Pope Clement V
Pope Clement V, born Raymond Bertrand de Got, was Pope from 5 June 1305 to his death in 1314. He is remembered for suppressing the order of the Knights Templar and allowing the execution of many of its members, as the Pope who moved the Papacy from Rome to Avignon, ushering in the period known as the Avignon Papacy. Born in Villandraut, Aquitaine, as the son of Bérard, Lord of Villandraut, Bertrand became canon and sacristan of the Cathedral of Saint-André in Bordeaux vicar-general to his brother Bérard de Got, the Archbishop of Lyon, who in 1294 was created Cardinal-Bishop of Albano, he was made Bishop of St-Bertrand-de-Comminges, the cathedral church of which he was responsible for enlarging and embellishing, chaplain to Pope Boniface VIII, who made him Archbishop of Bordeaux in 1297. Following the death of Benedict XI in 1304, there was a year's interregnum occasioned by disputes between the French and Italian cardinals, who were nearly balanced in the conclave, which had to be held at Perugia.
Bertrand was consecrated on 14 November. Bertrand was neither Italian nor a cardinal, his election might have been considered a gesture towards neutrality; the contemporary chronicler Giovanni Villani reports gossip that he had bound himself to King Philip IV of France by a formal agreement before his elevation, made at St. Jean d'Angély in Saintonge. Whether this was true or not, it is that the future pope had conditions laid down for him by the conclave of cardinals. At Bordeaux, Bertrand was formally notified of his election and urged to come to Italy, but he selected Lyon for his coronation on 14 November 1305, celebrated with magnificence and attended by Philip IV. Among his first acts was the creation of nine French cardinals. At Clement's coronation the Duke of Brittany, John II, was leading the Pope's horse through the crowd during the celebrations. So many spectators had piled atop the walls that one of the walls crumbled and collapsed on top of the Duke, who died four days later. Early in 1306, Clement V explained away those features of the Papal bull Clericis Laicos that might seem to apply to the king of France and withdrew Unam Sanctam, the bull of Boniface VIII that asserted papal supremacy over secular rulers and threatened Philip's political plans, a radical change in papal policy.
On Friday, 13 October 1307, hundreds of the Knights Templar were arrested in France, an action motivated financially and undertaken by the efficient royal bureaucracy to increase the prestige of the crown. Philip IV was the force behind this move, but it has embellished the historical reputation of Clement V. From the day of Clement V's coronation, the king charged the Templars with usury, credit inflation, heresy, sodomy and abuses, the scruples of the Pope were heightened by a growing sense that the burgeoning French State might not wait for the Church, but would proceed independently. Meanwhile, Philip IV's lawyers pressed to reopen Guillaume de Nogaret's charges of heresy against the late Boniface VIII that had circulated in the pamphlet war around the bull Unam sanctam. Clement V had to yield to pressures for this extraordinary trial, begun on 2 February 1309 at Avignon, which dragged on for two years. In the document that called for witnesses, Clement V expressed both his personal conviction of the innocence of Boniface VIII and his resolution to satisfy the king.
In February 1311, Philip IV wrote to Clement V abandoning the process to the future Council of Vienne. For his part, Clement V absolved all the participants in the abduction of Boniface at Anagni. In pursuance of the king's wishes, Clement V in 1311 summoned the Council of Vienne, which refused to convict the Templars of heresy; the Pope abolished the order anyway, as the Templars seemed to be in bad repute and had outlived their usefulness as papal bankers and protectors of pilgrims in the East. Their French estates were granted to the Knights Hospitallers, but Philip IV held them until his death and expropriated the Templars' bank outright. False charges of heresy and sodomy set aside, the guilt or innocence of the Templars is one of the more difficult historical problems because of the atmosphere of hysteria that had built up in the preceding generation because the subject has been embraced by conspiracy theorists and quasi-historians. Clement sent John of Montecorvino to Beijing to preach in China.
