A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. For example, the water is composed of two syllables, wa and ter. A syllable is typically made up of a nucleus with optional initial and final margins. Syllables are often considered the building blocks of words. They can influence the rhythm of a language, its prosody, its poetic meter, syllabic writing began several hundred years before the first letters. The earliest recorded syllables are on tablets written around 2800 BC in the Sumerian city of Ur and this shift from pictograms to syllables has been called the most important advance in the history of writing. A word that consists of a syllable is called a monosyllable. Syllable is an Anglo-Norman variation of Old French sillabe, from Latin syllaba, συλλαβή means what is taken together, referring to letters that are taken together to make a single sound. συλλαβή is a noun from the verb συλλαμβάνω syllambánō, a compound of the preposition σύν sýn with. The noun uses the root λαβ-, which appears in the aorist tense, the present tense stem λαμβάν- is formed by adding a nasal infix ⟨μ⟩ ⟨m⟩ before the β b and a suffix -αν -an at the end.
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the period ⟨. ⟩ marks syllable breaks, in practice, however, IPA transcription is typically divided into words by spaces, and often these spaces are understood to be syllable breaks. When a word comes in the middle of a syllable. The liaison tie is used to join lexical words into phonological words. In the typical theory of structure, the general structure of a syllable consists of three segments. e. Nucleus and coda are grouped together as a rime and onset are only distinguished at the second level, the nucleus is usually the vowel in the middle of a syllable. The onset is the sound or sounds occurring before the nucleus, and they are sometimes collectively known as the shell. The term rime covers the nucleus plus coda, in the one-syllable English word cat, the nucleus is a, the onset c, the coda t, and the rime at. This syllable can be abstracted as a consonant-vowel-consonant syllable, abbreviated CVC, languages vary greatly in the restrictions on the sounds making up the onset and coda of a syllable, according to what is termed a languages phonotactics
Liupanshui is a city in western Guizhou province, Peoples Republic of China. The name Liupanshui combines the first character from the names of each of the three constituent counties, Pan, Shuicheng. The city is known locally as The Cool City or Cool Capital due to its low average summer temperature. The general area is significant as the seat of the historic Yelang political entity, the city was established in 1978 as a prefecture-level municipality. The Shanghai-Kunming, Liupanshui-Baiguo and Neijiang-Kunming Railways intersect in the city, tourism in Liupanshui focuses on minority folk culture and karst landform tourism. This includes the lake in Qilin Cave Park 麒麟公园, Danxia Mountain 丹霞山, about which Xu Xiake. Yushe National Park 玉舍国家公园 includes the Jiucai Ping Scenic Zone 韭菜坪景区, the flat-topped Jiucai Ping is the tallest mountain in Guizhou Province at about 2900 meters. Jiucai here means garlic chives, so named because the mountain is famous for its Garlic chive blossoms, other attractions include the sunrise, the sea of clouds, and unusual rock formations.
Also notable is the Tiansheng Bridge 天生桥, tiansheng meaning god-made, there is a nature reserve called Shuicheng Francoiss Leaf Monkey Nature Reserve 水城野钟黑叶猴自然保护区. Local cuisine includes Yangrou fen - Lamb rice noodles, and Luoguo yangyu - Fried potatoes, Liupanshui is twinned with, Arizona, United States History of Yunnan
Waxiang is a divergent variety of Chinese, spoken by the Waxiang people, an unrecognized ethnic minority group in the northwestern part of Hunan province, China. Waxiang is a language, very different from its surrounding Southwestern Mandarin, Xiang. Waxiang may share some lexical innovations with Bai, suggesting a possible Macro-Bai substratum and it has been suggested that perhaps Waxiang is a mixed language of Xiang and Miao. The word Wa 瓦 is only a phonetic transcription, wu & Shen report Waxianghua to be spoken in the following villages. Liubaohua is spoken in the following locations, Guzhang County Shanzao Township 山枣乡, Huoma 火麻村, Gaozhai 高寨村, Shaojitian 筲箕田村, Modao 磨刀村 Yantouzhai Township 岩头寨乡, Yinping 银坪村, Zimuping 梓木坪村, Wangouxi 碗沟溪村, etc.2010. An Investigative Report of Waxianghua of Guzhang County, Xiangxi Prefecture, hilary Chappell, Typology of an isolated Sinitic language, Waxiang, a language of northwestern Hunan, keynote at 45th International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics.
