Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian opera composer. He was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, developed a musical education with the help of a local patron. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, Gioachino Rossini, whose works influenced him. By his 30s, he had become one of the pre-eminent opera composers in history. In his early operas, Verdi demonstrated a sympathy with the Risorgimento movement which sought the unification of Italy, he participated as an elected politician. The chorus "Va, pensiero" from his early opera Nabucco, similar choruses in operas, were much in the spirit of the unification movement, the composer himself became esteemed as a representative of these ideals. An intensely private person, however, did not seek to ingratiate himself with popular movements and as he became professionally successful was able to reduce his operatic workload and sought to establish himself as a landowner in his native region.
He surprised the musical world by returning, after his success with the opera Aida, with three late masterpieces: his Requiem, the operas Otello and Falstaff. His operas remain popular the three peaks of his'middle period': Rigoletto, Il trovatore and La traviata, the 2013 bicentenary of his birth was celebrated in broadcasts and performances. Verdi, the first child of Carlo Giuseppe Verdi and Luigia Uttini, was born at their home in Le Roncole, a village near Busseto in the Département Taro and within the borders of the First French Empire following the annexation of the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza in 1808; the baptismal register, prepared on 11 October 1813, lists his parents Carlo and Luigia as "innkeeper" and "spinner" respectively. Additionally, it lists Verdi as being "born yesterday", but since days were considered to begin at sunset, this could have meant either 9 or 10 October. Following his mother, Verdi always celebrated his birthday on 9 October, the day he himself believed he was born.
Verdi had a younger sister, who died aged 17 in 1833. From the age of four, Verdi was given private lessons in Latin and Italian by the village schoolmaster, at six he attended the local school. After learning to play the organ, he showed so much interest in music that his parents provided him with a spinet. Verdi's gift for music was apparent by 1820–21 when he began his association with the local church, serving in the choir, acting as an altar boy for a while, taking organ lessons. After Baistrocchi's death, Verdi, at the age of eight, became; the music historian Roger Parker points out that both of Verdi's parents "belonged to families of small landowners and traders not the illiterate peasants from which Verdi liked to present himself as having emerged... Carlo Verdi was energetic in furthering his son's education...something which Verdi tended to hide in life... he picture emerges of youthful precocity eagerly nurtured by an ambitious father and of a sustained and elaborate formal education."In 1823, when he was 10, Verdi's parents arranged for the boy to attend school in Busseto, enrolling him in a Ginnasio—an upper school for boys—run by Don Pietro Seletti, while they continued to run their inn at Le Roncole.
Verdi returned to Busseto to play the organ on Sundays, covering the distance of several kilometres on foot. At age 11, Verdi received schooling in Italian, the humanities, rhetoric. By the time he was 12, he began lessons with Ferdinando Provesi, maestro di cappella at San Bartolomeo, director of the municipal music school and co-director of the local Società Filarmonica. Verdi stated: "From the ages of 13 to 18 I wrote a motley assortment of pieces: marches for band by the hundred as many little sinfonie that were used in church, in the theatre and at concerts, five or six concertos and sets of variations for pianoforte, which I played myself at concerts, many serenades and various pieces of church music, of which I remember only a Stabat Mater." This information comes from the Autobiographical Sketch which Verdi dictated to the publisher Giulio Ricordi late in life, in 1879, remains the leading source for his early life and career. Written, with the benefit of hindsight, it is not always reliable when dealing with issues more contentious than those of his childhood.
The other director of the Philharmonic Society was Antonio Barezzi, a wholesale grocer and distiller, described by a contemporary as a "manic dilettante" of music. The young Verdi did not become involved with the Philharmonic. By June 1827, he had graduated with honours from the Ginnasio and was able to focus on music under Provesi. By chance, when he was 13, Verdi was asked to step in as a replacement to play in what became his first public event in his home town. By 1829–30, Verdi had established himself as a leader of the Philharmonic: "none of us could rival him" reported the secretary of the organisation, Giuseppe Demaldè. An eight-movement cantata, I deliri di Saul, based on a drama by Vittorio Alfieri, was written by Verdi when he was 15 and performed in Bergamo, it was acclaimed by both Demaldè and Barezzi, who commented: "He shows a vivid imagination, a philosophical outlook, sound judgment in the arrangement of instrumental parts." In late 1829, Verdi had completed his s
An opera house is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, backstage facilities for costumes and set building. While some venues are constructed for operas, other opera houses are part of larger performing arts centers. Indeed the term opera house itself is used as a term of prestige for any large performing-arts center; the first public opera house was the Teatro San Cassiano in Venice, opened in 1637. Italy is a country where opera has been popular through the centuries among ordinary people as well as wealthy patrons and it continues to have a large number of working opera houses such as Teatro Massimo in Palermo, Teatro di San Carlo in Naples and Teatro La Scala in Milan. In contrast, there was no opera house in London when Henry Purcell was composing and the first opera house in Germany was built in Hamburg in 1678. In the 17th and 18th centuries, opera houses were financed by rulers and wealthy people who used patronage of the arts to endorse their political ambition and social position.
