and gaining international attention. Rohmer gained international acclaim around 1969 when his film My Night at Maud's was nominated at the Academy Awards, he won the San Sebastián International Film Festival with Claire's Knee in 1971 and the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival for The Green Ray in 1986. Rohmer went on to receive the Venice Film Festival's Career Golden Lion in 2001. After Rohmer's death in 2010, his obituary in The Daily Telegraph described him as "the most durable filmmaker of the French New Wave", outlasting his peers and "still making movies the public wanted to see" late in his career.
Rohmer was born Jean-Marie Maurice Schérer in Nancy, Meurthe-et-Moselle department, France, the son of Mathilde and Lucien Schérer. Rohmer was a Catholic, he was secretive about his private life and gave different dates of birth to reporters. He fashioned his pseudonym from the names of two famous artists: actor and director Erich von Stroheim and writer Sax Rohmer, author of the Fu Manchu series. Rohmer received an advanced degree in history, he studied literature and theology as a student. Rohmer first worked as a teacher in Clermont-Ferrand. In the mid-1940s he quit his teaching job and moved to Paris, where he worked as a freelance journalist. In 1946 he published Elisabeth under the pen-name Gilbert Cordier. In about 1949, while living in Paris, Rohmer first began to attend screenings at Henri Langlois's Cinémathèque Française, where he first met and befriended Jean-Luc Godard, François Truffaut, Claude Chabrol, Jacques Rivette and other members of the French New Wave. Rohmer had never been interested in film and always preferred literature but soon became an intense lover of films and switched from journalism to film criticism.
He wrote film reviews for such publications as Révue du Cinéma, Temps Modernes and La Parisienne. In 1950, he co-founded the film magazine La Gazette du Cinéma with Rivette and Godard, however its existence was short-lived. In 1951 Rohmer joined the staff of André Bazin's newly founded film magazine Cahiers du Cinéma, of which he would become the editor in 1956. There, Rohmer established himself as a critic with a distinctive voice. Rohmer was known as being more politically conservative than most of the staff at Cahiers, his opinions were influential on the direction of the magazine during his time as editor. Rohmer first published articles under his real name but began using "Éric Rohmer" in 1955 so that his family would not find out that he was involved in the film world, of which they would have disapproved. Rohmer's best-known article was "Le Celluloid et le marbre" in 1955, which examines the relationship between film and other arts. In the article, Rohmer states that in an age of cultural self-consciousness, film is "the last refuge of poetry" and the only contemporary art form from which metaphor could still spring and spontaneously.
In 1957 Rohmer and Claude Chabrol wrote Hitchcock, the earliest book-length study of Alfred Hitchcock. It focuses on Hitchcock's Catholic background and is described as "one of the most influential film books since the Second World War, casting new light on a film-maker hitherto considered a mere entertainer". Hitchcock helped establish the auteur theory as a critical method and contributed to the re-evaluation of the American cinema, central to that method. By 1963 Rohmer was becoming more at odds with some of the more radical left-wing critics at Cahiers du Cinéma, he continued to admire US films while many of the other left-wing critics had rejected US films and were championing cinéma vérité and Marxist film criticism. Rohmer was succeeded by Jacques Rivette. In 1950 Rohmer made his first 16mm short film, Journal d'un scélérat; the film was made with a borrowed camera. By 1951 Rohmer had a bigger budget provided by friends and shot the short film Présentation ou Charlotte et son steak; the 12-minute film starred Jean-Luc Godard.
