El Silencio (album)
El silencio is the third studio album by Mexican rock band Caifanes, released on May 29, 1992. It was produced by Adrian Belew; this is the last Caifanes album to feature bassist Sabo Romo and keyboardist/saxophonist Diego Herrera. All tracks written except where noted. Saúl Hernández - vocals, electric guitar Sabo Romo - electric bass, acoustic guitar Diego Herrera - keyboards, percussion, jarana Alfonso André - drums, percussion Alejandro Marcovich - lead guitar, requinto jarocho, ebow Adrian Belew - guitar solo on "Piedra"
Mucuna pruriens is a tropical legume native to Africa and tropical Asia and naturalized and cultivated. Its English common names include velvet bean, Bengal velvet bean, Florida velvet bean, Mauritius velvet bean, Yokohama velvet bean, cowitch, lacuna bean, Lyon bean; the plant is notorious for the extreme itchiness it produces on contact with the young foliage and the seed pods. It is used in herbalism; the plant is an annual climbing shrub with long vines. When the plant is young, it is completely covered with fuzzy hairs, but when older, it is completely free of hairs; the leaves are tripinnate, reverse ovate, rhombus-shaped or ovate. The sides of the leaves are heavily grooved and the tips are pointy. In young M. pruriens plants, both sides of the leaves have hairs. The stems of the leaflets are two to three millimeters long. Additional adjacent leaves are about 5 millimetres long; the flower heads take the form of axially arrayed panicles. They have two or three, or many flowers; the accompanying leaves are about 12.5 millimetres long, the flower stand axes are from 2.5–5 millimetres.
The bell silky. The sepals are longer or of the same length as the shuttles; the crown is white. The flag is 1.5 millimetres long. The wings are 2.5–3.8 centimetres long. In the fruit-ripening stage, a 4–13 centimetres long, 1–2 centimetres wide, leguminous fruit develops. There is a ridge along the length of the fruit; the husk is hairy and carries up to seven seeds. The seeds are flattened uniform ellipsoids, 1–1.9 centimetres long.8–1.3 centimetres wide and 4–6.5 centimetres thick. The hilum, the base of the funiculus is a surrounded by a significant arillus. M.pruriens bears lavender, or purple flowers. Its seed pods are about 10 cm long and are covered in loose, orange hairs that cause a severe itch if they come in contact with skin; the itch is caused by a protein known as mucunain. The seeds are shiny brown drift seeds; the dry weight of the seeds is 55–85 grams /100 seeds. In many parts of the world Mucuna pruriens is used as an important forage and green manure crop. Since the plant is a legume, it fixes fertilizes soil.
In Indonesia Java, the beans are eaten and known as'Benguk'. The beans can be fermented to form a food similar to tempe and known as Benguk tempe or'tempe Benguk'. M. pruriens is a widespread fodder plant in the tropics. To that end, the whole plant dried hay or dried seeds. M. pruriens silage contains 11-23% crude protein, 35-40% crude fiber, the dried beans 20-35% crude protein. It has use in the countries of Benin and Vietnam as a biological control for problematic Imperata cylindrica grass. M. pruriens is said to not be invasive outside its cultivated area. However, the plant is invasive within conservation areas of South Florida, where it invades disturbed land and rockland hammock edge habitats. M. pruriens is sometimes used as a coffee substitute. Cooked fresh shoots or beans can be eaten; the plant contains high levels of L-DOPA. Up to 99% of the L-DOPA can be leached out of M. pruriens by repeated soaking in boiling water and cold water. Acidic water increases the rate at which L-DOPA is leached out.