With the rise of bourgeois and capitalist social forms in the 19th century, European culture moved away from its patronage system to a publicly supported system. Early United States opera houses served a variety of functions in towns and cities, hosting community dances, fairs and vaudeville shows as well as operas and other musical events. In the 2000s, most opera and theatre companies are supported by funds from a combination of government and institutional grants, ticket sales, private donations; the Teatro San Carlo in Naples, opened in 1737, introduced the horseshoe-shaped auditorium, the oldest in the world, a model for the Italian theater. On this model were built subsequent theaters in Italy and Europe, among others, the court theater of the Palace of Caserta, which became the model for other theaters. Given the popularity of opera in 18th and 19th century Europe, opera houses are large containing more than 1,000 seats. Traditionally, Europe's major opera houses built in the 19th century contained between about 1,500 to 3,000 seats, examples being Brussels' La Monnaie, Odessa Opera and Ballet Theater, Warsaw's Grand Theatre, Paris' Palais Garnier, the Royal Opera House in London and the Vienna State Opera.
Modern opera houses of the 20th century such as New York's Metropolitan Opera House and the War Memorial Opera House in San Francisco are larger. Many operas are better suited to being presented in smaller theaters, such as Venice's La Fenice with about 1,000 seats. In a traditional opera house, the auditorium is U-shaped, with the length of the sides determining the audience capacity. Around this are tiers of balconies, nearer to the stage, are boxes. Since the latter part of the 19th century, opera houses have an orchestra pit, where a large number of orchestra players may be seated at a level below the audience, so that they can play without overwhelming the singing voices; this is true of Wagner's Bayreuth Festspielhaus where the pit is covered. The size of an opera orchestra varies, but for some operas and other works, it may be large. An opera may have a large cast of characters, chorus and supernumeraries. Therefore, a major opera house will have extensive dressing room facilities. Opera houses have on-premises set and costume building shops and facilities for storage of costumes, make-up, stage properties, may have rehearsal spaces.
Major opera houses throughout the world have mechanized stages, with large stage elevators permitting heavy sets to be changed rapidly. At the Metropolitan Opera, for instance, sets are changed during the action, as the audience watches, with singers rising or descending as they sing; this occurs in Tales of Hoffman. London's Royal Opera House, remodeled in the late 1990s, retained the original 1858 auditorium at its core, but added new backstage and wing spaces as well as an additional performance space and public areas. Much the same happened in the remodeling of Milan's La Scala opera house between 2002 and 2004. Although stage and other production aspects of opera houses make use of the latest technology, traditional opera houses have not used sound reinforcement systems with microphones and loudspeakers to amplify the singers, since trained opera singers are able to project their unamplified voices in the hall. Since the 1990s, some opera houses have begun using a subtle form of sound reinforcement called acoustic enhancement.
Operas are presented in their original languages, which may be different from the first language of the audience. For example, a Wagnerian opera presented in London may be in German. Therefore, since the 1980s modern opera houses have assisted the audience by providing translated supertitles, projections of the words above or near to the stage. More electronic libretto systems have begun to be used in some opera houses, including New York's Metropolitan Opera, Milan's La Scala, the Crosby Theatre of The Santa Fe Opera, which provide two lines of text on individual screens attached to the backs of the seats so as to not interfere with the visual aspects of the performance. A subtle type of sound reinforcement called acoustic enhancement is used in some opera hou
The Arab world known as the Arab nation, the Arabsphere or the Arab states consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League. These Arab states occupy West Asia; the contemporary Arab world has a combined population of around 422 million inhabitants, over half of whom are under 25 years of age. In post-classical history, the Arab world was synonymous with the historic Arab empires and caliphates. Arab nationalism arose in the second half of the 19th century along with other nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire; the Arab League was formed in 1945 to represent the interests of Arab people and to pursue the political unification of the Arab countries. The linguistic and political denotation inherent in the term Arab is dominant over genealogical considerations. In Arab states, Modern Standard Arabic is the only language used by the government; the language of an individual nation is called Darija, which means "everyday/colloquial language." Darija shares the majority of its vocabulary with standard Arabic, but it significantly borrows from Berber substrates, as well as extensively from French, the language of the historical colonial occupier of the Maghreb.