The film was not completed until 1961. In 1952 Rohmer began collaborating with Pierre Guilbaud on a one-hour short feature, Les Petites Filles modèles, but the film was never finished. In 1954 Rohmer made and acted in Bérénice, a 15-minute short based on a story by Edgar Allan Poe. In 1956 Rohmer directed, wrote and starred in La Sonate à Kreutzer, a 50-minute film produced by Godard. In 1958 Rohmer made a 20 minute-short produced by Chabrol. Chabrol's company AJYM produced Rohmer's feature directorial debut, The Sign of Leo in 1959. In the film an American composer spends the month of August waiting for his inheritance while all his friends are on vacation and becomes impoverished, it included music by Louis Sagver. The Sign of Leo was recut and rescored by d
Howard Winchester Hawks was an American film director and screenwriter of the classic Hollywood era. Critic Leonard Maltin called him "the greatest American director, not a household name." A versatile film director, Hawks explored many genres such as comedies, gangster films, science fiction, film noir, westerns. His most popular films include Scarface, Bringing Up Baby, Only Angels Have Wings, His Girl Friday, To Have and Have Not, The Big Sleep, Red River, The Thing from Another World, Rio Bravo, his frequent portrayals of strong, tough-talking female characters came to define the "Hawksian woman". In 1942, Hawks was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Director for Sergeant York. In 1974, he was awarded an Honorary Academy Award as "a master American filmmaker whose creative efforts hold a distinguished place in world cinema." His work has influenced various popular and respected directors such as Martin Scorsese, Robert Altman, Jean-Luc Godard, John Carpenter, Quentin Tarantino. Howard Winchester Hawks was born in Indiana.
He was the first-born child of Frank Winchester Hawks, a wealthy paper manufacturer, his wife, Helen Brown, the daughter of a wealthy industrialist. Hawks's family on his father's side were American pioneers and his ancestor John Hawks had emigrated from England to Massachusetts in 1630; the family settled in Goshen and by the 1890s was one of the wealthiest families in the Midwest, due to the profitable Goshen Milling Company. Hawks's maternal grandfather, C. W. Howard, had homesteaded in Neenah, Wisconsin in 1862 at age 17. Within 15 years he had made his fortune in other industrial endeavors. Frank Hawks and Helen Howard met in the early 1890s and married in 1895. Howard Hawks was the eldest of five children and his birth was followed by Kenneth Neil Hawks, William Bellinger Hawks, Grace Louise Hawks and Helen Bernice Hawks. In 1898, the family moved to Neenah, Wisconsin where Frank Hawks began working for his father-in-law's Howard Paper Company. Between 1906 and 1909, the Hawks family began to spend more time in Pasadena, California during the cold Wisconsin winters in order to improve Helen Hawks's ill health.
They began to spend only their summers in Wisconsin before permanently moving to Pasadena in 1910. The family settled in a house down the street from Throop Polytechnic Institute and the Hawks children began attending the school's Polytechnic Elementary School in 1907. Hawks was an average student and did not excel in sports, but by 1910 had discovered coaster racing, an early form of soapbox racing. In 1911, Hawks's youngest sibling Helen died of food poisoning. From 1910 to 1912, Hawks attended Pasadena High School, but in 1912, the Hawks family moved to nearby Glendora, where Frank Hawks owned orange groves. Hawks finished his junior year of high school at Citrus Union High School in Glendora. During this time he worked as a barnstorming pilot, he was sent to Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire from 1913 to 1914. Though he was seventeen, he was admitted as a lower middleclassman, the equivalent of a sophomore. While in New England, Hawks attended the theaters in nearby Boston. In 1914, Hawks graduated from Pasadena High School that year.
Skilled in tennis, by eighteen years old, Hawks won the United States Junior Tennis Championship. That same year, Hawks was accepted to Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, where he majored in mechanical engineering and was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon, his college friend Ray S. Ashbury remembered Hawks spending more of his time playing craps and drinking alcohol than studying, although Hawks was known to be a voracious reader of popular American and English novels in college. While working in the film industry during his 1916 summer vacation, Hawks made an unsuccessful attempt to transfer to Stanford University, he returned to Cornell that September, leaving in April 1917 to join the Army when the United States entered World War I. During World War I, he taught aviators to fly and he used these experiences as influence for future aviation films such as The Dawn Patrol. Like many college students who joined the armed services during the war, he received a degree in absentia in 1918. Before Hawks was called for active duty, he returned to Hollywood and by the end of April 1917 was working on a Cecil B.
