A chamfer is a transitional edge between two faces of an object. Sometimes defined as a form of bevel, it is created at a 45° angle between two adjoining right-angled faces. Chamfers are used in the design of carpentry, concrete formwork, printed circuit boards, to facilitate assembly of many mechanical engineering designs. A "chamfer" may sometimes be regarded as a type of "bevel", but the terms are used interchangeably. In furniture-making, a lark's tongue is a chamfer which ends short of a piece in a gradual upward curve, leaving the remainder of the edge as a right angle. Chamfers may be formed in either inside or outside adjoining faces of an room, they are used to "ease" otherwise sharp edges, both for safety and to prevent damage to them. By comparison, a "fillet" is the rounding-off of an interior corner, a "round" the rounding of an outside one. Chamfers are used in furniture such as counters and table tops to ease their edges. Special tools such as chamfer mills and chamfer planes are sometimes used.
Chamfers are used in architecture, both for functional and aesthetic reasons. For example, the base of the Taj Mahal is a cube with chamfered corners, thereby creating an octagonal architectural footprint, its great gate is formed of chamfered base stones and chamfered corbels for a balcony or equivalent cornice towards the roof. Many city blocks in Barcelona and various other cities in Spain, street corners in Ponce, Puerto Rico, are chamfered; the chamfering was designed as an embellishment and a modernization of urban space in Barcelona's mid-19th century Eixample or Expansion District, where the buildings follow the chamfering of the sidewalks and streets. This pioneering design opens up broader perspectives, provides pleasant pedestrian areas and allows for greater visibility while turning, it might be considered to allow for turning to be somewhat more comfortable as drivers would not need to slow down as much when making a turn as they would have to if the corner were a square 90 degrees, though in Barcelona, most chamfered corners are used as parking spaces or loading-unloading zones, leaving the traffic to run as in normal 90-degree street corners.
Chamfers are used to facilitate assembly of parts which are designed for interference fit. Outside of aesthetics, chamfering is part of the process of hand-crafting a parabolic glass telescope mirror. Before the surface of the disc can be ground, the edges must first be chamfered to prevent edge chipping; this can be accomplished by placing the disc in a metal bowl containing silicon carbide and rotating the disc with a rocking motion. The grit will thus wear off the sharp edge of the glass. In traditional printed circuit board designing, a chamfer may be applied to a right-angled edge of a conductive junction in order to physically strengthen the conductive foil at that location. Chamfering of junctions may be applied in high-frequency PCB design in order to reduce reflections. In high-voltage engineering and rounded edges are used to reduce corona discharge and electrical breakdown. With modern computer-aided design, rounded curve transitions are used instead of chamfers, to further reduce stress and improve evenness of electroplating.
Bevel The dictionary definition of chamfer at Wiktionary "Chamfer". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. 1911
Church architecture refers to the architecture of buildings of Christian churches. It has evolved over the two thousand years of the Christian religion by innovation and by imitating other architectural styles as well as responding to changing beliefs and local traditions. From the birth of Christianity to the present, the most significant objects of transformation for Christian architecture and design were the great churches of Byzantium, the Romanesque abbey churches, Gothic cathedrals and Renaissance basilicas with its emphasis on harmony; these large ornate and architecturally prestigious buildings were dominant features of the towns and countryside in which they stood. However, far more numerous were the parish churches in Christendom, the focus of Christian devotion in every town and village. While a few are counted as sublime works of architecture to equal the great cathedrals and churches, the majority developed along simpler lines, showing great regional diversity and demonstrating local vernacular technology and decoration.
Buildings were at first from those intended for other purposes but, with the rise of distinctively ecclesiastical architecture, church buildings came to influence secular ones which have imitated religious architecture. In the 20th century, the use of new materials, such as steel and concrete, has had an effect upon the design of churches; the history of church architecture divides itself into periods, into countries or regions and by religious affiliation. The matter is complicated by the fact that buildings put up for one purpose may have been re-used for another, that new building techniques may permit changes in style and size, that changes in liturgical practice may result in the alteration of existing buildings and that a building built by one religious group may be used by a successor group with different purposes; the simplest church building comprises a single meeting space, built of locally available material and using the same skills of construction as the local domestic buildings.
