East Hollywood, Los Angeles
East Hollywood is a densely populated neighborhood of 78,000+ residents in the central region of Los Angeles, California. It is notable for being the site of Los Angeles City College, Barnsdall Park and a hospital district. There are seven public and five private schools, as well as a branch of the Los Angeles Public Library and three hospitals. Two-thirds of the people living there were born outside the United States and 90% were renters. In 2000 the neighborhood had high percentages of single parents. In the early 20th century, the East Hollywood area was a farming village that encompassed some of what is now Los Feliz. Parts of the neighborhood were known as "Prospect Park." In 1910 the towns of Hollywood and East Hollywood approved annexation to the City of Los Angeles in order to tap into the city water supply. In 1914, Children's Hospital was relocated from downtown LA to Sunset Boulevard. In 1916 steel magnate Andrew Carnegie donated the money to construct the Cahuenga Branch of the Los Angeles Public Library on Santa Monica Boulevard.
In the early 1920s, Barnsdall Park was built. The 1920s were a time of massive immigration into East Hollywood. Armenian immigrants established the community, now Little Armenia; the University of California Southern Branch, needing more space, moved west at the end of the 1920s to a ranch called Westwood and became UCLA. The old Southern Branch campus became Los Angeles Junior College, renamed Los Angeles City College. In 1930 Cedars of Lebanon Hospital was formed when Kaspare Cohn Hospital moved from East Los Angeles to a new building on Fountain Avenue and was renamed. US 101, the Hollywood Freeway, was built between 1947 and 1949. In the summer of 1999 three Metro Red Line subway stations opened, connecting East Hollywood more efficiently to the rest of the city; the 2000 U. S. census counted 73,967 residents in the 2.38-square-mile East Hollywood neighborhood—or 31,095 people per square mile, the third-highest population density in the city. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 78,192.
In 2000 the median age for residents was 31, about average for county neighborhoods. The neighborhood was "moderately diverse" ethnically within Los Angeles, the statistics being Latino people of any race, 60.4%. El Salvador and Mexico were the most common places of birth for the 66.5% of the residents who were born abroad—which was a high percentage compared to Los Angeles as a whole. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $29,927, considered low for the city, high percentages of households earned $40,000 or less. Renters occupied 91.3% of the housing stock, house- or apartment-owners held 8.7%. The average household size of three people was average for Los Angeles; the percentages of never-married women and men were among the county's highest. One-fifth of the 3,281 families were headed by a high rate for Los Angeles. In 2000 there were 1,509 veterans, or 2.8% of the population, a low rate compared with the rest of the city and county. These were the ten neighborhoods or cities in Los Angeles County with the highest population densities, according to the 2000 census, with the population per square mile: East Hollywood borders Los Feliz to the north and Silver Lake, about 4 miles from Downtown Los Angeles to the east.
It borders Wilshire Center to the south and Hollywood on the west. East Hollywood includes the smaller communities of Little Armenia and Melrose Hill. East Hollywood is served by the Red Line subway which runs north-south along Vermont Avenue and east-west along Hollywood Boulevard. Metro subway stations include: Vermont/Beverly Vermont/Santa Monica Vermont/Sunset Hollywood/WesternOver a dozen bus lines run on the major thoroughfares, including Metro's Rapid and Local service lines. Los Angeles Department of Transportation's DASH shuttle lines, serving East Hollywood and the Griffith Observatory operate in the area; the 101/Hollywood Freeway cuts northwest from downtown Los Angeles, through Hollywood, to the San Fernando Valley. Thirteen percent of East Hollywood residents aged 25 and older had earned a four-year degree by 2000, an average figure for the city and the county, but the percentage of residents with less than a high school diploma was high for the county. Schools within East Hollywood's borders are: Charles Bukowski, writer Leonardo DiCaprio and film producer Harry Northup and actor List of districts and neighborhoods of Los Angeles Hollywood, California West Hollywood, California North Hollywood, Los Angeles East Hollywood Neighborhood Council EastHollywood.net "This is East Hollywood", seven-minute video East Hollywood crime map and statistics
San Fernando Valley
The San Fernando Valley is an urbanized valley in Los Angeles County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, defined by the mountains of the Transverse Ranges circling it. Home to 1.77 million people, it is north of the more populous Los Angeles Basin. Nearly two thirds of the valley's land area is part of the city of Los Angeles; the other incorporated cities in the valley are Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas. The San Fernando Valley is about 260 square miles bound by the Santa Susana Mountains to the northwest, the Simi Hills to the west, the Santa Monica Mountains and Chalk Hills to the south, the Verdugo Mountains to the east, the San Gabriel Mountains to the northeast; the northern Sierra Pelona Mountains, northwestern Topatopa Mountains, southern Santa Ana Mountains, Downtown Los Angeles skyscrapers can be seen from higher neighborhoods and parks in the San Fernando Valley. The Los Angeles River begins at the confluence of Calabasas Creek and Bell Creek, between Canoga Park High School and Owensmouth Ave. in Canoga Park.