DeMille film. Howard Hawks's interest and passion for aviation led him to many important experiences and acquaintances. In 1916, Hawks met Victor Fleming, a Hollywood cinematographer, an auto mechanic and early aviator. Hawks had begun racing and working on a Mercer race car—bought for him by his grandfather, C. W. Howard—during his 1916 summer vacation in California, he met Fleming when the two men raced on a dirt track and caused an accident. This meeting led to Hawks's first job in the film industry, as a prop boy on the Douglas Fairbanks film In Again, Out Again for Famous Players-Lasky. According to Hawks, a new set needed to be built when the studio's set designer was unavailable, so Hawks volunteered to do the job himself, much to Fairbanks's satisfaction, he was next employed as a prop boy and general assistant on an unspecified film directed by Cecil B. DeMille.. By the end of
Kenji Mizoguchi was a Japanese film director and screenwriter. Mizoguchi's work is renowned for its long mise-en-scène. According to writer Mark Le Fanu, "His films have an extraordinary purity, they shake and move the viewer by the power and compassion with which they confront human suffering."His film Ugetsu brought him international attention and appeared in the Sight & Sound Critics' Top Ten Poll in 1962 and 1972. Other acclaimed films of his include The Story of the Last Chrysanthemums, The Life of Oharu, Sansho the Bailiff. Today, Mizoguchi is one of the most acclaimed filmmakers of world cinema. Mizoguchi was born in Hongo, one of three children, his father was a roofing carpenter. The family was modestly middle-class until his father tried to make a living selling raincoats to soldiers during the Russo-Japanese war; the war ended too for the investment to succeed. In effect his sister Suzuko, or Suzu, was sold into geishadom - an event which profoundly affected Mizoguchi's outlook on life.
Between this and his father's brutal treatment of his mother and sister, he maintained a fierce resistance against his father throughout his life. In 1911, Mizoguchi's parents, too poor to continue paying for their son's primary school training, sent him to stay with an uncle in Morioka, in northern Japan, for a year - a period that saw the onset of crippling rheumatoid arthritis, to afflict him during adolescence and leave him with a lop-sided walking gait for the rest of his life; the year 1912, back with his parents, was spent entirely in bed. In 1913 Mizoguchi's sister Suzu secured him work as an apprentice, designing patterns for kimonos and yukatas. In 1915 his mother died, Suzu brought her younger brothers into her own house and looked after them. In 1916 he enrolled for a course at the Aoibashi Yoga Kenkyuko art school in Tokyo, which taught Western painting techniques. At this time too he pursued a new interest in opera at the Royal Theatre at Akasaka where he began, in due course, to help the set decorators.
In 1917 his sister again helped him to find work, this time a post with the Yuishin Nippon newspaper in Kobe, as an advertisement designer. The writer Tadao Sato has pointed out a coincidence between Mizoguchi's life in his early years and the plots of shimpa dramas; such works characteristically documented the sacrifices made by geishas on behalf of the young men they were involved with. Though Suzu was his sister and not a lover, "the subject of women's suffering is fundamental in all his work. After less than a year in Kobe however he returned, "to the bohemian delights of Tokyo." Mizoguchi entered the Tokyo film industry as an actor in 1920. Mizoguchi's early works had been exploratory genre works, remakes of German Expressionism and adaptations of Eugene O'Neill and Leo Tolstoy. In these early years Mizoguchi worked sometimes churning out a film in weeks; these would account for over fifty films from the 1920s and 1930s, the majority of which are now lost. After the Great Kantō earthquake on September 1, 1923, Mizoguchi moved to Nikkatsu’s Kyoto studios, was working there until a scandal caused him to be temporarily suspended: Yuriko Ichijo, a call girl who he was co-habiting with and wounded Mizoguchi's back with a razor-blade.
