The National Broadcasting Company is an American English-language commercial terrestrial television network, a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, with additional major offices near Los Angeles and Philadelphia; the network is one of the Big Three television networks. NBC is sometimes referred to as the "Peacock Network", in reference to its stylized peacock logo, introduced in 1956 to promote the company's innovations in early color broadcasting, it became the network's official emblem in 1979. Founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. At that time the parent company of RCA was General Electric. In 1930, GE was forced to sell the companies as a result of antitrust charges. In 1986, control of NBC passed back to General Electric through its $6.4 billion purchase of RCA. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as chief executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007, when he was succeeded by Jeff Zucker.
In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, forming NBC Universal. Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, acquired General Electric's remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBCUniversal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke. NBC has thirteen owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates throughout the United States and its territories, some of which are available in Canada and/or Mexico via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. During a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had a competing outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ, which served as the flagship for a loosely structured network; this station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, moved to New York City. WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&T's manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas.
The Bell System, AT&T's telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, using both wireless and wired methods. The 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a regular schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs, was an immediate success. In an early example of "chain" or "networking" broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island. C. WCAP. New parent RCA saw an advantage in sharing programming, after getting a license for radio station WRC in Washington, D. C. in 1923, attempted to transmit audio between cities via low-quality telegraph lines. AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines; the early effort fared poorly, since the uninsulated telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric and other electrical interference. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its embryonic network were incompatible with the company's primary goal of providing a telephone service.
AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&T's phone lines for network transmission. RCA spent $1 million to purchase WEAF and Washington sister station WCAP, shut down the latter station, merged its facilities with surviving station WRC; the division's ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse. NBC started broadcasting on November 15, 1926. WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On January 1, 1927, NBC formally divided their respective marketing strategies: the "Red Network" offered commercially sponsored entertainment and music programming. Various histories of NBC suggest the color designations for the two networks came from the color of the pushpins NBC engineers used to designate affiliate stations of WEAF and WJZ, or from the use of double-ended red and blue colored pencils. On April 5, 1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network known as the Pacific Coast Network.
This was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18, 1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network; the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. In 1936, the Orange Network affiliate stations became part of the Red Network, at the same time the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, called the NBC White Network. In 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building de
Ted Knight was an American actor and voice artist well known for playing the comedic roles of Ted Baxter in The Mary Tyler Moore Show, Henry Rush in Too Close for Comfort, Judge Elihu Smails in Caddyshack. Knight was born Tadeusz Wladyslaw Konopka in the Terryville section of Plymouth in Litchfield County, Connecticut, to Polish-American parents and Charles Walter Konopka, a bartender. Knight dropped out of high school to enlist in the United States Army in World War II, he was a member of A Company, 296th Combat Engineer Battalion, earning five battle stars while serving in the European Theatre. During the postwar years, Knight studied acting in Connecticut, he became proficient with puppets and ventriloquism, which led to steady work as a television kiddie-show host at WJAR-TV in Providence, Rhode Island, from 1950 to 1955. In 1955, he left Providence for Albany, New York, where he landed a job at station WROW-TV, hosting The Early Show, featuring MGM movies, he was a radio announcer for sister station WROW radio.
He left the station in 1957 after receiving advice from station manager Thomas Murphy that he should take his talents to Hollywood. Knight spent most of the 1950s and 1960s doing commercial voice-overs and playing minor television and movie roles, he had a small part playing a police officer seen guarding the room where Norman Bates, now in custody, sat wrapped in a blanket at the end of Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho. He guest starred on the syndicated television series Sea Hunt with Lloyd Bridges, during the 1961 season in the episode titled "The Defector". In the 1962-1963 season, he appeared as "Haskell" in the short-lived drama and situation comedy The New Loretta Young Show on CBS, he played Phil Sterling on the ABC soap opera The Young Marrieds in the early 1960s. He appeared in television shows such as The Invaders, Highway Patrol, How to Marry a Millionaire, Peter Gunn, The Outer Limits episode The Invisible Enemy, Bourbon Street Beat, The Donna Reed Show and Gladys, The Eleventh Hour, The Man and the Challenge, Combat!, McHale's Navy, Get Smart, The Lieutenant, Gomer Pyle, U.