Darija is spoken and, to various extents, mutually understood in the Maghreb countries Morocco and Tunisia, but it is unintelligible to speakers of other Arabic dialects for those in Egypt and the Middle East. Although no globally accepted definition of the Arab world exists, all countries that are members of the Arab League are acknowledged as being part of the Arab world; the Arab League is a regional organisation that aims to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries and sets out the following definition of an Arab: An Arab is a person whose language is Arabic, who lives in an Arabic country, and, in sympathy with the aspirations of the Arabic people. This standard territorial definition is sometimes seen to be inappropriate or problematic, may be supplemented with certain additional elements; as an alternative to, or in combination with, the standard territorial definition, the Arab world may be defined as consisting of peoples and states united to at least some degree by Arabic language, culture or geographic contiguity, or those states or territories in which the majority of the population speaks Arabic, thus may include populations of the Arab diaspora.
When an ancillary linguistic definition is used in combination with the standard territorial definition, various parameters may be applied to determine whether a state or territory should be included in this alternative definition of the Arab world. These parameters may be applied to the states and territories of the Arab League and to other states and territories. Typical parameters that may be applied include: whether Arabic is spoken. While Arabic dialects are spoken in a number of Arab League states, Literary Arabic is official in all of them. Several states have declared Arabic to be an official or national language, although Arabic is today not as spoken there; as members of the Arab League, they are considered part of the Arab world under the standard territorial definition. Somalia has two official languages today and Somali, both of which belong to the larger Afro-Asiatic language family. Although Arabic is spoken by many people in the north and urban areas in the south, Somali is the most used language, contains many Arabic loan words.
Djibouti has two official languages and French. It has several formally recognized national languages; the majority of the population speaks Somali and Afar, although Arabic is widely used for trade and other activities. Comoros has three official languages: Arabic and French. Comorian is the most spoken language, with Arabic having a religious significance, French being associated with the educational system. Chad and Israel all recognize Arabic as an official language, but none of them is a member-state of the Arab League, although both Chad and Eritrea are observer states of the League and have large populations of Arabic speakers. Israel is not part of the Arab world. By some definitions, Arab citizens of Israel may concurrently be considered a constituent part of the Arab world. Iran has about 1.5 million Arabic speakers. Iranian Arabs are found in Ahvaz, a southwestern region in the Khuzestan Province. Mali and Senegal recognize Hassaniya, the Arabic dialect of the Moorish ethnic minority, as a national language.
Greece and Cyprus recognize Cypriot Maronite Arabic under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Additionally, though not part of the Arab world, has as its official language Maltese; the language is grammatically akin to Maghrebi Arabic. In the Arab world, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic, serves as an official language in the Arab League states, Arabic dialects are used as lingua fr
The Suez Canal is a sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez. Constructed by the Suez Canal Company between 1859 and 1869, it was opened on 17 November 1869; the canal offers watercraft a more direct route between the North Atlantic and northern Indian Oceans via the Mediterranean and Red Seas, thus avoiding the South Atlantic and southern Indian Oceans and thereby reducing the journey distance from the Arabian Sea to, for example, London by 8,900 kilometres. It extends from the northern terminus of Port Said to the southern terminus of Port Tewfik at the city of Suez, its length is 193.30 km, including its southern access channels. In 2012, 17,225 vessels traversed the canal; the original canal was a single-lane waterway with passing locations in the Ballah Bypass and the Great Bitter Lake. It contains no locks system, with seawater flowing through it. In general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in south in summer.