"Working in Kyoto - the home of the traditional arts - had a decisive influence. Mizoguchi studied kabuki and traditional Japanese dance and music."Several of Mizoguchi's films were keikō-eiga or "tendency films," in which Mizoguchi first explored his socialist tendencies and moulded his famous signature preoccupations. In his life, Mizoguchi maintained that his career as a serious director did not begin until 1936, when Osaka Elegy and Sisters of the Gion were released. In his middle films, Mizoguchi began to be hailed as a director of'new realism': social documents of a Japan, making its transition from feudalism into modernity; the Story of the Last Chrysanthemums won a prize with the Education Department. During this time, Mizoguchi developed his signature "one-scene-one-shot" approach to cinema; the meticulousness and authenticity of his set designer Hiroshi Mizutani would contribute to Mizoguchi's frequent use of wide-angle lenses. During the war, Mizoguchi was forced to make compromises for the military government as propaganda.
Significant directors who have admired his work include Akira Kurosawa, Orson Welles, Masahiro Shinoda and Kaneto Shindo, Jean-Luc Godard, Andrei Tarkovsky, Jean-Marie Straub, Victor Erice, Jacques Rivette and Theo Angelopoulos. Mizoguchi once served as president of the Directors Guild of Japan. After the war, Mizoguchi's work, like that of his contemporary Yasujirō Ozu, was regarded by Japanese audiences as somewhat old-fashioned and dated, he was rediscovered, however, in the West - and by Cahiers du cinéma critics such as Jacques Rivette. After a phase inspired by Japanese women's suffrage, which produced radical films like Victory of the Women and
Jacques Doniol-Valcroze was a French actor, critic and director. In 1951, Doniol-Valcroze was a co-founder of the renowned film magazine Cahiers du cinéma, along with André Bazin and Joseph-Marie Lo Duca; the magazine was edited by Doniol-Valcroze between 1951-1957. As critic, he championed numerous filmmakers including Orson Welles, Howard Hawks, Nicholas Ray. In 1955, he was a member of the jury at the 16th Venice International Film Festival, in 1964 a member of the jury at the 14th Berlin International Film Festival. In his thirties he played a pivotal role in the French New Wave, discussing the beginnings of "the new cinema" as the co-founder of Cahiers du cinéma and defended Alain Robbe-Grillet. In 1963 he appeared in L'Immortelle, an international co-produced drama art film directed by Alain Robbe-Grillet, his own works in this area include directing the film L'eau a la bouche and acting in some New Wave films, including Chantal Akerman's cult classic Jeanne Dielman, 23 quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles.
Additionally he was friends with François Truffaut who shot his first film Une Visite in his apartment. He was married to Françoise Brion; the Director’s Fortnight, founded in 1968 during the nationwide strikes which closed down the Cannes Film Festival that year, was the brainchild of Jacques Doniol-Valcroze. The event was sponsored by his fledgling Société des Réalisateurs de Films with the intention of "...opening up the Cannes Festival to little-known filmmakers and national cinemas, without concern for budgets or shooting formats."He died of a ruptured aneurysm in 1989
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late 20th century across philosophy, the arts and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism. The term has more been applied to the historical era following modernity and the tendencies of this era. While encompassing a wide variety of approaches, postmodernism is defined by an attitude of skepticism, irony, or rejection toward the meta-narratives and ideologies of modernism calling into question various assumptions of Enlightenment rationality. Common targets of postmodern critique include universalist notions of objective reality, truth, human nature, reason and social progress. Postmodern thinkers call attention to the contingent or socially-conditioned nature of knowledge claims and value systems, situating them as products of particular political, historical, or cultural discourses and hierarchies. Accordingly, postmodern thought is broadly characterized by tendencies to self-referentiality and moral relativism and irreverence.