Such churches are rectangular, but in African countries where circular dwellings are the norm, vernacular churches may be circular as well. A simple church may be built of mud brick and daub, split logs or rubble, it may be roofed with thatch, corrugated iron or banana leaves. However, church congregations, from the 4th century onwards, have sought to construct church buildings that were both permanent and aesthetically pleasing; this had led to a tradition in which congregations and local leaders have invested time and personal prestige into the building and decoration of churches. Within any parish, the local church is the oldest building and is larger than any pre-19th-century structure except a barn; the church is built of the most durable material available dressed stone or brick. The requirements of liturgy have demanded that the church should extend beyond a single meeting room to two main spaces, one for the congregation and one in which the priest performs the rituals of the Mass. To the two-room structure is added aisles, a tower and vestries and sometimes transepts and mortuary chapels.
The additional chambers may be part of the original plan, but in the case of a great many old churches, the building has been extended piecemeal, its various parts testifying to its long architectural history. In the first three centuries of the Early Livia Christian Church, the practice of Christianity was illegal and few churches were constructed. In the beginning, Christians worshipped along with Jews in private houses. After the separation of Jews and Christians, the latter continued to worship in people's houses, known as house churches; these were the homes of the wealthier members of the faith. Saint Paul, in his first letter to the Corinthians writes: "The churches of Asia send greetings. Aquila and Prisca, together with the church in their house, greet you warmly in the Lord."Some domestic buildings were adapted to function as churches. One of the earliest of adapted residences is at Dura Europos church, built shortly after 200 AD, where two rooms were made into one, by removing a wall, a dais was set up.
To the right of the entrance a small room was made into a baptistry. Some church buildings were built as church assemblies, such as that opposite the emperor Diocletian's palace in Nicomedia, its destruction was recorded thus: When that day dawned, in the eighth consulship of Diocletian and seventh of Maximian while it was yet hardly light, the perfect, together with chief commanders and officers of the treasury, came to the church in Nicomedia, the gates having been forced open, they searched everywhere for an idol of the Divinity. The books of the Holy Scriptures were found, they were committed to the flames; that church, situated on rising ground, was within view of the palace. The sentiment of Diocletian prevailed, who dreaded lest, so great a fire being once kindled, some part of the city might he burnt; the Pretorian Guards came in battle array, with axes and other iron instruments, having been let loose everywhere, they in a few hours leveled that lofty edifice with the ground. From the first to the early fourth centuries most Christian communities worshipped in private homes secretly.
Some Roman churches, such as the Basilica of San Clemente in Rome, are built directly over the houses where early Christians worshipped. Other early Roman churches are b
A transept is a transverse part of any building, which lies across the main body of the edifice. In churches, a transept is an area set crosswise to the nave in a cruciform building within the Romanesque and Gothic Christian church architectural traditions; each half of a transept is known as a semitransept. The transept of a church separates the nave from the sanctuary, choir, presbytery, or chancel; the transepts cross the nave at the crossing, which belongs to the main nave axis and to the transept. Upon its four piers, the crossing may support a central tower or a crossing dome. Since the altar is located at the east end of a church, a transept extends to the north and south; the north and south end walls hold decorated windows of stained glass, such as rose windows, in stone tracery. The basilicas and the church and cathedral planning that descended from them were built without transepts. More the transepts extended well beyond the sides of the rest of the building, forming the shape of a cross.
