Melaleuca leucadendra known as weeping paperbark, long-leaved paperbark or white paperbark is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is widespread in northern Australia, Southeast Asia, New Guinea and the Torres Strait Islands. It is a tree, sometimes growing to more than 20 m with a trunk covered with thick, papery bark and weeping thinner branches, it has a long flowering season, can flower at any time of the year and is grown as a tree in parks and on roadsides. It was the first melaleuca to be was described from a specimen growing in Indonesia. Melaleuca leucadendra is a large tree less than, but sometimes more than 20 m tall, its thick bark is papery white but pinkish or cream and it has weeping branches. Its leaves and young branches are covered with fine, white hairs when young but become glabrous as they mature; the leaves are arranged alternately, 75–270 mm long, 6.5–40 mm wide, narrow egg-shaped or lance-shaped and tapering to a point. The leaves have 5 longitudinal veins and are curved or sickle-shaped.
The flowers are cream, white or greenish-white and are arranged in spikes on the ends of branches which continue to grow after flowering, sometimes on the sides of branches or in the upper leaf axils. Each spike is up to 35 mm in diameter, up to 80 mm long and contains between 7 and 22 groups of flowers in threes; the petals fall off soon after the flower opens. The stamens are arranged in five bundles around the flower and each bundle contains 5 to 12 stamens. Flowering can occur at any time of the year and is followed by fruit which are woody capsules, 3.9–4.9 mm long in loose clusters along the stems. Melaleuca leucadendra was first formally described in 1762 by Carl Linnaeus in Species Plantarum as Myrtus leucadendra. Linnaeus used a description of the species written by Georg Eberhard Rumphius in 1741, before the modern system of classification was devised by Linnaeus. Rumphius had described a plant growing in. Linnaeus realised that this species had little in common with other species in the genus Myrtus and described the genus Melaleuca to accommodate this species.
Thus, Melaleuca leucadendra became the first melaleuca to be formally described. The description was published in 1767 in Mantissa plantarum, it follows that although nearly all melaeucas are found only in Australia, the first type specimen was from Indonesia. The specific epithet is derived from the Ancient Greek words λευκός meaning “white” and δένδρον meaning “tree” referring to the white bark of this plant. Melaleuca leucadendra is superficially similar to other paperbark trees Melaleuca cajuputi, Melaleuca quinquenervia, Melaleuca linariifolia and Melaleuca viridiflora and all are sometimes referred to as cajuput or cajeput. Cajuput is an English word for the oil obtained from the foliage of Melaleuca cajuputi and the word is a corruption of kayu putih, the Indonesian name for the tree; the Malay name for the paperbark tree is gelam and may have given its name to the Kampong Glam district in Singapore. The name Melaleuca leucadendron is sometimes given, but it is an orthographical variant meaning that it is a spelling mistake.
This melaleuca is distributed in northern parts of Western Australia, the Northern Territory and in Queensland as far south as Shoalwater Bay. It occurs in New Guinea and Indonesia, it streams on a range of soils. Aboriginal people used strips of bark from this tree and tied them to a frame of Dodonaea branches to build huts that were waterproof; the bark was used to wrap food before cooking in an underground oven called a kap mari. It was used to wrap the bodies of their dead; the bark from trunks of large trees was used to make bark canoes. The crushed leaves were used to the flowers for making a sweet drink; this species of melaleuca is grown in parks and as a street tree in tropical and sub-tropical areas like Brisbane and as far south as Sydney. It will tolerate poor, waterlogged soils, it has been used as a street tree in Hong Kong. A range of essential oils can be distilled depending on where the trees occur. Two of the most common chemotypes are based on E-methyl isoeugenol; the timber from M. leucadendra can be used for general construction.
In Vietnam, it is used for poles and woodchips
Melaleuca linariifolia known as snow-in-summer, narrow-leaved paperbark, flax-leaved paperbark and in the language of the Gadigal people as budjur. It is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to New South Wales and Queensland in Australia. A hardy plant, it flowers prolifically in late spring or summer, making it a popular garden shrub or small tree in temperate places. Melaleuca trichostachya is a similar species but its leaves are arranged differently and the fruits have projecting valves. Melaleuca linariifolia is a small tree growing to a height of 6–10 m with distinctive and attractive white or creamy white, papery bark and a dense canopy, its leaves are arranged in alternating pairs, glabrous except when young, 17–45 mm long, 1–4 mm wide, linear to lance-shaped and with a distinct mid-vein. The flowers are white to creamy-white and arranged in spikes on the ends of branches which continue to grow after flowering, sometimes in the upper leaf axils; each spike contains 4 to 20 individual flowers.