Postmodern critical approaches gained purchase in the 1980s and 1990s, have been adopted in a variety of academic and theoretical disciplines, including cultural studies, philosophy of science, linguistics, feminist theory, literary criticism, as well as art movements in fields such as literature and music. Postmodernism is associated with schools of thought such as deconstruction and post-structuralism, as well as philosophers such as Jean-François Lyotard, Jacques Derrida, Fredric Jameson. Criticisms of postmodernism are intellectually diverse, include assertions that postmodernism promotes obscurantism, is meaningless, adding nothing to analytical or empirical knowledge. Postmodernism arose after World War II as a reaction to the perceived failings of modernism, whose radical artistic projects had come to be associated with totalitarianism or had been assimilated into mainstream culture; the basic features of what is now called postmodernism can be found as early as the 1940s, most notably in the work of artists such as Jorge Luis Borges.
However, most scholars today would agree that postmodernism began to compete with modernism in the late 1950s and gained ascendancy over it in the 1960s. Since postmodernism has been a dominant, though not undisputed, force in art, film, drama, architecture and continental philosophy. Salient features of postmodernism are thought to include the ironic play with styles and narrative levels, a metaphysical skepticism or nihilism towards a "grand narrative" of Western culture, a preference for the virtual at the expense of the Real and a "waning of affect" on the part of the subject, caught up in the free interplay of virtual, endlessly reproducible signs inducing a state of consciousness similar to schizophrenia. Since the late 1990s there has been a small but growing feeling both in popular culture and in academia that postmodernism "has gone out of fashion". Structuralism was a philosophical movement developed by French academics in the 1950s in response to French Existentialism, it has been seen variously as an expression of High modernism, or postmodernism.
"Post-structuralists" were thinkers who moved away from the strict interpretations and applications of structuralist ideas. Many American academics consider post-structuralism to be part of the broader, less well-defined postmodernist movement though many post-structuralists insisted it was not. Thinkers who have been called structuralists include the anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss, the linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, the Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser, the semiotician Algirdas Greimas; the early writings of the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan and the literary theorist Roland Barthes have been called structuralists. Those who began as structuralists but became post-structuralists include Michel Foucault, Roland Barthes, Jean Baudrillard, Gilles Deleuze. Other post-structuralists include Jacques Derrida, Pierre Bourdieu, Jean-François Lyotard, Julia Kristeva, Hélène Cixous, Luce Irigaray; the American cultural theorists and intellectuals whom they influenced include Judith Butler, John Fiske, Rosalind Krauss, Avital Ronell, Hayden White.
Post-structuralism is not defined by a set of shared axioms or methodologies, but by an emphasis on how various aspects of a particular culture, from its most ordinary, everyday material details to its most abstract theories and beliefs, determine one another. Post-structuralist thinkers reject Reductionism and Epiphenomenalism and the idea that cause-and-effect relationships are top-down or bottom-up. Like structuralists, they start from the assumption that people's identities and economic conditions determine each other rather than having intrinsic properties that can be understood in isolation, thus the French structuralists considered themselves to be espousing Constructionism. But they tended to explore how the subjects of their study might be described, reductively, as a set of essential relationships, schematics, or mathematical symbols.. Post-structuralists thinkers went further, questioning the existence of any distinction between the nature of a thing and its relationship to other things.
Postmodernist ideas in philosophy and the analysis of culture and society expanded the importance of critical theory and ha
Jean-Luc Godard is a French-Swiss film director and film critic. He rose to prominence as a pioneer of the 1960s French New Wave film movement. Like his New Wave contemporaries, Godard criticized mainstream French cinema's "Tradition of Quality", which "emphasized craft over innovation, privileged established directors over new directors, preferred the great works of the past to experimentation." As a result of such argument, he and like-minded critics started to make their own films. Many of Godard's films challenge the conventions of traditional Hollywood in addition to French cinema. In 1964, Godard described his and his colleagues' impact: "We barged into the cinema like cavemen into the Versailles of Louis XV." He is considered the most radical French filmmaker of the 1960s and 1970s. Along with showing knowledge of film history through homages and references, several of his films expressed his political views. Since the New Wave, his politics have been much less radical and his recent films are about representation and human conflict from a humanist, a Marxist perspective.