S. M. C; the Twilight Zone and The Wild Wild West. His final movie role was in the golf comedy Caddyshack, where he played Judge Elihu Smails, fed up with the shenanigans of Al Czervik, a guest at his golf club. Knight's distinctive speaking voice brought him work as an announcer, notably as narrator of most of Filmation's superhero cartoons as well as the voice of incidental characters, he was narrator of the first season of the Super Friends, while other animated television series featuring his work included the voices of the opening narrator and team leader Commander Jonathan Kidd in Fantastic Voyage. His role as the vain and untalented WJM newscaster Ted Baxter on The Mary Tyler Moore Show brought Knight widespread recognition and his greatest success, he received six Emmy Award nominations for the role, winning the Emmy for "Outstanding Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role in Comedy" in 1973 and 1976. Ted Knight was the special guest star on the first episode of The Bobby Vinton Show in September 1975.
Vinton highlighted Knight's Polish heritage and the two sang a duet of Vinton's hit My Melody of Love in Polish. Knight was featured in a production number featuring his own record "I'm In Love With Barbara Walters". In 1975, Knight recorded an album of novelty songs, "Hi Guys", on the Ranwood label; the title track, in which Knight tries to get out of various embarrassing situations by using his signature "Hi, Guy!" line, received some play on the Dr. Demento show. Knight used some of this character's style for regional commercials. In the Cleveland area during the early to late 1970s, a newsman known as "Ted" would provide news of the events at a local shopping center known as Southgate USA finishing the 60-second spot with a comedic flair, including wearing a jacket that resembled his blue "WJM" blazer; the spots were produced by UAB Productions for Southgate USA. UAB Productions was the local production arm of United Artists Broadcasting, which owned WUAB-TV in the Cleveland area at that time.
Knight returned to Albany to film promo spots for his former employer, WTEN's local news show. After The Mary Tyler Moore Show's run, Knight guest-starred in "Mr. Dennis Steps Out," the October 26, 1977, episode of the situation comedy Busting Loose, as Roger Dennis, the owner of an escort service in New York City; this episode was spun off into its own show, The Ted Knight Show, giving Knight his first starring role. The Ted Knight Showlasted for only six episodes in the spring of 1978. Knight appeared in a few episodes of The Love Boat, including one episode as a rival cruise captain, Captain Gunner Nordquist, versus Mary Tyler Moore Show co-star Gavin MacLeod's Captain Merrill Stubing; this was broadcast in March 1982 as Season 5, Episodes 24 and 25, of The Love Boat, whose segments were titled "Pride of the Pacific," "The Viking's Son," "Separate Vacations," "The Experiment," and "Getting to Know You." Knight landed the lead role as the kind, curmudgeonly cartoonist Henry Rush in the series Too Close for Comfort in 1980.
During scenes in which Henry draws in his bedroom, Knight used his earlier acquired ventriloquism talents for comical conversations with a hand-puppet version of his comic book's main character "Cosmic
John Joseph Patrick Ryan, best known by his stage name, Jack Lord, was an American television and Broadway actor and producer. He was known for his starring role as Steve McGarrett in the CBS television program Hawaii Five-O, which ran from 1968 to 1980. Born in Brooklyn, New York, Lord was the son of Irish-American parents, his father, William Lawrence Ryan, was a steamship company executive. He grew up in Morris Park, New York; as a child, Lord developed his equestrian skills on his mother's fruit farm in the Hudson River Valley. He started spending summers at sea, from the decks of cargo ships painted and sketched the landscapes he encountered—Africa, the Mediterranean and China, he was educated at St. Benedict Joseph Labre School, John Adams High School, in Ozone Park and the United States Merchant Marine Academy located at Fort Trumbull in New London, graduating as an Ensign with a Third Mates License, he attended New York University on a football scholarship, earned a degree in Fine Arts.
He spent the first year of the United States' involvement in World War II with the United States Army Corps of Engineers, building bridges in Persia. He returned to the Merchant Marine as an Able Seaman before enrolling in the deck officer course at Fort Trumbull. While making maritime training films, he took to the idea of acting. Lord received theatrical training from Sanford Meisner at the Neighborhood Playhouse, he worked first as a car salesman for Horgan Ford later as a Cadillac salesman in New York to fund his studies. He studied at the Actors Studio, his Broadway debut was as Slim Murphy in Horton Foote's The Traveling Lady with Kim Stanley. The show ran for 30 performances, October 27, 1954 through November 20, 1954. Lord won the Theatre World Award for his performance. Lord was cast as Brick in a replacement for Ben Gazzara in the 1955–1956 production of Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, he had been in The Little Hut, The Illegitimist, The Savage. His first commercial film role was in the 1949 film The Red Menace a.k.a.