South of the lakes, the current changes with the tide at Suez. The canal is maintained by the Suez Canal Authority of Egypt. Under the Convention of Constantinople, it may be used "in time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag". In August 2014, construction was launched to expand and widen the Ballah Bypass for 35 km to speed the canal's transit time; the expansion was planned to double the capacity of the Suez Canal from 49 to 97 ships a day. At a cost of $8.4 billion, this project was funded with interest-bearing investment certificates issued to Egyptian entities and individuals. The "New Suez Canal", as the expansion was dubbed, was opened with great fanfare in a ceremony on 6 August 2015. On 24 February 2016, the Suez Canal Authority opened the new side channel; this side channel, located at the northern side of the east extension of the Suez Canal, serves the East Terminal for berthing and unberthing vessels from the terminal. As the East Container Terminal is located on the Canal itself, before the construction of the new side channel it was not possible to berth or unberth vessels at the terminal while the convoy was running.
Ancient west–east canals were built to facilitate travel from the Nile River to the Red Sea. One smaller canal is believed to have been constructed under the auspices of Senusret II or Ramesses II. Another canal incorporating a portion of the first, was constructed under the reign of Necho II, but the only functional canal was engineered and completed by Darius I; the legendary Sesostris may have started work on an ancient canal joining the Nile with the Red Sea, when an irrigation channel was constructed around 1850 BCE, navigable during the flood season, leading into a dry river valley east of the Nile River Delta named Wadi Tumilat. In his Meteorology, Aristotle wrote: One of their kings tried to make a canal to it, but he found that the sea was higher than the land. So he first, Darius afterwards, stopped making the canal, lest the sea should mix with the river water and spoil it. Strabo wrote that Sesostris started to build a canal, Pliny the Elder wrote: 165. Next comes the Tyro tribe and, the harbour of the Daneoi, from which Sesostris, king of Egypt, intended to carry a ship-canal to where the Nile flows into what is known as the Delta.
The Persian king Darius had the same idea, yet again Ptolemy II, who made a trench 100 feet wide, 30 feet deep and about 35 miles long, as far as the Bitter Lakes. In the second half of the 19th century, French cartographers discovered the remnants of an ancient north–south canal past the east side of Lake Timsah and ending near the north end of the Great Bitter Lake; this proved to be the celebrated canal made by the Persian king Darius I, as his stele commemorating its construction was found at the site. In the 20th century the northward extension of this ancient canal was discovered, extending from Lake Timsah to the Ballah Lakes; this was dated to the Middle Kingdom of Egypt by extrapolating the dates of ancient sites along its course. The reliefs of the Punt expedition under Hatshepsut, 1470 BCE, depict seagoing vessels carrying the expeditionary force returning from Punt; this suggests that a navigable link existed between the Nile. Recent excavations in Wadi Gawasis may indicate that Egypt's maritime trade started from the Red Sea and did not require a canal.
Evidence seems to indicate its existence by the 13th century BCE during the time of Ramesses II. Remnants of an ancient west–east canal through the ancient Egyptian cities of Bubastis, Pi-Ramesses, Pithom were discovered by Napoleon Bonaparte and his engineers and cartographers in 1799. According to the Histories of the Greek historian Herodotus, about 600 BCE, Necho II undertook to dig a west–east canal through the Wadi Tumilat between Bubastis and Heroopolis, continued it to the Heroopolite Gulf and the Red Sea. Regardless, Necho is reported as having never completed his project. Herodotus was told that 120,000 men perished in this undertaking, but this figure is doubtless exaggerated. According to Pliny the Elde
Azbakeya is one of the districts of Cairo, Egypt in the centre of Cairo, contains many important establishments. One of these is the Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral, inaugurated by Pope Mark VIII in 1800 and served as the seat of the Coptic Pope in Cairo from 1800 to 1971. Azbakeya was the place where the first Cairo Opera House was established, until it was burnt in 1970. By the time of Barquq, the first Circassian Mamluk Sultan, a lot of reconstruction needed to be done within the walls of the city in order to repair the damages incurred as a result of the plague. In 1384 AD, when Barquq started his madrassa in Bayn al-Qasrayn, markets were rebuilt, Khan al-Khalili, the most famous touristic market in Cairo, was established; the Maqrisi showed that the northern cemetery, founded by al-Nasir Muhammad, contained no building at all before his third reign. When al-Nasir Muhammad in 1320 abandoned the area between Bab al-Nasr cemetery and Muqattam, a small number of buildings started to be built in the northern cemetery.