Macro-Bai comparative vocabulary list on Wiktionary
The fanqie method used to indicate pronunciation in these dictionaries, though an improvement on earlier methods, proved awkward in practice. The mid 12th-century Yunjing and other rime tables incorporate a more sophisticated, the rime tables attest to a number of sound changes that had occurred over the centuries following the publication of the Qieyun. Linguists sometimes refer to the system of the Qieyun as Early Middle Chinese, the dictionaries and tables describe pronunciations in relative terms, but do not give their actual sounds. The Swedish linguist Bernard Karlgren believed that the recorded a speech standard of the capital Changan of the Sui and Tang dynasties. This composite system contains important information for the reconstruction of the system of Old Chinese phonology. The Middle Chinese system is used as a framework for the study. Branches of the Chinese family such as Mandarin, Yue and Wu can be treated as divergent developments from the Qieyun system. The reconstruction of Middle Chinese phonology is largely dependent upon detailed descriptions in a few original sources, the most important of these is the Qieyun rime dictionary and its revisions.
The Qieyun is often used together with interpretations in Song dynasty rime tables such as the Yunjing, Chinese scholars of the Northern and Southern dynasties period were concerned with the correct recitation of the classics. Various schools produced dictionaries to codify reading pronunciations and the associated rhyme conventions of regulated verse, the Qieyun was an attempt to merge the distinctions in six earlier dictionaries, which were eclipsed by its success and are no longer extant. It was accepted as the standard reading pronunciation during the Tang dynasty, the Qieyun is thus the oldest surviving rime dictionary and the main source for the pronunciation of characters in Early Middle Chinese. The rime dictionaries organize Chinese characters by their pronunciation, according to a hierarchy of tone, the fanqie system uses multiple equivalent characters to represent each particular initial, and likewise for finals. The categories of initials and finals actually represented were first identified by the Cantonese scholar Chen Li in an analysis published in his Qièyùn kǎo.
The Qieyun classified homonyms under 193 rhyme classes, each of which is placed one of the four tones. A single rhyme class may contain multiple finals, generally differing only in the medial or in so-called chongniu doublets, the Yunjing is the oldest of the so-called rime tables, which provide a more detailed phonological analysis of the system contained in the Qieyun. However, the analysis shows some influence from LMC, which needs to be taken into account when interpreting difficult aspects of the system. The Yunjing is organized into 43 tables, each covering several Qieyun rhyme classes, and classified as, One of 16 broad rhyme classes, each described as either inner or outer. The meaning of this is debated but it has suggested that it refers to the height of the main vowel, with outer finals having an open vowel
Hunan Province is the 7th most populous Province of China and the 10th most extensive by area. The name Hunan means south of Lake Dongting, a lake in the northeast of the province, vehicle license plates from Hunan are marked Xiang, after the Xiang River, which runs from south to north through Hunan and forms part of the largest drainage system for the province. Hunans primeval forests were first occupied by the ancestors of the modern Miao, Dong and it entered the written history of China around 350 BC, when under the kings of the Zhou Dynasty, it became part of the State of Chu. After Qin conquered the Chu heartland in 278 BC, the region came under the control of Qin, the agricultural colonization of the lowlands was carried out in part by the Han state, which managed river dikes to protect farmland from floods. To this day many of the villages in Hunan are named after the Han families who settled there. Migration from the north was especially prevalent during the Eastern Jin Dynasty and the Southern and Northern Dynasties Periods, during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, Hunan was home to its own independent regime, Ma Chu.
Hunan and Hubei became a part of the province of Huguang until the Qing dynasty, Hunan province was created in 1664 from Huguang, renamed to its current name in 1723. Hunan became an important communications center due to its position on the Yangzi River and it was an important centre of scholarly activity and Confucian thought, particularly in the Yuelu Academy in Changsha. It was on the Imperial Highway constructed between northern and southern China, the land produced grain so abundantly that it fed many parts of China with its surpluses. The population continued to climb until, by the century, Hunan became overcrowded. Some of the uprisings, such as the ten-year Miao Rebellion of 1795–1806, were caused by ethnic tensions, the Taiping Rebellion began in the south in Guangxi Province in 1850. The rebellion spread into Hunan and further eastward along the Yangzi River valley, ultimately, it was a Hunanese army under Zeng Guofan who marched into Nanjing to put down the uprising in 1864. Hunan was relatively quiet until 1910 when there were uprisings against the crumbling Qing dynasty and it was led by Hunanese native Mao Zedong, and established a short-lived Hunan Soviet in 1927.