Pre-boiling contributes to better decomposition of anti-nutrients found in M. pruriens through cooking. The seeds of Mucuna pruriens have been used for treating many dysfunctions in Tibb-e-Unani, it is used in Ayurvedic medicine. The plant and its extracts have been long used in tribal communities as a toxin antagonist for various snakebites, it has been studied for its effects against bites by Naja spp. Echis and Bangarus, it has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine in an attempt to treat diseases including Parkinson's disease. It has been investigated in low income regions of the world as an alternative treatment for Parkinson's disease due to its high content of the neurotransmitter L-dopa. Dried leaves of M. pruriens are sometimes smoked. The hairs lining the seed pods contain serotonin and the protein mucunain which cause severe itching when the pods are touched; the calyx below the flowers is a source of itchy spicules and the stinging hairs on the outside of the seed pods are used in some brands of itching powder.
Scratching the exposed area can spread the itching to other areas touched. Once this happens, the subject tends to scratch vigorously and uncontrollably and for this reason the local populace in northern Mozambique refer to the beans as "mad beans"; the seed pods are known as "Devil Beans" in Nigeria. The seeds of the plant contain about 3.1–6.1% L-DOPA, with trace amounts of serotonin and bufotenine. One study using 36 samples of seeds found no tryptamines present. Chitedze in Chichewa of MalawiFrijol de Abono in the Guatemala language "Nkasi" in Nyanja of Zambia and "Sepe" in Bemba of Zambia "Iyèkpè" in Bini language of Cowitch Bieh in the Madurese language Baahanakka in Maldivian Ci mao li dou 刺毛黧豆 in Chinese Nasagunnikaayi in Kannada Kara benguk in the Javane
La Historia (Caifanes album)
Caifanes: La Historia is a compilation album by Mexican Rock band Caifanes released two years after their sudden breakup. Singles from 1987 to 1996, including two unedited live recordings are included in this 24-track album. Disc 1 contains singles from 1987 to 1990. Mátenme Porque Me Muero - 3:31 Cuéntame Tu Vida - 4:22 Viento - 3:57 Amanece - 3:12 La Negra Tomasa - 7:34 Perdí Mi Ojo de Venado - 4:33 Detrás de Ti - 3:36 La Célula Que Explota - 3:33 Los Dioses Ocultos - 4:39 De Noche Todos los Gatos Son Pardos - 4:13 Antes de Que Nos Olviden - 4:45 Nubes - 4:35 Piedra - 4:34 No Dejes Que... - 4:40 Para Que No Digas Que No Pienso en Ti - 3:56 Hasta Morir - 3:45 Afuera - 4:48 Miedo - 3:37 Aquí No Es Así - 4:54 Ayer Me Dijo Un Ave - 3:29 Aviéntame - 4:32 Quisiera Ser Alcohol - 5:09 Miedo ** - 3:32 Aviéntame ** - 4:50 Valdivia, Victor W. "La Historia Review by Victor W. Valdivia". Allmusic.com. Retrieved January 4, 2016
Caifanes is a rock en español band from Mexico City. Formed in 1987, the group achieved international fame during early 1990s; the original lineup consisted of Saúl Hernández, Alejandro Marcovich Sabo Romo, Alfonso André, Diego Herrera. Caifanes’ style can be described as a hybrid of British new wave, progressive rock and Latin percussion underscored by deep and Latin American-Mexican-Spanish-influenced lyrics and the vocal style of Saúl Hernández. Members of Caifanes have cited Teresa Escogido as a major influence; the name Caifanes is derived from 1940s Mexican pachuco slang "Cae fine". Its equivalent in English would be “cool dude.” The word has been used to describe the proverbial Mexican pachuco, delinquent, or outsider. The seeds of what was to become Caifanes were planted in 1984 with Las Insolitas Imágenes de Aurora, a band that included Saúl Hernández, Alfonso André and Alejandro Marcovich. According to Marcovich, Insólitas started out as a side project for the purpose of performing as a party band for the filming of his brother's film project.