These creeks' headwaters are in the Santa Monica Calabasas foothills, the Simi Hills' Hidden Hills, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Santa Susana Pass Park lands. The river flows eastward along the southern regions of the Valley. One of the river's two unpaved sections can be found at the Sepulveda Basin. A seasonal river, the Tujunga Wash, drains much of the western facing San Gabriel Mountains and passes into and through the Hansen Dam Recreation Center in Lake View Terrace, it flows south along the Verdugo Mountains through the eastern communities of the valley to join the Los Angeles River in Studio City. Other notable tributaries of the river include Dayton Creek, Caballero Creek, Bull Creek, Pacoima Wash, Verdugo Wash; the elevation of the floor of the valley varies from about 600 ft to 1,200 ft above sea level. Most of the San Fernando Valley is within the jurisdiction of the city of Los Angeles, although a few other incorporated cities are located within the valley as well: Burbank and Glendale are in the southeastern corner of the valley, Hidden Hills and Calabasas are in the southwestern corner, San Fernando, surrounded by Los Angeles, is in the northeastern valley.
Universal City, an enclave in the southern part of the valley, is unincorporated land housing the Universal Studios filming lot and theme park. Mulholland Drive, which runs along the ridgeline of the Santa Monica Mountains, marks the boundary between the valley and the communities of Hollywood and the Los Angeles Westside; the valley's natural habitat is a "temperate grasslands and shrublands biome" of grassland, oak savanna, chaparral shrub forest types of plant community habitats, along with lush riparian plants along the river and springs. In this Mediterranean climate, post-1790s European agriculture for the mission's support consisted of grapes, figs and general garden crops; the San Fernando Valley contains five incorporated cities—Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas—and part of a sixth, Los Angeles, which governs a majority of the valley. The unincorporated communities are governed by the County of Los Angeles; the Los Angeles city section of the valley is divided into seven city council districts: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12.
Of the 95 neighborhood councils in the city, 34 are in the valley. The valley is represented in the California State Legislature by seven members of the State Assembly and five members of the State Senate; the valley falls into four congressional districts: the 28th, 29th, 30th, 33rd, represented by Adam Schiff, Tony Cárdenas, Brad Sherman, Ted Lieu. In the Los Angeles County board of supervisors, it is represented by two supervisorial districts, with the western portion represented by Sheila Kuehl and the eastern portion by Kathryn Barger; the San Fernando Valley, for the most part, tends to support Democrats in state and national elections. This is true in the southern areas, which include Sherman Oaks and the city of Burbank; the Los Angeles satellite administrative center for the valley, The Civic Center Van Nuys, is in Van Nuys. The area in and around the Van Nuys branch of Los Angeles City Hall is home to a police station and superior courts and Los Angeles city and county administrative offices.
Northridge is home to Northridge. Many branches of the Los Angeles Public Library are located in the valley. For independent libraries see "Incorporated Cities" in the "Municipalities and districts" list below. Los Angeles Police Department, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, independent valley city departments. Los Angeles Fire Department, Los Angeles County Fire Department, Burbank Police Department, independent valley city departments. City of Los Angeles neighborhood councils The Tongva known as the Gabrieleño Mission Indians after colonization, the Tataviam to the north and Chumash to the west, had lived and thrived in the valley and its arroyos for over 8,000 years, they had numerous settlements, trading and hunting camps, before the Spanish arrived in 1769 to settle in the Valley. The first Spanish land grant in the San Fernando Valley was called "Rancho Encino", in the northern part of the San Fernando Valley. Juan Francisco Reyes built an adobe dwelling beside a Tongva village or rancheria at natural springs, but the land was soon taken from him so that a mission could be built there
Los Angeles Basin
The Los Angeles Basin is a sedimentary basin located in southern California, in a region known as the Peninsular Ranges. The basin is connected to an anomalous group of east-west trending chains of mountains collectively known as the California Transverse Ranges; the present basin is a coastal lowland area, whose floor is marked by elongate low ridges and groups of hills, located on the edge of the Pacific plate. The Los Angeles Basin, along with the Santa Barbara Channel, the Ventura Basin, the San Fernando Valley, the San Gabriel Basin, lies within the greater southern California region. On the north and east, the lowland basin is bound by the Santa Monica Mountains and Puente, Repetto hills. To the southeast, the basin is bordered by the San Joaquin Hills; the western boundary of the basin is marked by the Continental Borderland and is part of the onshore portion. The California borderland is characterized by north-west trending offshore basins; the Los Angeles Basin is notable for its great structural relief and complexity in relation to its geologic youth and small size for its prolific oil production.