The Communists maintained an army in the mountains along the Hunan-Jiangxi border until 1934. Under pressure from the Nationalist Kuomintang forces, they began the Long March to bases in Shaanxi Province, after the departure of the Communists, the KMT army fought against the Japanese in the second Sino-Japanese war. They defended the Changsha until it fell in 1944, japan launched Operation Ichigo, a plan to control the railroad from Wuchang to Guangzhou. Hunan was relatively unscathed by the war that followed the defeat of the Japanese in 1945. In 1949, the Communists returned once more as the Nationalists retreated southward, as Mao Zedongs home province, Hunan supported the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1976
Anshun is a prefecture-level city of Guizhou province, near the location of Huangguoshu Waterfall, the tallest in China. Within the borders of its prefecture there are such as The Long Gong Dragon Caves. As of 2010, it had a population of 2,297,339, the city proper had a population of 765,313. The city is known for its aerospace industry, Anshun has a long history dating back to the Western Han dynasty around 200 B. C. There are two kinds of culture which existed in Chinese history and Yelang. The Tianlong Tunbao town is close to Anshun city, Tunbao is a town with a long history which includes eight small areas. Each one is connected with each other since it was a war place from the period of Ming Dynasty. The culture of Tunbao is unique and traditional, the traditional clothes are special which are designed respectively from head to foot. Second, ‘Nuo’ is a kind of drama which is originated in Tunbao, the performers wear masks and hold the stage property for performing. The plots of drama are all from the legends of history, local stone architectures are representative for long history of Tunbao.
Close to Anshun there is a lake called Yelang. It is named after the famous Yeland Emperor, Yelang Emperor was the largest minority tribe in southeast of China in Western Han Dynasty. It existed for about 300 years since the Warring States, during accession of Emperor Cheng of Han, the last king of Yelang Emperor was killed. Yelang Emperor died out from on, but the off-springs of Yelang Emperor are still alive now, according to historical records, Yelang Emperor was located along Zangke River, which is now called Beipan River and Nanpan River. Bamboo Worship, Cow Totem and dogfight are the national culture signals of Yelang Emperor. Anshuns administrative area spans latitude 25° 21−26°38 N and longitude 105° 13−106°34 E, within the prefecture, the elevation ranges from 1,102 to 1,694 metres. Anshun has a humid subtropical climate bordering on a subtropical highland climate, tempered by its rather high altitude and having frequent rain. Winters are short and damp, while summers are very warm, the monthly 24-hour mean temperature ranges from 4.3 °C in January to 22.0 °C in July, and the annual mean is 14.1 °C
Liuzhi Special District
Liuzhi Special District is a district of Guizhou, China. It is under the administration of Liupanshui city and it is located 25°59-26°22N and 105°08-105°43E. It is located in the part of Guizhou Province. It is bounded by Zhijing and Nayong to the north, Guanling to the south and Puding to the east, Shuichen to the west, as well as Qinglong, the area is approximately 1,792 square kilometers. There are about 31 ethnic minorities
Zhaotong is a prefecture-level city located in the northeast corner of Yunnan province of Southwest China. The prefecture, almost exclusively agricultural, is one of the poorest in China, for the year 2003, the number of emigrants was 650,000. The government wanted the number to increase by 50,000 in 2004 and it is the seat of the Latin Catholic Apostolic Prefecture of Zhaotong. The main industries in the prefecture are mining and cement manufacturing Zhaotong has some of the largest Lignite sources in China, China National Highway 213 G85 Yinchuan–Kunming Expressway Zhaotong has several bridges over the Jinsha River, an upstream section of the Yangtze. Influenced by the low latitude and moderate elevation, Zhaotong has a subtropical highland climate, with cool, dry winters. Temperatures frequently drop below freezing at night in winter, though the days warm up to around 10 °C, conversely, in summer, average highs rise to 25 °C. A great majority of the rainfall occurs from May to September. Xiangjiaba Dam Xiluodu Dam Zhaotong Community Development Program - Norwegian Embassy Zhaotong Official Official Website Zhaotong city map Further information
Bijie is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Guizhou Province, bordering Sichuan to the north and Yunnan to the west. The Daotianhe Reservoir, located to the north of the town was commissioned in 1965 with an annual capacity of 6.5 million cubic meters. On 10 November 2011, the former Bijie Prefecture was converted to a city. Bijie borders Zunyi to the east and Liupanshui to the south and Qujing to the west and it spans latitude 26°21′−27°46′ N and longitude 105°36′−106°43′ E, and is marked heavily by the presence of the Wumeng Mountains as well as karst topography. The Wu, and Chishui Rivers are the most important rivers that originate here, the highest elevation is Jiucaiping, at 2,900.6 m, on the border of Hezhang and Weining counties. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 2.7 °C in January to 21.6 °C in July, rainfall is very common year-round, occurring on 206 days of the year, but over half of the annual total occurs from June to August. Bijie City consists of a district, six counties and one autonomous county.