Clement engaged intermittently in communications with the Mongol Empire towards the possibility of creating a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Muslims. In April 1305, the Mongol Ilkhan ruler Oljeitu sent an embassy led by Buscarello de Ghizolfi to Clement, Philip IV of France, Edward I of England. In 1307, another Mongol embassy led by Tommaso Ugi di Siena reached European monarchs. However, no coordinated military action was forthcoming and hopes of alliance petered out within a few years. In 1308, Clement ordered the preaching of a crusade to be launched against the Mamluks in the Holy Land in the spring of 1309; this resulted in the unwanted Crusade of the Poor appearing before Avignon in July 1309. Clement granted the poor crusaders an indulgence, but refused to let them participate in the professional expedition led by the Hospitallers; that expedition set off in early 1310, but instead of sailing for the Holy Land, the Hospitallers conquered the city of Rhodes from the Byzantines. On 4 April 1312, a Crusade was promulgated by Pope Clement V at the Council of Vienne.
Another embassy was sent by Oljeitu to the West and to Edward II of England i
Côtes du Rhône AOC
Côtes du Rhône is a wine-growing Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for the Rhône wine region of France, which may be used throughout the region in those areas which are covered by other AOCs. In a limited part of the region, the Côtes du Rhône-Villages AOC may be used, in some cases together with the name of the commune. Côtes du Rhône are the basic AOC wines of the Rhône region, exist as red and rosé wines dominated by Grenache for reds and rosés, or Grenache blanc for whites. Wines have been produced in the region since pre-Roman times, those from the right bank were the favourite wines of kings and the papal community in Avignon at the time of the schism. In the mid 17th century the right-bank district of Côte du Rhône had issued regulations to govern the quality of its wine and in 1737 the king ordered that casks of wine shipped from the nearby river port of Roquemaure should be branded with the letters CDR to introduce a system of protecting its origin; the rules for its Côte du Rhône thus formed the early basis of today's nationwide AOC system governed by the INAO.
The name was changed to Côtes du Rhône when the left-bank wines were included in the appellation some hundred years later. The appellation received full recognition by a High Court decision in 1937, the rules were revised in 1996 and 2001 to take into account new conditions of production. Roquemaure is known as "La Capitale des Amoureux", or "The Capital of Lovers". In 1868 the relics of St. Valentine arrived after being purchased from Rome by Maximilian Richard, a local dignitary, as it was believed that the relics would protect the vines from phylloxera which ravaged the vineyards in 1866; the relics are kept in the 14th century collegiate church and each year the St Valentine Festival of the Kiss attracts over 20,000 people. Reporter Pierre-Marie Doutrelant revealed that "the growers of Côtes du Rhône planted mourvèdre and syrah, two low-yield grapes that give the wine finesse for the benefit of government inspectors; when the inspectors left, they grafted cheap high-yield vines—grenache and carignan—back onto the vines" At the generic level, the official AOC Côtes du Rhône region stretches 200 km from Vienne in the north to Avignon in the south and from the foothills of the Massif Central in the west to the fore-slopes of the Vaucluse and Luberon mountains east of the town of Orange.
171 communes in the French departments of Ardèche, Bouches du Rhône, Drôme, Gard and Vaucluse are concerned with production from the 83,839 hectares of vineyard. The average yield is 52 hectolitres per hectare. Wines of all three colours must have a minimum alcohol content of 11%; the average annual production of CDR of around 3.3 million hectolitres – 419 million bottles –, is assured by 5,292 concerns including 5,202 growers, 875 private producers, 70 co-operative wineries, 20 merchant/producers and blenders, making it one of the largest single appellation regions in the world. Red and rosé wines are made from Grenache noir, Cinsault, Carignane and Mourvèdre grapes varieties. A maximum of 20% white varieties may be used in the rosés. All reds grown south of Montélimar must contain a minimum of 40% Grenache, may contain up to 5% white grapes. A red from anywhere in the appellation must contain a minimum of 15% Syrah and/or Mourvedre; the whites must contain a minimum blend of 80% Clairette, Grenache blanc, Roussanne and Viognier.