Under the Burji Mamluks, northern cemetery became the new area targeted for the any new city expansion, since no ideological oppositions were found preventing the construction of dwelling within cemeteries. The lack of opposition allowed for the construction of striking religious buildings of monumental scale in the northern cemetery. Examples include Khanqa of Faraj Ibn Barquq, Madrasas of Inal, Qurqumas and Qaitbay. During the latter half of the 15th century, two final major transformations took place in Cairo: the port of Bulaq, a district called Azbakeya in the northwest section of the city; the parameters of the city had been unchanged for the past 300 years according to the map done by the French expedition in With Baybars's conquest of Cyprus in 1428, Bulaq became the major port of Cairo. By the end of the 15th century, Bulaq was able to take over the role as the major commercial port from Old Cairo; the Azbakeya district was developed when Amir Azbak, one of Qaytbay’s princes, established stables and a residence of his own and excavated Berkat El Azbakeya, fed from al-Nasir’s western Canal.
With Al Khalij always serving as the western boundary of the city and feeding nearby ponds, flooding would occur during the summer. After each flooding, surrounding lands would be transformed into lush green areas with vegetation; these beauty of the land in these areas were exquisite and the upper class fought over the each other for the first pick of the land to buy for the construction of their new palaces overlooking such bodies of water as Berkit El Fil and Azbakeya Pond. Cairo was referred to as "Misr", or Egypt, which implies that Cairo was considered to be synonymous to Egypt whereas other cities in Egypt were of far less significance. Meshullam Menahem wrote in 1481 "if it were possible to place all the cities of Rome, Milan and Florence with four other cities, they would not contain the wealth and population of half of Cairo; when the Arabs ruled Egypt, all the lands were assumed to be owned by the Caliph who distributed some among his military chiefs and farmed out the rest to its former proprietors in return for the poll tax required for non-Muslims.
By the Ayyubid period, the Iqta`a or feudal system was well established and was continued by the Mamluks as an important source of revenue. Although the Mamluk Amirs owned large pieces of agriculture lands in various parts of Egypt, they did not reside on them. In comparison with the European of that time, the majordomo residing on the land and managed it controlled the village had the chance to go to the capital; the Mamluks used to visit their lands infrequently either for supervision or the collection of the profits. The Mamluk class was not a community, as Max Weber explains that class is a number of people have in common a specific causal component of their life chances; this component is represented by economic interests in possession of goods and opportunities for income and is represented under the conditions of the commodity or labour markets. Cairo was the centre of trade for the caravans, joining the east with the west and most of the profitable commercial deals were done in through its commercial centres.
The Ambitious Mamluks preferred to live in Cairo seeking economic power that guarantees a social class within the amirs. This social benefit may lead to a better position in the royal hierarchy; the conspiracies and imprisoning were a phenomenon that subsisted for the entire period of the Mamluk rule. Being in the midst of the political centre will allow for greater political awareness of any conspiracies. Cairo as the capital had lots of religious institutions, Markets with the best goods that might not be available in the rural areas, Hammams and a social life, never competed by any other major city in Egypt; the Mamluk Amir would like to enjoy all the luxuries services that were concentrated in the capital, treating himself to compensate the tough life that any Mamluk would have lived. As a result of the centralization practice, the distribution of people in Egypt was adversely affected since a large percentage of the working class from rural cities and from all over the world strove to live in the Cairo where they could sell more and make more money.
It is worth noting. To stay in the city of Cairo, the Amirs tried hard to urbanize new areas, the districts would bear their name. Amir Azbak Tanakh al-Zahiry constructed the western area from the khalij in, the region was cal
President of Egypt
The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the head of state of Egypt. Under the various iterations of the Constitution of Egypt, the president is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces and head of the executive branch of the Egyptian government; the current president is Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, in office since 8 June 2014. The first president of Egypt was Muhammad Naguib, one of the leaders of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, he took office on 18 June 1953, the day on which the constitutional monarchy of Egypt was overthrown. Following the 2011 Egyptian revolution, Hosni Mubarak, who held office from 14 October 1981 until 11 February 2011, was forced to resign following calls for his removal from office. On 10 February 2011 Mubarak transferred presidential powers to then-Vice President Omar Suleiman making Suleiman de facto president. Following Mubarak's resignation, the position of President of Egypt was vacated and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, led by Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, assumed executive control of the state.