This design is called a "Latin cross" ground plan, these extensions are known as the arms of the transept. A "Greek cross" ground plan, with all four extensions the same length, produces a central-plan structure; when churches have only one transept, as at Pershore Abbey, there is a historical disaster, war or funding problem, to explain the anomaly. At Beauvais only the chevet and transepts stand. At St. Vitus Cathedral, only the choir and part of a southern transept were completed until a renewed building campaign in the 19th century; the word "transept" is extended to mean any subsidiary corridor crossing a larger main corridor, such as the cross-halls or "transepts" of The Crystal Palace, London, of glass and iron, built for the Great Exhibition of 1851. In a metro station or similar construction, a transept is a space over the platforms and tracks of a station with side platforms, containing the bridge between the platforms. Placing the bridge in a transept rather than an enclosed tunnel allows passengers to see the platforms, creating a less cramped feeling and making orientation easier.
Aisle Apse Cathedral architecture Cathedral diagram Glossary of the Catholic Church Transom Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Transept". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. Cambridge University Press. P. 172
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 11th century, this date being the most held. In the 12th century it developed into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches. Examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman architecture; the Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture. Combining features of ancient Roman and Byzantine buildings and other local traditions, Romanesque architecture is known by its massive quality, thick walls, round arches, sturdy pillars, barrel vaults, large towers and decorative arcading; each building has defined forms of regular, symmetrical plan. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics and different materials. Many castles were built during this period, but they are outnumbered by churches.
The most significant are the great abbey churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete and in use. The enormous quantity of churches built in the Romanesque period was succeeded by the still busier period of Gothic architecture, which or rebuilt most Romanesque churches in prosperous areas like England and Portugal; the largest groups of Romanesque survivors are in areas that were less prosperous in subsequent periods, including parts of southern France, rural Spain and rural Italy. Survivals of unfortified Romanesque secular houses and palaces, the domestic quarters of monasteries are far rarer, but these used and adapted the features found in church buildings, on a domestic scale. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "Romanesque" means "descended from Roman" and was first used in English to designate what are now called Romance languages; the French term "romane" was first used in the architectural sense by archaeologist Charles de Gerville in a letter of 18 December 1818 to Auguste Le Prévost to describe what Gerville sees as a debased Roman architecture.
In 1824 Gerville's friend Arcisse de Caumont adopted the label "roman" to describe the "degraded" European architecture from the 5th to the 13th centuries, in his Essai sur l'architecture religieuse du moyen-âge, particulièrement en Normandie, at a time when the actual dates of many of the buildings so described had not been ascertained: The name Roman we give to this architecture, which should be universal as it is the same everywhere with slight local differences has the merit of indicating its origin and is not new since it is used to describe the language of the same period. Romance language is degenerated Latin language. Romanesque architecture is debased Roman architecture; the first use in a published work is in William Gunn's An Inquiry into the Origin and Influence of Gothic Architecture. The word was used by Gunn to describe the style, identifiably Medieval and prefigured the Gothic, yet maintained the rounded Roman arch and thus appeared to be a continuation of the Roman tradition of building.
The term is now used for the more restricted period from the late 10th to 12th centuries. The term "Pre-romanesque" is sometimes applied to architecture in Germany of the Carolingian and Ottonian periods and Visigothic and Asturian constructions between the 8th and the 10th centuries in the Iberian Peninsula while "First Romanesque" is applied to buildings in north of Italy and Spain and parts of France that have Romanesque features but pre-date the influence of the Abbey of Cluny. Typical Romanesque architectural forms Buildings of every type were constructed in the Romanesque style, with evidence remaining of simple domestic buildings, elegant town houses, grand palaces, commercial premises, civic buildings, city walls, village churches, abbey churches, abbey complexes and large cathedrals. Of these types of buildings and commercial buildings are the most rare, with only a handful of survivors in the United Kingdom, several clusters in France, isolated buildings across Europe and by far the largest number unidentified and altered over the centuries, in Italy.