At the time, both Hernández and Marcovich were playing in different bands. The members decided to continue; as the seriousness of the project grew the band began to play in different spots in Mexico City like Rockotitlán, High Tower, El Jabalí. In May 1986, Insolitas recorded a live demo performed at Rockotitlán. Insólitas developed a strong cult following in Mexico City. Insólitas broke up in 1986. Saúl and Alfonso reformed as Caifanes with bass player/producer Sabo Romo and Diego Herrera on keyboards and sax. Caifanes' first live show was April 1987, in Rockotitlán; the building was filled to capacity and many people were left outside. Their popularity began to grow throughout Mexico City. By late 1987 Caifanes had carved a niche for themselves as a dark contrast to the corporate pop/rock and light ballads that dominated Mexican radio and television during the 1980s. At times the image and the sound were considered radical for the Mexican music industry. Between December 28, 1986 and January 3, 1987 Juan Aceves produced a four-song demo for the band using "free" studio time at night at Arco Studio.
The demo was showcased on the independent radio program Espacio 59, a show that promoted up and coming rock bands. With demo in hand Caifanes approached CBS Mexico; the musical director at the time shunned them for dark new wave attire and said, “You look like fags.” At the time, Caifanes’ sound and look was influenced by British post-punk groups such as The Cure and The Jesus and Mary Chain. They sported frizzly hair and makeup. Upon hearing the demo of “Será Por Eso”, the CBS executive said, “At CBS, our business is to sell records, not coffins.” The movement of Rock en Español or rock en tu idioma was too strong to ignore by record execs. The flood of groups from Spain and Argentina forced Mexican labels to take a second look at up-and-coming Mexican bands. Caifanes received a big break when Ariola records invited them to open for Argentinean rocker Miguel Mateos’ Mexico City show; the show brought Cafaines to the attention of Miguel Mateos’ producer Oscar Lopez. Oscar took them to the studio to record a demo.
Lopez would be instrumental in their signing to RCA-Ariola and would go on to produce their first two albums. Caifanes’ debut album Caifanes was released in August 1988 by RCA-Ariola; the LP was preceded by an EP made up of three songs. The immediate sale of 300,000 copies of the EP cemented the band's appeal; the first single “Mátenme Porque Me Muero” became a minor hit in Mexico City. The first three singles garnered sufficient radio play. In December 1988 Caifanes released a cover of Cuban folk singer Guillermo Rodriguez Fiffe's classic cumbia, “La Negra Tomasa,” as a Maxi single; the song was a massive hit in Mexico and introduced Caifanes to a wider audience nationally and abroad. By 1989, Caifanes had emerged. In June Caifanes played two sold-out shows at Mexico's Auditorio Nacional, a 10,000 person venue – a first for a Mexican rock band. In late 1989, Caifanes began to record their second album in New York City; the record was produced by Oscar Lopez, aided by Daniel Freiberg. El diablito was released in July 1990 through BMG Records.
The band now included former Insolitas guitarist Alejandro Marcovich. Marcovich's textural guitar work changed Caifanes’ sound and cemented the “classic” Mexican rock sound that Caifanes became famous for. “La Célula Que Explota”, with its brushes of mariachi and bolero guitars and a crescendo of mariachi trumpets and its music video directed by Juan Carlos Colín became both a signature of the band as well as a massive hit in 1990 and 1991. By this time, Caifanes along with Maná, Maldita Vecindad, La Lupita, Cafe Tacuba and Los Amantes de Lola, helped to move Mexican Rock toward a wider audience and catapulted the Rock En Español movement of the 1990s. In 1992, Caifanes released El silencio. Recorded in Wisconsin and produced by Adrian Belew, of King Crimson fame, El Silencio further had a more direct guitar driven sound. “No Dejes Que”, “Estas Dormida”, “Deba
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Post-punk is a broad type of rock music that emerged from the punk movement of the 1970s, in which artists departed from the simplicity and traditionalism of punk rock to adopt a variety of avant-garde sensibilities and diverse influences. Inspired by punk's energy and DIY ethic but determined to break from rock cliches, artists experimented with sources including electronic music and black styles like dub, free jazz, disco. Communities that produced independent record labels, visual art, multimedia performances and fanzines developed around these pioneering musical scenes, which coalesced in cities such as London, New York, Melbourne and San Francisco; the early post-punk vanguard was represented by groups such as Siouxsie and the Banshees, Public Image Ltd, the Pop Group, Cabaret Voltaire, Pere Ubu, Gang of Four, Joy Division, Talking Heads, Throbbing Gristle, the Slits, the Cure, the Fall, Au Pairs. The movement was related to the development of ancillary genres such as gothic rock, neo-psychedelia, no wave, industrial music.