These are, Qixingguan District, Dafang County, Qianxi County, Jinsha County, Zhijin County, Nayong County, Hezhang County, Weining Yi Hui and Miao Autonomous County. Children aged 0−14 numbered 2,029, 934人, persons aged 15−64 numbered 4,018,583, the urban population stood at 1,711,222. Persons of Han ethnicity numbered 4,824,015, while minorities formed the other 26. 20%, at present the backbone of the transport network in Bijie City is formed by China National Highways 321 and 326. As of 2013, Bijie is the only city of Guizhou to lack rail service. Other projected rail lines are Bijie−Shuicheng−Xingyi and Zhaotong −Weining−Bijie−Jinsha−Zunyi, the city is served by the Bijie Airport. Notable historical sites in Bijie Prefecture include the following
Old Chinese, called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese. The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around 1250 BC, bronze inscriptions became plentiful during the following Zhou dynasty. The latter part of the Zhou period saw a flowering of literature, including works such as the Analects, the Mencius. These works served as models for Literary Chinese, which remained the standard until the early twentieth century, thus preserving the vocabulary. Old Chinese was written with a form of Chinese characters. Although the script is not alphabetic, most characters were created by adapting a character for a similar-sounding word. Most recent reconstructions describe Old Chinese as a language without tones, but having consonant clusters at the end of the syllable, most researchers trace the core vocabulary of Old Chinese to Sino-Tibetan, with much early borrowing from neighbouring languages.
During the Zhou period, the originally monosyllabic vocabulary was augmented with polysyllabic words formed by compounding, several derivational affixes have been identified. However the language lacked inflection, and indicated grammatical relationships using word order, the earliest known written records of the Chinese language were found at the Yinxu site near modern Anyang identified as the last capital of the Shang dynasty, and date from about 1250 BC. These are the bones, short inscriptions carved on tortoise plastrons and ox scapulae for divinatory purposes. The language written is undoubtedly an early form of Chinese, but is difficult to due to the limited subject matter. Only half of the 4,000 characters used have been identified with certainty, little is known about the grammar of this language, but it seems much less reliant on grammatical particles than Classical Chinese. From early in the Western Zhou period, around 1000 BC, even longer pre-Classical texts on a wide range of subjects have been transmitted through the literary tradition.
The oldest parts of the Book of Documents, the Classic of Poetry and the I Ching date from the early Zhou period, a greater proportion of this more varied vocabulary has been identified than for the oracular period. The four centuries preceding the unification of China in 221 BC constitute the Chinese classical period in the strict sense, there are many bronze inscriptions from this period, but they are vastly outweighed by a rich literature written in ink on bamboo and wooden slips and silk. Although these are perishable materials, and many books were destroyed in the burning of books and burying of scholars in the Qin dynasty, other texts have been transmitted as copies. Such works from this period as the Analects, the Classic of Filial Piety, the Mencius, the Classical Chinese of such works formed the basis of Literary Chinese, which remained the written standard until the early twentieth century. Each character of the script represented a single Old Chinese word, most scholars believe that these words were monosyllabic, though some have recently suggested that a minority of them had minor presyllables