Ugni blanc and Picpoul blanc may be used as secondary varieties. There are two sub regions of Rhône wines: 1. Côtes du Rhône septentrional in the northern part of the region from Vienne to Valence; the vines are cultivated on steep slopes making the harvest arduous. The grapes are manually picked and have to be hauled up the hillside on trolleys, a feature which adds to the price. Syrah is the dominant red grape in this area. 2. Côtes du Rhône méridional from Montélimar to Avignon in the southern latitudes, produced by 123 communes; the great majority of these are cultivated on the eastern side of the Rhône between the river bank near the town of Orange, the Vaucluse-Luberon chain of mountains. The wines here are anchored by Grenache noir but include other grapes such as Syrah and Mourvedre; the reds range in color from deep crimson and ruby to purple and are full-bodied with rich but smooth tannins, though Lirac and others from the right bank tend to be somewhat lighter. They all go well with game and other rich meat dishes.
The whites range from dry with a tang of citrus to fuller, rounder wines which can be consumed as an aperitif. Condrieu, a septentrional, is one of the rarest white wines in the world and is produced from 100% Viognier – a notoriously difficult grape to vinify. Year of Production: In general, the year-to-year climate of the region remains constant although there may be rare occasions of spring frost which may damage the buds, thus reducing the overall yield. Drought may affect the quantity of production. Sunlight levels are the average to be expected; the year of production on a label is therefore not a sign of any particular quality due to exceptionally favourable wine growing weather. Further up the scale from the Côtes du Rhône AOC the Côtes du Rhône-Villages AOC is produced by 95 authorized communes in the departments of the Ardèche, the Drôme, the Gard, the Vaucluse; the appellation includes 95 communes, with a total of 3,000 hectares under cultivation. The average yield is 38 hectolitres per hectare.
The Grenache grape is required to be present with 20 % Syrah and/or Mourvèdre. A maximum of 20% of other authorized
Vacqueyras is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. Vacqueyras is the name of an Appellation for a wine from the Côtes du Rhône. Departmental Route 8 arrives at the north of the commune Departmental Route 7 traverses the commune on a north-south axis, forking to the southeast near Beaumes-de-Venise. Departmental route 52 continues on to the south. Departmental Route 233 leaves at the east near Peyre's Wood. Containing many alternating little valleys of minimal depth and plains + hills to the east, the extremity is at the Dentelles de Montmirail; the Dentelles de Montmirail are the furthest west of the Massif des Baronnies and constitute the first advance of the Alps into the Rhone Valley. Rocky stones from the Late Jurassic period with clay-limestone soil dominate the area; the Limade flows into the Ouvèze, which passes to the west. The Canal de Carpentras crosses the commune, built in 1856, irrigates the commune, graced by a network of fillioles.
Mediterranean plants on the Dentelles de Montmirail compare to those from the Alpilles in many places. One can rediscover there Evergreen Oaks and Provençal White Pines, etc.. Vines grow well on the coasts but in the stony plains, in high terraces. Dentelles de Montmirail Communes of the Vaucluse department Vacqueyras AOC Raimbaut de Vaqueiras INSEE
Orange is a commune in the Vaucluse Department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France, about 21 km north of Avignon. It has a agricultural economy. Roman Orange was founded in 35 BC by veterans of the second legion as Arausio, or Colonia Julia Firma Secundanorum Arausio in full, "the Julian colony of Arausio established by the soldiers of the second legion." The name was unrelated to that of the orange fruit, but was conflated with it. A previous Celtic settlement with that name existed in the same place, a major battle, known as the Battle of Arausio, had been fought in 105 BC between two Roman armies and the Cimbri and Teutones tribes. Arausio was well-endowed with civic monuments, it was the capital of a wide area of northern Provence, parcelled up into lots for the Roman colonists. "Orange of two thousand years ago was a miniature Rome, complete with many of the public buildings that would have been familiar to a citizen of the Roman Empire, except that the scale of the buildings had been reduced – a smaller theater to accommodate a smaller population, for example."