Many castles exist, the foundations of. Most have been altered, many are in ruins. By far the greatest number of surviving Romanesque buildings are churches; these range from tiny chapels to large cathedrals. Although many have been extended and altered in different styles, a large number remain either intact or sympathetically restored, demonstrating the form and decoration of Romanesque church architecture; the scope of Romanesque architecture Romanesque architecture was the first distinctive style to spread across Europe since the Roman Empire. With the decline of Rome, Roman building methods survived to an extent in Western Europe, where successive Merovingian and Ottonian architects continued to build large stone buildings such as monastery churches and palaces. In the more northern countries, Roman building styles and techniques had never been adopted except for official buildings, while in Scandinavia they were unknown. Although the round arch continued in use, the engineering skills required to vault large spaces and build large domes were lost.
There was a loss of stylistic continuity apparent in the decline of the formal vocabulary of the Classical Orders. In Rome several great Constantinian basilicas continued in use as an inspiration to builders; some traditions of Rom
Cahors is the capital of the Lot department in south-western France. Its site is dramatic, being contained on three sides within a U-shaped bend in the River Lot known as the presqu'île. Cahors is known as the centre of AOC'black' wine, made since the Middle Ages and exported via Bordeaux, long before that region had developed its own viniculture industry. Cahors has had a rich history since Celtic times; the original name of the town was Divona or Divona Cadurcorum, "Divona of the Cadurci," Divona was a fountain, now called "la fontaine des Chartreux", worshiped by the Cadurci, a Celtic people of Gaul before the Roman conquest in the 50s BC. The Cadurci were among the last Celtic tribes to resist the Roman invasion. Cahors derives from Cadurcorum. However, romanization was rapid and profound: Cahors became a large Roman city, with many monuments whose remnants can be seen today, it has declined economically since the Middle Ages, lost its university in the 18th century. Today it is a popular tourist centre with people coming to enjoy its mediaeval quarter and the 14th-century fortified Valentré bridge.
It is the seat of the Diocese of Cahors. It was infamous at that time for having bankers that charged interest on their loans; the church in these times said. Because of this Cahors became synonymous with this sin, was mentioned in Dante's Inferno alongside Sodom as wicked. Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or d'Euse, was born in Cahors in the son of a shoemaker. In the 2007 Tour de France, Cahors was the start of stage 18; the town is situated 115 km north of Toulouse, on the RN20 / A20, connecting the city, via Limoges to Paris and Orleans. The town's height above sea level is between 332 metres; the area of the town is 64.72 square kilometres, with population density high for France at 309 inhabitants per square kilometre. The Valentré Bridge, the symbol of the town. Building began in 1308 and was completed in 1378; the legend associated with this bridge is one of the most realized of all Devil's Bridge legends, with a developed plot, complex characters, a surprising dénouement. When the bridge was restored in 1879, the architect Paul Gout made reference to this by placing a small sculpture of the devil at the summit of one of the towers.
Cathédrale Saint-Étienne, a national monument. Saint-Barthélémy Church. Maison Henri IV or Hôtel de Roaldès. Daurade quarter with: Maison Hérétié Maison Dolive Maison du Bourreau The barbican that once defended the Barre Gate. Tour des pendus. Palais Duèze. Tower of Pope John XXII. Collège Pélegry. Cloister Arc de Diane, a relic of ancient Roman baths. Roman Amphitheatre – remains of an oval amphitheatre were revealed when the underground car park was excavated at the Place Gambetta, just west of, beneath, Boulevard Gambetta in the city centre; the stone walls can be seen in the car park first level, below the statue of Leon Gambetta, opened to the public in April 2009. The area around Cahors produces wine robust and tannic red wine. Wine from the Cahors appellation must be made from at least 70% Malbec grape, with a maximum of 30% Merlot or Tannat grape varieties; the Cahors Blues Festival has taken place annually, in July, since 1982. Pope John XXII Jules Combarieu, musicologist Communes of the Lot department INSEE commune file Official website Cahors Cathedral at Structurae
A cathedral is a Catholic church that contains the cathedra of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate. The equivalent word in German for such a church is Dom. Churches with the function of "cathedral" are specific to those Christian denominations with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Catholic, Anglican and some Lutheran and Methodist churches. Church buildings embodying the functions of a cathedral first appeared in Italy, Gaul and North Africa in the 4th century, but cathedrals did not become universal within the Western Catholic Church until the 12th century, by which time they had developed architectural forms, institutional structures and legal identities distinct from parish churches, monastic churches and episcopal residences. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the English word "cathedral" translates as katholikon, meaning "assembly", but this title is applied to monastic and other major churches without episcopal responsibilities; when the church at which an archbishop or "metropolitan" presides is intended, the term kathedrikós naós is used.