Project X, an anti-Communist production. He was associate producer in his 1950 film Cry Murder. In 1957, Lord starred in Williamsburg: the Story of a Patriot, which has run daily at Colonial Williamsburg since then. In 1958, Lord co-starred as Buck Walden in God's Little Acre, the film adaptation of Erskine Caldwell's 1933 novel. Lord was the first actor to play the character Felix Leiter in the James Bond film series, introduced in the first Bond film, Dr. No. According to screenwriter Richard Maibaum, Lord demanded co-star billing, a bigger role and more money to reprise the role in Goldfinger, which resulted in director Guy Hamilton casting Cec Linder in the role. In 1962, Lord starred as series namesake Stoney Burke, a rodeo cowboy from Mission Ridge, South Dakota; the basis for the series was real-life champion rodeo rider Casey Tibbs. The series featured Warren Oates and Bruce Dern in recurring supporting roles. Lord credited Gary Cooper as his on-screen role model, the inspiration for his characterization of Stoney Burke.
Lord was considered for Eliot Ness in The Untouchables. He did appear in the Season One episode "The Jake Lingle Killing." In 1965 he guest-starred as Colonel'Pres' Gallagher in second-season episode 5, "Big Brother" of 12 O-Clock High. Other television guest appearances include Appointment with Adventure, The Americans, The High Chaparral, Combat!, The Man from U. N. C. L. E; the Reporter starring Harry Guardino, The Fugitive, The Invaders, Rawhide and The F. B. I. Lord appeared on the first episode of Will Travel. In 1968, Lord appeared with Susan Strasberg in the film. According to William Shatner, in 1966, Gene Roddenberry offered Lord the role of Captain James T. Kirk on Star Trek, to replace Jeffrey Hunter, whose wife was making too many demands. Lord asked for 50 percent ownership of the show, so Roddenberry offered the role to Shatner. Jack Lord helped conceive Hawaii Five-O and starred for its 12 seasons as Detective Stephen McGarrett, appointed by the Governor to head the State Police criminal investigation department in Honolulu, Hawaii.
The opening sequence includes a shot of Lord standing on a penthouse balcony of the Ilikai hotel. Chin Ho Kelly, the name of the police detective played by Kam Fong, was a tip-of-the-hat to Ilikai developer Chinn Ho. Lord's catchphrase, "Book'em, Danno!", became a part of pop culture. He was instrumental in the casting of native Hawaiians, instead of mainland actors. Lord insisted. Lord was a perfectionist. At the airing of its last episode, Hawaii Five-O was the longest-running cop show in television history; when series creator Leonard Freeman died in 1974, the show's ownership was shared among Lord, CBS and Freeman's estate, with a contract that made Lord executive producer and gave him complete control over content. He was a hands-on partner who paid attention to minute details, was known for battles with network executives. During his years at NYU, Lord and his brother Bill opened the Village Academy of Arts. Jack's childhood dream was to become an artist, his first professional sale was in 1941 to the Metropolitan Museum of Art for his two linoleum cuts, entitled Vermont and Fishing Shacks, Block Island.
Lord's first marriage to Anne Willard ended in divorce in 1947. Lord met his son only once; the boy was killed in an accident at age 13. Lord met hi
James Gilmore Backus was an American radio, television and voice actor. Among his most famous roles were the voice of nearsighted cartoon character Mr. Magoo, the rich Hubert Updike III on the radio version of The Alan Young Show, Joan Davis' character's husband on TV's I Married Joan, James Dean's character's father in Rebel Without a Cause, Thurston Howell III, on the 1960s sitcom Gilligan's Island, he starred in his own show of one season, The Jim Backus Show known as Hot Off the Wire. An avid golfer, Backus made the 36-hole cut at the 1964 Bing Crosby Pro-Am tournament. Backus was born February 25, 1913, in Cleveland and raised in Bratenahl, Ohio, a wealthy village surrounded by greater Cleveland, he was the son of Daisy Taylor Backus. He attended Shaw High School in Ohio. Backus was acting on radio as early as 1940, playing the role of millionaire aviator Dexter Hayes on Society Girl on CBS, he had an extensive career and worked in Hollywood over five decades portraying characters with an "upper-crust", New England-like air, such as Thurston Howell III on Gilligan's Island.