Yerkes et al. identify 5 major stages of the basin's evolution that begins in the Upper Cretaceous and ends in the Pleistocene. This basin can be classified as an irregular pull-apart basin accompanied by rotational tectonics during the post-early Miocene. Before the formation of the basin, the area that encompasses the Los Angeles basin began above ground. A rapid transgression and regression of the shoreline moved the area to a shallow marine environment. Tectonic instability coupled with volcanic activity in subsiding areas during the Middle Miocene set the stage for the modern basin; the basin formed in a submarine environment and was brought back above sea level when the rate of subsidence slowed. There is much discussion in the literature about the geologic time boundaries when each basin forming event took place. While exact ages may not be clear, Yerkes et al. provided a general timeline to categorize the sequence of depositional events in the LA Basin's evolution and they are as follows: During pre-Turonian, metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks are present that serve as the two major basement rock units for the LA Basin.
Large-scale movement along the Newport–Inglewood zone juxtaposed the two bedrock units along the east and west margins. During this phase, the basin was above sea level; the hallmarks of this phase were successive shoreline regression cycles. Deposition of older marine and non-marine sediments began to fill the basin. Towards the end of this phase, the shoreline began to retreat and deposition continued. After the deposition of the pre-Turonian units, there was a large emergence and erosion that can be observed as a major unconformity at the base of the middle Miocene units. Emergence did not occur in all sections of the basin. During this time, the basin was covered by a marine embayment. Rivers sourced in the highlands brought large amounts of detritus to the northeastern edge of the basin. During this period, the Topanga formation was being deposited; the present form and structural relief of the basin was established during this phase of accelerated subsidence and deposition which occurred during the late Miocene and continued through the early Pleistocene.
Clastic sedimentary rocks from the highland areas moved down the submarine slopes and infilled the basin floor. Subsidence and sedimentation most began in the southern portion basin. Subsidence and Deposition occurred without interruption, until the late Pliocene; until the rate of deposition overtook the rate of subsidence, the sea level began to fall. Towards the end of this phase, the margins of the basin began to rise above sea level. During the early Pleistocene, deposition began to outpace subsidence in the depressed parts of the basin and the shoreline began to move southward; this phase had movement along the Newport–Inglewood fault zone that resulted in the initiation of the modern basin. This movement caused the southwestern block to be uplifted relative to the central basin block; the central part of the basin continued to experience sediment deposition through the Pleistocene from flooding and erosional debris from the surrounding mountains and Puente Hills. This infill was responsible for the final retreat of the shoreline from the basin.
Deposition in the Holocene is characterized by non marine gravel and silt. This phase includes the late stage compressional deformation responsible for the formation of the hydrocarbon traps. Four major faults are present in the region and divide the basin in the central, northwest and northeast structural blocks; these blocks not only denote their geographic location, but they indicate the strata present and major structural features. The southwestern block was uplifted prior to the middle Miocene and is composed of marine strata and contains two major anticlines; this block contains the steeply-dipping Palos Verdes Hills fault zone. The middle Miocene volcanics can be seen locally within the southwest block; the northwestern block consists of clastic marine sediments of Late Cretaceous to Pleistocene age. Middle Miocene volcanics are present; this block has a broad anticline, truncated by the Santa Monica fault zone. The central block contains both marine and non-marine clastic rock units interbedded with volcanic rocks that are late Cretaceous to Pliocene in age.