Following the Protestant Reformation, the Christian church in several parts of Western Europe, such as Scotland, the Netherlands, certain Swiss Cantons and parts of Germany, adopted a Presbyterian polity that did away with bishops altogether. Where ancient cathedral buildings in these lands are still in use for congregational worship, they retain the title and dignity of "cathedral", maintaining and developing distinct cathedral functions, but void of hierarchical supremacy. From the 16th century onwards, but since the 19th century, churches originating in Western Europe have undertaken vigorous programmes of missionary activity, leading to the founding of large numbers of new dioceses with associated cathedral establishments of varying forms in Asia, Australasia and the Americas. In addition, both the Catholic Church and Orthodox churches have formed new dioceses within Protestant lands for converts and migrant co-religionists, it is not uncommon to find Christians in a single city being served by three or more cathedrals of differing denominations.
In the Catholic or Roman Catholic tradition, the term "cathedral" applies only to a church that houses the seat of the bishop of a diocese. The abbey church of a territorial abbacy does not acquire the title. In any other jurisdiction canonically equivalent to a diocese but not canonically erected as such, the church that serves this function is called the "principal church" of the respective entity—though some have coopted the term "cathedral" anyway; the Catholic Church uses the following terms. A pro-cathedral is a parish or other church used temporarily as a cathedral while the cathedral of a diocese is under construction, renovation, or repair; this designation applies. A co-cathedral is a second cathedral in a diocese; this situation can arise in various ways such as a merger of two former dioceses, preparation to split a diocese, or perceived need to perform cathedral functions in a second location due to the expanse of the diocesan territory. A proto-cathedral is the former cathedral of a transferred.
The cathedral church of a metropolitan bishop is called a metropolitan cathedral. The term "cathedral" carries no implication as to the size or ornateness of the building. Most cathedrals are impressive edifices. Thus, the term "cathedral" is applied colloquially to any large and impressive church, regardless of whether it functions as a cathedral, such as the Crystal Cathedral in California or the Arctic Cathedral in Tromsø, Norway. Although the builders of Crystal Cathedral never intended the building to be a true cathedral, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Orange purchased the building and the surrounding campus in February 2012 for use as a new cathedral church; the building is now under renovation and restoration for solemn dedication under the title "Christ Cathedral" in 2019. The word "cathedral" is derived from the French cathédrale, from the Latin cathedra, from the Greek καθέδρα kathédra, "seat, bench", from κατά kata "down" and ἕδρα hedra "seat, chair." The word refers to the presence and prominence of the bishop's or archbishop's chair or throne, raised above both clergy and laity, located facing the congregation from behind the High Altar.
In the ancient world, the chair, on a raised dais, was the distinctive mark of a teacher or rhetor and thus symbolises the bishop's role as teacher. A raised throne within a basilican hall was definitive for a Late Antique presiding magistrate; the episcopal throne embodies the principle that only a bishop makes a cathedral, this still applies in those churches that no longer have bishops, but retain cathedral dignity and functions in ancient churches over which bishops presided. But the throne can embody the principle that a cathedral makes a bishop.