He appeared in A Dangerous Profession. S. A. with Humphrey Bogart. He made television appearances on The Beverly Hillbillies. Backus was the voice of the nearsighted cartoon character Mr. Magoo. Years when Backus was a frequent talk show guest, he would recount the time Marilyn Monroe urgently beckoned him into her dressing room. Henny Backus, Jim's wife, recalled the story: "Jim was in the 1952 film Don't Bother to Knock, with Marilyn Monroe, he came home one night during the filming and told me that Miss Monroe in her most seductive breathy voice asked him to meet her in her dressing room. His curiosity got the better of him and he went. Once there, she exclaimed like an excited child,'Do Mr. Magoo!' And Jim did." He could be heard on primetime radio programs in the postwar era, including The Jack Benny Program, he portrayed an exceedingly vain character named Hartley Benson on The Mel Blanc Show on the CBS Radio Network, as well as a similar character named Hubert Updike on The Alan Young Show on the NBC Radio Network.
He starred on the short-lived variety program The Jim Backus Show on the ABC Radio Network in 1957 and 1958, when that network changed its name to the American Broadcasting Network and tried out a "Live and Lively" format of "Big Time Radio" with orchestras and audiences. Backus costarred in the comedy show I Married Joan from 1952 to 1955, portraying the husband of Joan Davis. In stark contrast to his usual affluent characters, he appeared on The Brady Bunch as an old gold prospector, a role he played on a Gilligan's Island episode, he appeared in the final season episode "The Hustler" in which he plays Mike's boss, Mr. Matthews. Backus stayed with Gilligan's Island between 1964 and 1967 and did revivals of the TV series in TV films made between 1978 and 1981, he did revivals of Mr. Magoo from 1964 to 1977, which included The Famous Adventures of Mr. Magoo and What's New, Mr. Magoo?. In 1977, Backus appeared in "Never Con a Killer," the pilot for the ABC crime drama The Feather and Father Gang.
Backus and his wife, Henny Backus, co-wrote several humorous books, including:... Only When I Laugh, his autobiography, Backus Strikes Back, a memoir, Forgive Us Our Digressions: An Autobiography, What Are You Doing After the Orgy? — the title taken from a line Backus spoke in the 1965 film John Goldfarb, Please Come Home! He co-wrote the 1971 family film Mooch Goes to Hollywood, about a dog that tries to become a movie star. In the late 1950s, he made two novelty 45 rpm records, "Delicious" and "Cave Man". In 1974, a full-length comedy LP album was released on the Doré label under the title The Dirty Old Man, with sketches written by Bob Hudson and Ron Landry, who appear on the album, along with voice-actress Jane Webb. Backus played the voice of God in the recording of Truth of Truths, a 1971 rock opera based on the Bible. Backus acted in several television commercials; as Mr. Magoo, he helped advertise the General Electric line of products over the years, he was spokesman for La-Z-Boy furniture during the 1970s.
In the late 1980s, he was reunited with former co-star Natalie Schafer in an advertisement for Orville Redenbacher's popcorn. They reprised their roles from Gilligan's Island, but instead of still being shipwrecked, the setting was a luxurious study or den, it was the last television appearance for both performers. On July 3, 1989, Backus died in Los Angeles from complications of pneumonia after suffering from Parkinson's disease for many years, he was buried at the southwest corner of Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery in Westwood, Los Angeles. Magoo in Hi-Fi as Mr. Magoo Delicious! Cave Man Truth of Truths as God The Dirty Old Man Mr. Magoo's A Christmas Carol as Mr. Magoo Jim Backus on IMDb Jim Backus at the Internet Broadway Database Jim Backus at the TCM Movie Database Jim Backus at AllMovie Jim Backus at Find a Grave Literature on Jim Backus
Charles Bronson was an American actor. He was cast in the role of a police officer, gunfighter, or vigilante in revenge-oriented plot lines, he had long-term collaborations with film directors Michael Winner and J. Lee Thompson, appeared in fifteen films alongside his second wife, Jill Ireland. Bronson was born Charles Dennis Buchinsky, the 11th of 15 children, in a Roman Catholic family of Lithuanian descent in Ehrenfeld, Pennsylvania, in the coal region of the Allegheny Mountains north of Johnstown, Pennsylvania, his father, Valteris P. Bučinskis, who adjusted his name to Walter Buchinsky to sound more "American", was from Druskininkai in southern Lithuania. Bronson's mother, whose parents were from Lithuania, was born in the coal mining town of Tamaqua, Pennsylvania; the family had Lipka Tatar roots. Bronson learned to speak English. Bronson was the first member of his family to graduate from high school; when Bronson was 10 years old, his father died and he went to work in the coal mines, first in the mining office and in the mine.