It is found in both the Tabula Le cadastre d'Orange maps. The town prospered, but was sacked by the Visigoths in 412, it had, by become Christianized, from the end of the third century constituted the Ancient Diocese of Orange. No longer a residential bishopric, Arausio, as it is called in Latin, is today listed by the Roman Catholic Church as a titular see, it hosted two important synods, in 441 and 529. The Second Council of Orange was of importance in condemning what came to be called Semipelagianism; the sovereign Carolingian counts of Orange had their origin in the eighth century, passed into the family of the lords of Baux. From the 12th century, Orange was raised to a minor principality, the Principality of Orange, as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. During this period, the town and the principality of Orange belonged to the administration and province of Dauphiné; when William the Silent, count of Nassau, with estates in the Netherlands, inherited the title Prince of Orange in 1544, the principality was incorporated into the holdings of what became the House of Orange-Nassau.
This pitched it into the Protestant side in the Wars of Religion, during which the town was badly damaged. In 1568, the Eighty Years' War began with William as stadtholder leading the bid for independence from Spain. William the Silent was assassinated in Delft in 1584, his son, Maurice of Nassau, with the help of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, solidified the independence of the Dutch republic. The United Provinces survived to become the Netherlands, still ruled by the House of Orange-Nassau. William, Prince of Orange, ruled England as William III of England. Orange gave its name to other Dutch-influenced parts of the world, such as the Oranges in New Jersey and the Orange Free State in South Africa; the city remained part of scattered Nassau holdings until it was captured by the forces of Louis XIV during his wars of the late 17th century. The city was occupied by France in 1673, 1679, 1690, 1697 and 1702-1713 before it was ceded to France in 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht. Following the French Revolution of 1789, Orange was absorbed into the French département of Drôme Bouches-du-Rhône finally Vaucluse.
However, the title remained with the Dutch princes of Orange. Orange attracted international attention in 1995, when it elected a member of Front National, Jacques Bompard, as its mayor. Bompard left the FN in 2005 and became a member of the conservative Movement for France until 2010. Orange was home to the French Foreign Legion's armored First Foreign Cavalry Regiment; the regiment moved to Carpiagne on July 10, 2014. The city of Orange is the 3rd largest town of Vaucluse by population after Carpentras. In 2013, the municipality had 29,193 residents; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known throughout the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793. From the twenty-first century, censuses of municipalities with more than 10 000 inhabitants are held annually as a result of a sample survey, unlike other cities that have a real census every five years The town is renowned for its Roman architecture, its Roman theatre, the Théâtre antique d'Orange, is described as the most impressive still existing in Europe.
The fine Triumphal Arch of Orange is said to date from the time of Augustus or Tiberius, but is much perhaps Severan. The arch and surroundings were listed in 1981 by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site; the Musée displays the biggest cadastral Roman maps recovered, etched on marble. They cover the area between Orange, Nîmes, Montélimar. In 1869, the Roman theatre has been the site of a music festival; the festival, given the name Chorégies d'Orange in 1902, has been held annually since, is now famous as an international opera festival. In 1971, the "New Chorégies" became an overnight, international success. Many top international opera singers have performed in the theatre, such as Barbara Hendricks, Plácido Domingo, Montserrat Caballé, Roberto Alagna, René Pape and Inva Mula. Operas such as Tosca, Aida and Carmen have been staged here, many with a sumptuous staging and also
Rasteau is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. Houyet, Belgium Communes of the Vaucluse department Rasteau AOC, a wine appellation covering Rasteau and some neighbouring communes INSEE
Beaumes-de-Venise is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. The word "beaumes" comes from the Provençal word bauma meaning "cave" or "grotto"; the surrounding hills have many of these caves. The village gives its name to Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise, it gives its name to a drier red wine Côtes du Rhone Villages Beaumes-de-Venise, now AC Beaumes-de-Venise. Dentelles de Montmirail Communes of the Vaucluse department INSEE
Philip IV of France
Philip IV, called Philip the Fair, was King of France from 1285 until his death. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was King of Navarre as Philip I from 1284 to 1305, as well as Count of Champagne. Although Philip was known as handsome, hence the epithet le Bel, his rigid and inflexible personality gained him other nicknames, such as the Iron King, his fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him: "he is neither beast. He is a statue."Philip relied on skillful civil servants, such as Guillaume de Nogaret and Enguerrand de Marigny, to govern the kingdom rather than on his nobles. Philip and his advisors were instrumental in the transformation of France from a feudal country to a centralized state. Philip, who sought an uncontested monarchy, compelled his vassals by wars and restricted feudal usages, his ambitions made him influential in European affairs. His goal was to place his relatives on foreign thrones. Princes from his house ruled in Hungary, he failed to make another relative the Holy Roman Emperor.