By the mid-1980s, post-punk had dissipated while providing the impetus for the New Pop movement as well much subsequent alternative and independent music. Post-punk is a diverse genre. Called "new musick", the terms were first used by various writers in the late 1970s to describe groups moving beyond punk's garage rock template and into disparate areas. Sounds writer Jon Savage used "post-punk" in early 1978. NME writer Paul Morley stated that he had "possibly" invented the term himself. At the time, there was a feeling of renewed excitement regarding what the word would entail, with Sounds publishing numerous preemptive editorials on new musick. Towards the end of the decade, some journalists used "art punk" as a pejorative for garage rock-derived acts deemed too sophisticated and out of step with punk's dogma. Before the early 1980s, many groups now categorized as "post-punk" were subsumed under the broad umbrella of "new wave", with the terms being deployed interchangeably. "Post-punk" became differentiated from "new wave".
Nicholas Lezard described the term "post-punk" as "so multifarious that only the broadest use... is possible". Subsequent discourse has failed to clarify whether contemporary music journals and fanzines conventionally understood "post-punk" the way that it was discussed in years. Music historian Clinton Heylin places the "true starting-point for English post-punk" somewhere between August 1977 and May 1978, with the arrival of guitarist John McKay in Siouxsie and the Banshees in July 1977, Magazine's first album, Wire's new musical direction in 1978 and the formation of Public Image Ltd. Simon Reynolds' 2005 book Rip It Up and Start Again is referenced as post-punk doctrine, although he has stated that the book only covers aspects of post-punk that he had a personal inclination toward. Wilkinson characterized Reynolds' readings as "apparent revisionism and'rebranding'". Author/musician Alex Ogg criticized: "The problem is not with what Reynolds left out of Rip It Up... but, that too much was left in".
Ogg suggested that post-punk pertains to a set of artistic sensibilities and approaches rather than any unifying style, disputed the accuracy of the term's chronological prefix "post", as various groups labeled "post-punk" predate the punk rock movement. Reynolds defined the post-punk era as occurring between 1978 and 1984, he advocated that post-punk be conceived as "less a genre of music than a space of possibility", suggesting that "what unites all this activity is a set of open-ended imperatives: innovation. AllMusic employs "post-punk" to denote "a more adventurous and arty form of punk". Many post-punk artists were inspired by punk's DIY ethic and energy, but became disillusioned with the style and movement, feeling that it had fallen into a commercial formula, rock convention, self-parody, they repudiated its populist claims to accessibility and raw simplicity, instead of seeing an opportunity to break with musical tradition, subvert commonplaces and challenge audiences. Artists moved beyond punk's focus on the concerns of a white, working-class population and abandoned its continued reliance on established rock and roll tropes, such as three-chord progressions and Chuck Berry-based guitar riffs.
These artists instead defined punk as "an imperative to constant change", believing that "radical content demands radical form". Though the music varied between regions and artists, the post-punk movement has been characterized by its "conceptual assault" on rock conventions and rejection of aesthetics perceived of as traditionalist, hegemonic or rockist in favor of experimentation with production techniques and non-rock musical styles such as dub, electronic music, noise, free jazz, world music, the avant-garde; some previous musical styles served as touchstones for the movement, including particular brands of krautrock, art rock, art pop and other music from the 1960s. Artists once again approached the studio as an instrument, using new recording methods and pursuing novel sonic territories. Author Matthew Bannister wrote that post-punk artists rejected the high cultural references of 1960s rock artists like the Beatles and Bob Dylan as well as paradigms that defined "rock as progressive, as art, as'sterile' studio perfectionism... by adopting an avant-garde aesth