On 30 June 2012, Mohamed Morsi was sworn in as President of Egypt, having won the 2012 Egyptian presidential election on 24 June. The Egyptian Constitution has had various forms since its 1953 change to become a republic. Under the 1980 amendments of the 1971 Egyptian Constitution, the president of the republic was elected indirectly in a two-stage system unique to Egypt; the People's Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, nominated one of a number of candidates for the presidency. A candidate needed at least a two-thirds majority in the People's Assembly in order to win the nomination. In the second stage, the candidate was confirmed in office by popular plebiscite. In 2005 and 2007, constitutional amendments were made. Principles in the amended constitution include: Election of the president of the republic by direct secret ballot by citizens who have the right to vote. Ensuring that multiple candidates be put forward for the people to choose from. Ensuring the credibility of the nomination process.
Providing the opportunity for political parties to put forward one of their leaders to contest the first presidential elections to be held in light of the amendment. The establishment of a presidential election commission that would enjoy complete independence to supervise the election process. Carrying out the election in a single day. Ensuring judicial supervision over the voting process; the following provisions regarding the election process are stipulated in Article 76 as amended: A successful candidate must be elected by the majority of the votes. If no candidate attains such a majority, elections will be repeated after at least seven days between the two candidates having the highest votes. In case of a tie between the candidate who attained the second highest votes and a third candidate, the third candidate shall participate in the second round; the candidate who receives the highest votes in the second round shall be declared president. The amendment provides that a law will be passed to regulate the relevant election procedures.
This law is expected to regulate the various aspects of the election process itself, including campaign funding, equal access to the media, guarantees of fair competition. As required by the amendment, the law will be submitted to the Supreme Constitutional Court to opine on its constitutionality; this establishes an important precedent in Egypt's legal tradition, by which the Supreme Constitutional Court shall have the right of prior review of national legislation to decide on its compatibility with the Constitution. This differs from the practice thus far by which the review process undertaken by the Court on national legislation was done by judicial review subsequent to the passage of legislation. Under the system created by the 1980, 2003 and 2007 constitutional amendments to the 1971 Constitution, the President is the pre-eminent executive figure, who names the Prime Minister of Egypt as well as appoints the Cabinet per the latter's recommendation, while in reality, was the head of both the state and of the government, aside from being the top foreign policy maker and holding supreme command over the military.
During martial law, the President anoints deans of faculties and majors, can enlist or oust people in the private sector. He or she also has the power to issue regulations for the enforcement of laws, ensuring proper public services, etc. which have been transferred to the Prime Minister under the 2012 and 2014 Constitutions. Egypt had been under martial law since 1981. After the Egyptian revolution in 2011 - 2012, that ousted the 30-year regime of President Hosni Mubarak, the martial law was suspended; the 2012 Constitution, provides for a semi-presidential form of government in which the President shares executive powers with the Prime Minister. And this was retained under a new Constitution, ratified on 2014, one year after a military coup ousted the country's first democratically elected President, Mohamed Morsi in a coup due to his dictatorial tendencies and the leader of the ruling military junta Defense Minister and Field Marshal Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, suspended the 2012 Constitution.
Sisi was elected President of Egypt under months after it was ratified. Under the present 2014 Constitution, the President is the head of state as well as that of the executive, he or she lays down, alongside with the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, the state's general policy and oversees its implementation, represents Egypt in foreign relations and has the power to ratify treaties, can issue decrees having the force of law when the House of Representatives is in recess and such decrees is subject for approval by the House after resuming its sessions at the end of the recess and
Gezira is an island in the Nile River, in central Cairo, Egypt. The southern portion of the island contains the Gezira district, the northern third contains the Zamalek district. Gezira is west of downtown Cairo and Tahrir Square, connected across the Nile by three bridges each on the east and west sides, including the Qasr El Nil Bridge and 6th October Bridge. Under 19th century ruler Khedive Ismail the island was first called "Jardin des Plantes", because of its great collection of exotic plants shipped from all over the world. Cairo Tower, the tallest concrete construction in Egypt, built near the Gezira Sporting Club. Egyptian Opera House, built near the Cairo Tower, one of the better performing arts venues in the Middle East. El Sawy Culture Wheel Centre, located beneath 15 May Bridge in Zamalek, one of the most important cultural venues in Egypt. Gezira Sporting Club, the oldest club in Egypt. Schools on the island include: Lycée Français du Caire Zamalek Primary Campus Pakistan International School Cairo in Zamalek Previously, the British International School in Cairo in Zamalek Gezira Island is home to the basketball club Al Gezira Cairo, 2017 Champion of the Egyptian Basketball Super League.