He said he earned one dollar for each ton of coal that he mined. He worked in the mine until he entered military service during World War II, his family was so poor that, at one time, he had to wear his sister's dress to school for lack of clothing. In 1943, Bronson enlisted in the United States Army Air Forces and served in the 760th Flexible Gunnery Training Squadron, in 1945 as a Boeing B-29 Superfortress aerial gunner with the Guam-based 61st Bombardment Squadron within the 39th Bombardment Group, which conducted combat missions against the Japanese home islands, he received a Purple Heart for wounds received in battle. After the end of World War II, Bronson worked at many odd jobs until joining a theatrical group in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he shared an apartment in New York City with Jack Klugman while both were aspiring to play on the stage. In 1950, he married and moved to Hollywood, where he enrolled in acting classes and began to find small roles. Bronson's first film role — an uncredited one — was as a sailor in You're in the Navy Now in 1951, directed by Henry Hathaway.
Other early screen appearances were in The Mob. In 1952, Bronson boxed in a ring with Roy Rogers in Rogers' show Knockout, he appeared on an episode of The Red Skelton Show as a boxer in a skit with Skelton playing "Cauliflower McPugg". He appeared with fellow guest star Lee Marvin in an episode of Biff Baker, U. S. A. an espionage series on CBS starring Alan Hale, Jr. He had small roles in Miss Sadie Thompson. Bronson had a notable support part as an Indian in Apache for director Robert Aldrich who used him again in Vera Cruz. Bronson made a strong impact as the main villain in the Alan Ladd western Drum Beat as a murderous Modoc warrior, Captain Jack, who relishes wearing the tunics of soldiers he has killed, he had roles in Tennessee Champ for MGM, Crime Wave directed by de Toth. In 1954, during the House Un-American Activities Committee proceedings, he changed his surname from Buchinsky to Bronson at the suggestion of his agent, who feared that an Eastern European surname might damage his career.
As "Charles Bronson", he could be seen in Target Zero, Big House, U. S. A. and Jubal. Bronson had the lead role of the episode "The Apache Kid" of the syndicated crime drama Sheriff of Cochise, starring John Bromfield. S. Marshal, he guest-starred in the short-lived CBS situation comedy, Jeannie! and in three episodes of Alfred Hitchcock Presents: "And So Died Riabouchinska", "There Was an Old Woman", "The Woman Who Wanted to Live". In 1957, Bronson was cast in the Western series Colt.45 as an outlaw named Danny Arnold in the episode "Young Gun". He had a support role in Sam Fuller's Run of the Arrow. Bronson scored the lead in his own ABC's detective series Man with a Camera, in which he portrayed Mike Kovac, a former combat photographer freelancing in New York City, he was cast in leading man roles in some low budget films, Machine-Gun Kelly, a biopic of a real life gangster directed by Roger Corman. He starred in Gang War, When Hell Broke Loose, Showdown at Boot Hill. On television, he played Steve Ogrodowski, a naval intelligence officer, in two episodes of the CBS military sitcom/drama, starring Jackie Cooper, he played Rogue Donovan, an escaped murderer in Yancy Derringer.
Bronson starred alongside Elizabeth Montgomery in a Twilight Zone episode. He appeared in five episodes of Richard Boone's Have Gun – Will Travel. Bronson had a support role in an expensive war film, Never So Few, directed by John Sturges. Bronson was cast in the 1960 episode "Zigzag" of Riverboat, starring Darren McGavin; that same year, he was cast as "Dutch Malkin" in the 1960 episode "The Generous Politician" of The Islanders. In 1960, he garnered attention in John Sturges' The Magnificent Seven, in which he was cast as one of seven gunfighters taking up the cau
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
Cloris Leachman is an American actress and comedian. In a career spanning over seven decades she has won eight Primetime Emmy Awards, a Daytime Emmy Award, an Academy Award for her role in The Last Picture Show; as Miss Chicago, Leachman competed in the 20th Miss America pageant and placed in the Top 16 in 1946. Leachman's longest-running role was the nosy and cunning landlady Phyllis Lindstrom on the CBS sitcom The Mary Tyler Moore Show and its spin-off, Phyllis, in the 1970s, she appeared in three Mel Brooks films, including Young Frankenstein, starred as Beverly Ann Stickle on the NBC sitcom The Facts of Life from 1986–88, appeared as Granny in The Beverly Hillbillies. In the 2000s, Leachman had a recurring role as Grandma Ida on the Fox sitcom Malcolm in the Middle, appeared as a roaster in the Comedy Central Roast of Bob Saget in 2008, she was a contestant on the seventh season of the ABC reality competition series Dancing with the Stars in 2008, paired with Corky Ballas. She is the oldest contestant to have danced on the series.