Pliocene and Quaternary strata are most visible within the central block. Structurally, there is a synclinal trough; the northeastern block contains fine to coarse grained clastic marine rocks of Cenozoic age. Locally, middle Mi
The Hollywood Bowl is an amphitheater in the Hollywood Hills neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. It was named one of the 10 best live music venues in America by Rolling Stone Magazine in 2018; the Hollywood Bowl is known for its band shell, a distinctive set of concentric arches that graced the site from 1929 through 2003, before being replaced with a larger one beginning in the 2004 season. The shell is set against the backdrop of the Hollywood Hills and the famous Hollywood Sign to the northeast; the "bowl" refers to the shape of the concave hillside. The Bowl is owned by the County of Los Angeles and is the home of the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra, the summer home of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the host venue to hundreds of musical events each year, it is located at 2301 North Highland Avenue, west of the French Village, north of Hollywood Boulevard and the Hollywood/Highland subway station, south of Route 101. The site of the Hollywood Bowl was chosen in 1919 by William Reed and his son H. Ellis Reed, who were dispatched to find a suitable location for outdoor performances by the members of the newly formed Theatre Arts Alliance headed by Christine Wetherill Stevenson.
The Reeds selected a natural amphitheater, a shaded canyon and popular picnic spot known as'Daisy Dell' in Bolton Canyon, chosen for its natural acoustics and its proximity to downtown Hollywood. The Community Park and Art Association headed by F. W. Blanchard, was the first organization to begin the building the Bowl. One of the earliest performances at the Bowl was Hollywood High School’s Performance of Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night; the Women’s World Peace Concert was held on November 11, 1921. On November 11, 1921 the first Sunrise Service took place at the bowl, in one of its first major events. With the building of the first actual stage, consisting of little more than wooden platforms in and canvas, The Bowl opened on July 11, 1922; the Bowl began as a community space rather than a owned establishment. Proceeds from the early events at the Bowl went to financing the construction of new elements of the bowl such as a stage and seating in 1922 and 1923 respectively. In 1924, a backdrop to the stage was added.
During the early years of the Bowl’s existence, concert tickets were kept at the lowest available price of 25 cents using the slogan popular prices will prevail, coined by F. W. Blanchard. While serving as the venue for concerts by the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the Bowl served as a community space, being used for Easter services, the Hollywood Community Chorus, as well as Young Artists Nights where younger musicians could perform well known classical music. Children were invited to perform at community events with the Los Angeles Philharmonic and the Hollywood Community Chorus, beginning with Sibelius’ Finlandia in 1921; the Bowl was home to much more than western music, hosting a variety of Native American tribal events, as well as international music ensembles. In 1924, the land was deeded to the County of Los Angeles. Many of the key influential figures in the founding of the Hollywood Bowl were women, most notably the pianist Artie Mason Carter, whose connections with the Los Angeles arts patrons were vital in the early days of the Bowls existence.
Christine Wetherill Stevenson and Marie Rankin Clarke, who both donated $21,000 to purchase the land on which the bowl was built. E. J. Wakeman, Leiland Atherton Irish, Harriet Clay Penman, composers Gertrude Ross and Carrie Jacobs Bond all contributed to the Bowl through fundraising drives. Lloyd Wright designed the third band shells; the original 1926 shell, designed by the Allied Architects group, was considered unacceptable both visually and acoustically. Wright's 1927 shell had a pyramidal shape and a design reminiscent of southwest American Indian architecture, its acoustics were regarded as the best of any shell in Bowl history. But its appearance was considered too avant-garde, or only ugly, it was demolished at the end of the season, his 1928 wooden shell had the now-familiar concentric ring motif, covered a 120-degree arc, was designed to be dismantled. It was neglected and ruined by water damage. For the 1929 season, the Allied Architects built the shell that stood until 2003, using a transite skin over a metal frame.
Its acoustics, though not nearly as good as those of the Lloyd Wright shells, were deemed satisfactory at first, its clean lines and white, semicircular arches were copied for music shells elsewhere. As the acoustics deteriorated, various measures were used to mitigate the problems, starting in the 1970s with an inner shell made from large cardboard tubes, which were replaced in the early 1980s by large fiberglass spheres that remained until 2003; these dampened out the unfavorable acoustics, but required massive use of electronic amplification to reach the full audience since the background noise level had risen since the 1920s. The appearance underwent other, purely visual, changes as well, including the addition of a broad outer arch where it had once had only a narrow rim, a reflecting pool in front of the stage that lasted from 1953 till 1972. Sculptor George Stanley, designer of the Oscar statuette, designed the Muse Fountain which has stood outside the Hollywood Bowl's main entrance since 1940.