He began the long advance of France eastward by taking control of scattered fiefs. The most notable conflicts of Philip's reign include a dispute with the English over King Edward I's fiefs in southwestern France, a war with the Flemish, who had rebelled against French royal authority and humiliated Philip at the Battle of the Golden Spurs in 1302. In 1306, Philip expelled the Jews from France, in 1307 he annihilated the order of the Knights Templar, he was in debt to both groups and saw them as a "state within the state". To further strengthen the monarchy, Philip tried to take control of the French clergy, leading to a violent conflict with Pope Boniface VIII; this conflict resulted in the transfer of the papal court to the enclave of Avignon in 1309. His final year saw a scandal amongst the royal family, known as the Tour de Nesle affair, in which Philip's three daughters-in-law were accused of adultery, his three sons were successively kings of France, Louis X, Philip V, Charles IV. Their deaths without surviving sons of their own would compromise the future of the French royal house, which until seemed secure, precipitating a succession crisis that would lead to the Hundred Years' War.
A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born in the medieval fortress of Fontainebleau to the future Philip III, the Bold, his first wife, Isabella of Aragon. He was the second of four sons born to the couple, his father was the heir apparent of France at that time, being the eldest son of King Louis IX. In August 1270, when Philip was two years old, his grandfather died while on Crusade, his father became king, his elder brother Louis became heir apparent. Only five months in January 1271, Philip's mother died after falling from a horse. A few months one of Philip's younger brothers, Robert died. Philip's father was crowned king at Rheims on 15 August 1271. Six days he married again. In May 1276, Philip's elder brother Louis died, the eight year old Philip became heir apparent, it was suspected that Louis had been poisoned, that his stepmother, Marie of Brabant, had instigated the murder. One reason for these rumours was the fact that the queen had given birth to her own first son the month Louis died.
However, both Philip and his surviving full brother Charles lived well into adulthood and raised large families of their own. The scholastic part of Philip's education was entrusted to his father's almoner. After the unsuccessful Aragonese Crusade against Peter III of Aragon, which ended in October 1285, Philip may have negotiated an agreement with Peter for the safe withdrawal of the Crusader army; this pact is attested to by Catalan chroniclers. Joseph Strayer points out that such a deal was unnecessary, as Peter had little to gain from provoking a battle with the withdrawing French or angering the young Philip, who had friendly relations with Aragon through his mother. Philip married Queen Joan I of Navarre on 16 August 1284; the two were affectionate and devoted to each other and Philip refused to remarry after Joan's death in 1305, despite the great political and financial rewards of doing so. The primary administrative benefit of the marriage was Joan's inheritance of Champagne and Brie, which were adjacent to the royal demesne in Ile-de-France, thus were united to the king's own lands, expanding his realm.
The annexation of wealthy Champagne increased the royal revenues removed the autonomy of a large semi-independent fief and expanded royal territory eastward. Philip gained Lyon for France in 1312. Navarre remained in personal union with France, beginning in 1284 under Philip and Joan, for 44 years; the Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees had a degree of strategic importance. When in 1328 the Capetian line went extinct, the new Valois king, Philip VI, attempted to permanently annex the lands to France, compensating the lawful claimant, Joan II of Navarre, senior heir of Philip IV, with lands elsewhere in France. However, pressure from Joan II's family led to Phillip VI surrendering the land to Joan in 1329, the rulers of Navarre and France were again different individuals. After marrying Joan I of Navarre, becoming Philip I of Navarre, Philip ascended the French throne at the age of 17, he was crowned in 1286 in Reims. As king, Philip was determined to strength