From 2010–14, she starred as Maw Maw on the Fox sitcom Raising Hope. In 2017, she played the role of Zorya Vechernyaya on the Starz drama American Gods. Leachman was born in Des Moines, the eldest of three sisters, she attended Theodore Roosevelt High School. Her parents were Berkeley Claiborne "Buck" Leachman. Mr. Leachman worked at the family-owned Leachman Lumber Company; the youngest sister, was not in show business. Middle sister Claiborne Cary was an singer, her maternal grandmother was of Bohemian descent. As a teenager, Leachman appeared in plays by local youth on weekends at Drake University in Des Moines. After graduating from high school, she enrolled at Illinois State University studying drama, Northwestern University, where she was a member of Gamma Phi Beta and a classmate of future comic actors Paul Lynde and Charlotte Rae, she began appearing on television and in films shortly after competing in Miss America in 1946. After winning a scholarship in the Miss America pageant placing in the Top 16, Leachman studied acting under Elia Kazan at the Actors Studio in New York City.
She was cast as a replacement for the role of Nellie Forbush during the original run of Rodgers and Hammerstein's South Pacific. A few years she appeared in the Broadway-bound production of William Inge's Come Back, Little Sheba, but left the show before it reached Broadway when Katharine Hepburn asked her to co-star in a production of William Shakespeare's As You Like It. Leachman appeared in many live television broadcasts in the 1950s, including such programs as Suspense and Studio One, she made her feature film debut as an extra in Carnegie Hall, but had her first real role in Robert Aldrich's film noir classic Kiss Me Deadly, released in 1955. Leachman was several months pregnant during the filming, appears in one scene running down a darkened highway wearing only a trench coat. A year she appeared opposite Paul Newman and Lee Marvin in The Rack, she appeared with Newman again in a brief role in the Sundance Kid. She continued to work in television, with appearances in Rawhide and in The Twilight Zone episode "It's a Good Life" as well as the sequel "It's Still a Good Life" in the 2002-2003 UPN series revival.
During this period, Leachman appeared opposite John Forsythe on the popular anthology Alfred Hitchcock Presents in an episode titled "Premonition". She appeared as Ruth Martin, Timmy Martin's adoptive mother, in the last half of season four of Lassie. Jon Provost, who played Timmy, said, "Cloris did not feel challenged by the role; when she realized that all she'd be doing was baking cookies, she wanted out." She was replaced by June Lockhart in 1958. That same year, she appeared in an episode of One Step Beyond titled "The Dark Room", in which she portrayed an American photographer living in Paris. In 1960, she played Marilyn Parker, the roommate of Janice Rule's character, Elena Nardos, in the Checkmate episode "The Mask of Vengeance". In 1966, she guest starred on Perry Mason as Gloria Shine in "The Case of the Crafty Kidnapper". In late 1970, Leachman starred in one episode of That Girl as Sandy. Leachman won an Oscar for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in The Last Picture Show, based on the bestselling book by Larry McMurtry.
She played the high school gym teacher's neglected wife, with whom Timothy Bottoms' character has an affair. Director Peter Bogdanovich had predicted during production that she would win an Academy Award for her performance; the part was offered to Ellen Burstyn, but Burstyn wanted another role in the film. Leachman has won a record-setting eight Primetime and one Daytime Emmy Awards and has been nominated more than 20 times, most notably for playing Phyllis Lindstrom on The Mary Tyler Moore Show. Lindstrom was a recurring character on the program for five years and was subsequently featured in a spinoff series, for which Leachman won a Golden Globe Award; the series ran for two seasons. Its cancellation was due to the deaths of three regular or recurring cast members during its brief run: Barbara Colby, Judith Lowry and Burt Mustin. In 1977, she guest-starred on The Muppet Show, episode 2.24. In 1978, she won the Sarah Siddons Award for her work in Chicago theater. In 1987, she hosted the VHS releases of Schoolhouse Rock! and portrayed the evil witch Griselda for Di