Shortly after the end of the 2003 summer season the 1929 shell was replaced with a new, somewhat larger, acoustically improved shell, which had its debut in the 2004 summer season. Preservationists fiercely opposed the demolition for many years; however when it was built, the 1929 shell was (at least aco
Cahuenga Boulevard is a major boulevard of northern Los Angeles, California, US. The name is derived from Cahuenga, the Spanish name for the Tongva village of Kawengna, meaning "place of the mountain", it connects Sunset Boulevard in the heart of old Hollywood to the Hollywood Hills and North Hollywood in the San Fernando Valley. Cahuenga Boulevard begins at West Victory Boulevard in North Hollywood, crosses the Ventura Freeway and the Los Angeles River as it temporarily merges with Lankershim Boulevard before passing the Campo de Cahuenga and Universal City Metro station crossing the Hollywood Freeway. At this point an intersection is formed with Ventura Boulevard to the northwest and the continuation of Cahuenga Boulevard to the southeast. From here it parallels the Hollywood Freeway, and Universal Studios Hollywood, rising over the Cahuenga Pass connecting the San Fernando Valley to the Los Angeles Basin. Crossing the freeway once again on the Pilgrimage Bridge near The Hollywood Bowl, it continues down to Sunset Boulevard and Melrose Avenue in downtown Hollywood.
The boulevard is one of the principal routes to Universal Studios from downtown Los Angeles. The southern part of Cahuenga Boulevard has been referred to as the "heart of old Hollywood"; the intersection between Cahuenga and Hollywood Boulevards had been an important intersection from the early history of Los Angeles, by 1915 it had a trolley stop, a bank and a hardware store. Trolley cars were used on the boulevards until the 1960s. A number of important Los Angeles buildings were located on the road including the Technicolor building from the 1940s through the 1960s and the World Book and News building; the Owl Drug Company at 6380–84 Hollywood Boulevard on the south-west corner of Cahuenga Boulevard was a notable Californian company in the 1930s. At the intersection of Cahuenga Boulevard with Yucca Street, just off of Hollywood Boulevard was the Halifax Hotel, owned by world-famous classical pianist Van Cliburn; the Buster Keaton studio belonging to Charlie Chaplin, was located on Lillian Way, one block east of the boulevard.
The boulevard appears in several of his films. 1542 Cahuenga Boulevard, which adjoined the Toribuchi Grocery at 1546, appeared in the 1921 Keaton film The Goat, which featured Keaton running from the police past them. It is now a strip mall. In another Keaton film, Three Ages, Keaton is seen running from the police past the Los Angeles Police Department Hollywood building and former fire station, now the location of Edmonds Tower at 1629. Today, numerous nightclubs and restaurants are dotted along the boulevard south of Franklin Avenue. Notable clubs on Cahuenga include The Room, Hotel Café, Velvet Margarita, many others; the Hotel Café, at 1623 1/2 N. Cahuenga Blvd, is owned by Marko Shafer and Maximillian Mamikunian and opened in 2000; the Baked Potato, one of the city's most prominent jazz clubs, is situated near the intersection with the Hollywood Freeway, the Hollywood Theatre of Note is on the boulevard. At 1355 North Cahuenga Boulevard is the Los Angeles Fire Department Museum and Memorial, a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument and National Register of Historic Places building, built in the Neo-Renaissance style in 1930.
Builders Of The Broad Highway Film showing Cahuenga Parkway c1940 construction LAistory: Pilgrimage Bridge Cahuenga Parkway completion details
Universal City, California
Universal City is an unincorporated area within the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles County, United States. 415 acres within and around the surrounding area is the property of Universal Pictures, one of the six major film studios in the United States: about 70 percent of the studio's property is inside this unincorporated area, while the remaining 30 percent is within the Los Angeles city limits. Located within the area of Universal City is the Universal Studios Hollywood film studio and theme park, as well as the Universal CityWalk shopping and entertainment center. Within the Los Angeles city limits lies 10 Universal City Plaza, a 36-floor office building for Universal and NBC; the Metro Red Line underground station of the same name is located opposite the 10 Universal Plaza. A Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department station is located at Universal CityWalk, the community houses the only government-funded fire station located on private property; the Los Angeles County Fire Department Station 51 is of special significance to Universal, as "Station 51" was the fictional setting of the Universal and Jack Webb television series Emergency!.