In a 2002 Sight & Sound poll, Godard ranked third in the critics' top-ten directors of all time. He is said to have "created one of the largest bodies of critical analysis of any filmmaker since the mid-twentieth century." He and his work have been central to narrative theory and have "challenged both commercial narrative cinema norms and film criticism's vocabulary." In 2010, Godard did not attend the award ceremony. Godard's films have inspired many directors including Martin Scorsese, Quentin Tarantino, Brian De Palma, Steven Soderbergh, D. A. Pennebaker, Robert Altman, Jim Jarmusch, Wong Kar-wai, Wim Wenders, Bernardo Bertolucci, Pier Paolo Pasolini. From his father, he is the cousin of former President of Peru, he has been married twice, to actresses Anna Karina and Anne Wiazemsky, both of whom starred in several of his films. His collaborations with Karina—which included such critically acclaimed films as Bande à part and Pierrot le Fou —was called "arguably the most influential body of work in the history of cinema" by Filmmaker magazine.
Jean-Luc Godard was born on 3 December 1930 in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, the son of Odile and Paul Godard, a Swiss physician. His wealthy parents came from Protestant families of Franco–Swiss descent, his mother was the daughter of Julien Monod, a founder of the Banque Paribas, she was the great-granddaughter of theologian Adolphe Monod. Relatives on his mother's side include composer Jacques-Louis Monod, naturalist Théodore Monod and pastor Frédéric Monod. Four years after Jean-Luc's birth, his father moved the family to Switzerland. At the outbreak of the Second World War, Godard was in France and returned to Switzerland with difficulty, he spent most of the war in Switzerland, although his family made clandestine trips to his grandfather's estate on the French side of Lake Geneva. Godard attended school in Switzerland. Not a frequent cinema-goer, he attributed his introduction to cinema to a reading of Malraux's essay Outline of a Psychology of Cinema, his reading of La Revue du cinéma, relaunched in 1946.
In 1946, he went to study at the Lycée Buffon in Paris and, through family connections, mixed with members of its cultural elite. He lodged with the writer Jean Schlumberger. Having failed his baccalaureate exam in 1948 he returned to Switzerland, he lived with his parents, whose marriage was breaking up. He spent time in Geneva with a group that included another film fanatic, Roland Tolmatchoff, the extreme rightist philosopher Jean Parvulesco, his older sister Rachel encouraged him to paint, in an abstract style. After time spent at a boarding school in Thonon to prepare for the retest, which he passed, he returned to Paris in 1949, he registered for a certificate in anthropology at the University of Paris, but did not attend class. He got involved with the young group of film critics at the ciné-clubs. Godard held only French citizenship in 1953, he became a citizen of Gland, canton of Vaud, Switzerland through simplified naturalisation through his Swiss father. In Paris, in the Latin Quarter just prior to 1950, ciné-clubs were gaining prominence.
Godard began attending these clubs – the Cinémathèque, the CCQL, Work and Culture ciné Club, others – which became his regular haunts. The Cinémathèque had been founded by Henri Langlois and Georges Franju in 1936. At these clubs he met fellow film enthusiasts including Jacques Rivette, Claude Chabrol, François Truffaut. Godard was part of a generation for, he has said: "In the 1950s cinema was as important as bread—but it isn't the case any more. We thought cinema would assert itself as an instrument of knowledge, a microscope... a telescope.... At the Cinémathèque I discovered a world. They'd told us about Goethe, but not Dreyer.... We watched silent films in the era of talkies. We dreame