Flamboyant is the name given to a florid style of late Gothic architecture in vogue in France from about 1350, until it was superseded by Renaissance architecture during the early 16th century. The term has been used to describe French buildings and sometimes the early period of English Gothic architecture called the Decorated Style. A version of the style spread to Portugal during the 15th century, it evolved from the Rayonnant style and the English Decorated Style and was marked by greater attention to decoration and the use of double curved tracery. The term was first used by Eustache-Hyacinthe Langlois, like all the terms mentioned in this paragraph except "Sondergotik" describes the style of window tracery, much the easiest way of distinguishing within the overall Gothic period, but ignores other aspects of style. In England the part of the period is known as Perpendicular architecture. In Germany Sondergotik is the more usual term; the name derives from the flame-like windings of its tracery and the dramatic lengthening of gables and the tops of arches.
A key feature is the ogee arch, originating in Beverley Minster, England around 1320, which spread to York and Durham, although the form was never used in England, being superseded by the rise of the Perpendicular style around 1350. A possible point of connection between the early English work and the development in France is the church at Chaumont; the Manueline in Portugal, the Isabelline in Spain were more extravagant continuations of the style in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. In the past the Flamboyant style, along with its antecedent Rayonnant, has been disparaged by critics. More some have sought to rehabilitate it. William W Clark commented: The Flamboyant is the most neglected period of Gothic architecture because of the prejudices of past generations; the time has come to look anew at Late Gothic architecture. Abbeville, St. Vulfran Collegiate Church Auch, Auch Cathedral Beauvais and chapels of the Church of Saint-Étienne de Beauvais Bourg-en-Bresse, Royal Monastery of Brou Caudebec-en-Caux, Church of Notre-Dame L'Épine, Notre-Dame de l'Épine Évreux, north transept of Évreux Cathedral Louviers, Notre-Dame de Louviers Nantes, Nantes Cathedral Paris, Church of Saint-Séverin Paris, Saint-Jacques Tower, bell tower of the former church of Saint-Jacques de la Boucherie Pont-de-l'Arche, Notre-Dame-des-Arts Rouen, Rouen Cathedral Rouen, Church of Saint-Maclou Rouen, abbey-church of Saint-Ouen Rue, Chapel of Saint-Esprit Saint-Nicolas-de-Port, Basilica of Saint-Nicolas Saint-Riquier, Abbey Senlis, transepts of Senlis Cathedral Sens, Sens Cathedral Thann, St Theobald's Church Toul, west façade of Toul Cathedral Tours, Tours Cathedral Vendôme, west façade of the Abbaye de la Trinité Vincennes, Sainte-Chapelle.
Beaune, hospices Beauvais, former episcopal palace Bourges, palace of Jacques-Cœur Paris, Hôtel de Cluny Paris, Hôtel de Sens Rouen, Palais de Justice St. Lorenz, Germany Milan Cathedral, a rare Italian building in the style, adopted fully here Vladislav Hall in Prague Castle, Czech Republic Seville Cathedral, Spain Batalha Monastery, Portugal Brussels Town Hall, Belgium Leuven Town Hall, Belgium Church of St. Anne, Lithuania French Gothic architecture Gothic architecture International Gothic Romano-Gothic Isabeline Gothic Manueline Perpendicular Sondergotik Yves Bottineau-Fuchs, Haute-Normandie Gothique: Architecture Religieuse. Paris: Picard, 2001. Ethan Matt Kavaler, Renaissance Gothic: Architecture and the Arts in Northern Europe, 1470-1540. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. Steven James Kerrigan, "Normandy's role in the development of the Flamboyant style: decoration and exchange in Late Gothic architecture." PhD diss. University of Iowa, 2013. Linda Elaine Neagley, Disciplined Exuberance: The Parish Church of Saint-Maclou and Late Gothic Architecture in Rouen.
University Park, Penn: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998. Roland Sanfaçon, L'architecture Flamboyante en France. Quebec: Les Presses de l'Université Laval, 1971