However, the current Station 51 was not used for external shots, or used as a model for the interior shots seen on the show. Universal City's ZIP code is 91608, the community is inside area code 818. Carl Laemmle opened the Second Universal City on March 15, 1915, on the 230-acre Taylor Ranch property. At the launch event, in what is now the North Hollywood area, a crowd of men and women eagerly awaited the display of the film stages, daredevil stunt pilots and silent film idols, as well as the movie cameras Laemmle had brought along. "See how slapstick comedies are made. See your favorite screen stars do their work. See how we make the people laugh or cry or sit on the edge of their chairs the world over!" Stated a poster touting Universal's opening. "C'mon out! Aw, c'mon!"Laemmle, a German immigrant, was Universal Pictures' founder who opened his first nickelodeon in Chicago in 1906. He moved to New York City, where he soon joined half a dozen small motion picture companies to create the movie company he called Universal Pictures.
In 1912, Laemmle operated three small studios - Bison and Oak Crest Ranch. After a court battle with New York Motion Picture Company, control of the Bison lot was returned to the New York Motion Picture Company; the court allowed Carl Laemmle to retain use of the name "Bison" as "Bison 101" for his westerns, which were filmed on the Oak Crest property in the San Fernando Valley. The Oak Crest Ranch is; the Providencia Land and Water company, called "Oak Crest Ranch" in the trade papers, became the first Universal City location. In 1913, Laemmle consolidated the Nestor studio and Oak Crest ranch property, his first Universal City was too small, so he ordered a search for a new and larger property in the valley, a location with more space. Laemmle leased Providencia ranchland in the San Fernando Valley in 1912. If it was a city, it was a haphazard one: with the help of nearly 300 movie hands and actors, Laemmle erected makeshift buildings, set up cameras and began churning out hundreds of one- and two-reel silent westerns.
Other studio chiefs called the place "Laemmle's Folly", mocking that the property was so far out of town and that Laemmle could film scenery for free anywhere he wanted. Laemmle worried that he had made a huge mistake, though Universal was a success because the public could observe movies being made. In the meantime, Laemmle added a zoo to the Oak Crest Ranch –, open to visitors to generate free advertising by word of mouth; the Rotarians of Los Angeles were one of the groups permitted to visit the Oak Crest - Universal City. The Oak Crest ranch being too small for his larger Universal City, Laemmle bought the Lankershim Land and Water property, the 230-acre Taylor Ranch for $165,000, calling it his "New Universal City". In 1914, operations at The Oak Ranch were moved to the Taylor ranch; the Universal ranch zoo was moved to the Back Ranch of the Lankershim property. The new Universal City was opened for Universal staff in 1914. Laemmle went on an eight-day whistle-stop tour from Chicago to Los Angeles the week before Universal City's grand public opening.
His promoters sold the grand lie that Laemmle had persuaded the Secretary of the Navy to send a battleship up the Los Angeles River to fire a salvo on opening day. Easterners, would believe anything they heard about California. After World War I, Laemmle brought more kin over from war-torn Europe, increasing the payroll to 70, his cheerful nepotism was immortalized in humorist Ogden Nash's couplet: Uncle Carl Laemmle has a large faemmle. Carl Laemmle was responsible for creating the "star system" rather than just using anonymous actors in films. Laemmle was forced to end studio tours in the 1920s, when talkies came along and "quiet on the set" became an absolute, he sold his sprawling entertainment empire in 1936. Before his death in 1939, at age 72, he helped bring more than 200 German-Jewish refugees to Los Angeles. A nephew, founded the local Laemmle Theatres chain. Universal City did not welcome tourists again until July 15, 1964, with the opening of the Universal Studios Hollywood theme park and its included Studio Tour.
The next few decades saw the arrival of hotel
Culture of Los Angeles
The culture of Los Angeles is rich with arts and ethnically diverse. The greater Los Angeles metro area has several notable art museums including the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the J. Paul Getty Museum on the Santa Monica mountains overlooking the Pacific, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the Hammer Museum and the Norton Simon Museum. In the 1920s and 1930s Will Durant and Ariel Durant, Arnold Schoenberg and other intellectuals were the representatives of culture, in addition to the movie writers and directors; as the city flourished financially in the middle of the 20th century, culture followed. Boosters such as Dorothy Buffum Chandler and other philanthropists raised funds for the establishment of art museums, music centers and theaters. Today, the Southland cultural scene is as complex and varied as any in the world. While the cuisines of many cultures have taken root in Los Angeles, it is the home of the Cobb Salad, invented in the Brown Derby restaurant in Hollywood, the French-Dip sandwich, originated early in the 20th Century by either Cole's Pacific Electric Buffet or Phillippe's—both of which still exist downtown, the ice blended coffee drink by Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf and Original Tommy's Hamburger.
The strength of the city's scene is in "ethnic" dining and it is considered to be one of the most dynamic scenes in the world in terms of range and depth. Los Angeles has an enormous variety of restaurants. In its predominantly African American neighborhoods are soul food restaurants such as Roscoe's House of Chicken and Waffles. According to Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America, Los Angeles "remains the United States's preeminent city to eat regional Mexican food."Given its close proximity to Asia and constant flow of Asian immigrants, Asian food has the largest foothold in Los Angeles after Mexican cuisine. Japanese, Chinese and Thai restaurants are common place. Japanese food in particular is a staple of Los Angeles' haute cuisine scene with places like Urasawa in Beverly Hills, Nobu in Malibu and Koi in Hollywood; the city of Torrance, with its huge Asian-American population, seems to have the largest concentration of Asian restaurants while the city of Glendale, has the among highest concentration of Persian restaurants in the country.
California-styled cuisine is considered to be influenced by Asian seafood, as well as by Mediterranean cooking. More prevalent than Asian food is Mexican and other Hispanic cuisines. In 2018, PETA declared Los Angeles to be the "most vegan-friendly city" in the world. See List of museums in Los Angeles There are 841 museums and art galleries in Los Angeles County. In fact, Los Angeles has more museums per capita than any other city in the world; some of the notable museums are the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Getty Center, the Battleship Iowa, the Museum of Contemporary Art. A significant number of art galleries are located on Gallery Row, tens of thousands attend the monthly Downtown Art Walk there. In 1943, a community-run arts association in Pasadena merged with the better funded Pasadena Art Institute and moved into what is now the home of the Pacific Asia Museum. Renamed the Pasadena Art Museum, it organized some of the most adventurous and cutting edge shows of contemporary art in the region, notably, an early Pop art show in 1962, a Marcel Duchamp retrospective in 1963.
Although the city had a long tradition of visual arts supported by private collectors and galleries, Los Angeles did not have a comprehensive museum of art until 1965, when LACMA opened its doors. At about the same time, La Cienega Boulevard became home to many art galleries, most notably Ferus, featuring works by artists who lived in the area, Dwan Gallery, Riko Mizuno Gallery. Although Andy Warhol was New York based, the famous "soup cans" were first exhibited at Ferus. A local exponent of pop art was Ed Ruscha, some of whose work was representational, others consisted of simple slogans or mottoes which were humorous, being so far out of the context where such statements would appear. An example of this is Nice Hot Vegetables Larry Bell, for example, explored the interaction of a sculpture to its environment, demonstrating that the boundaries are not clear. David Hockney, an English immigrant, produced figurative paintings set in idyllic Southern California locales, such as swimming pools in the bright sunlight, belonging to modernist houses.
Although these paintings are representational, they seem to be composed of small color patches, somewhat like collages. Finish Fetish—a style that emphasized gleaming surfaces—and Light and Space—art about perception—were other Ferus-bred styles that allowed L. A. to distinguish itself from the rest of the art world. It was during this period that the contemporary arts scene in Los Angeles began to command the attention of collectors and museum directors internationally; some of the most respected art museums in the world can be found in Los Angeles. They include the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Broad, the J. Paul Getty Museum, the Norton Simon Museum, the Huntington Library art collection and botanical gardens, the Hammer Museum at the University of California, Los Angeles. Los Angeles is known for its expansive collections of contemporary art- the Museum of Contemporary Art has three separate incarnations: the Geffen Contemporary, for larger installation pieces by more renowned artists, the MOCA Downtown, its standard collection, the Pacific Palisades, a large, multi-purpose building in modernist style that houses offices as well as stores and showrooms for contemporary graphic design and interior design.
Other smaller art museums in