The petals fall off as the flower matures. The stamens are arranged in five bundles around the flower and each bundle contains 32 to 73 stamens; the flowers cover the tree over a short period, between October and February and are followed by fruit which are woody capsules, 2.5–4 mm long and 4–5 mm long scattered along the stems. The fruiting capsules have valves. Melaleuca linariifolia was first formally described in 1797 by James Edward Smith in Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Smith noted that "This, we are told by Mr White, is a large tree, the bark of, thick and spongy, serving the purpose of tinder." The specific epithet is derived from the Linaria, a genus of plants now in the family Plantaginaceae, the Latin word folium meaning "leaf" referring to the similarity of the leaves of this species to those of a species of Linaria. This melaleuca occurs from the Maryborough district in Queensland to Bawley Point in the Ulladulla district in New South Wales. There is a disjunct population in the Blackdown Tableland National Park.
It is found in heath and dry sclerophyll forest habitats growing near watercourses or swamps. Melaleuca linariifolia is cultivated as an ornamental tree for parks and gardens and is used as a screen or windbreak in Australia and overseas, it is popular as a nature strip tree in Melbourne in Victoria. It is frost hardy, it should be planted with caution as it can damage wastewater pipes, is ignitable, so should not be planted in fire-prone areas. It has become a garden escape in Western Australia, however it suitable for planting under powerlines and is a food or habitat sources for native animals, including many insects. There is a range of cultivars, developed including dwarf forms such as "Snowstorm" which grows to a height of 1.5 metres and "Seafoam" 2.5 metres. This species is rich in essential oils Terpinen-4-ol, it has a wider range of tolerance to environmental conditions than the main current source of "tea tree" oil, Melaleuca alternifolia and therefore has potential as an alternative.
Melaleuca decora, similar looking tree in the same genus
The rosids are members of a large clade of flowering plants, containing about 70,000 species, more than a quarter of all angiosperms. The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders, depending upon circumscription and classification; these orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families. Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago. The name is based upon the name "Rosidae", understood to be a subclass. In 1967, Armen Takhtajan showed that the correct basis for the name "Rosidae" is a description of a group of plants published in 1830 by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling; the clade was renamed "Rosidae" and has been variously delimited by different authors. The name "rosids" is informal and not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN; the rosids are monophyletic based upon evidence found by molecular phylogenetic analysis.
Three different definitions of the rosids were used. Some authors included the orders Vitales in the rosids. Others excluded both of these orders; the circumscription used in this article is that of the APG IV classification, which includes Vitales, but excludes Saxifragales. The rosids and Saxifragales form the superrosids clade; this is one of three groups that compose the Pentapetalae, the others being Dilleniales and the superasterids. The rosids consist of two groups: the eurosids; the eurosids, in turn, are divided into two groups: malvids. The rosids consist of 17 orders. In addition to Vitales, there are 8 orders in malvids; some of the orders have only been recognized. These are Vitales, Crossosomatales and Huerteales; the phylogeny of Rosids shown below is adapted from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group website. The nitrogen-fixing clade contains a high number of actinorhizal plants. Not all plants in this clade are actinorhizal, however. Media related to Rosids at Wikimedia Commons
Melaleuca viridiflora known as broad-leaved paperbark is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is native to woodlands and streams of monsoonal areas of northern Australia and New Guinea. It is a small tree with an open canopy, papery bark and spikes of cream, green or red flowers. Melaleuca viridiflora is a shrub or small tree growing to 10 m tall, sometimes twice that height, with white, brownish or grey bark and an open canopy, its leaves are 70–195 mm long, 19–76 mm wide, broadly elliptic and aromatic. The flowers are cream, yellow-green or red and arranged in spikes on the ends of branch which continue to grow after flowering and sometimes in the upper leaf axils; each spike contains 8 to 25 groups of flowers in threes and is up to 100 mm long and 55 mm in diameter. The petals fall off as the flower matures. There are five bundles of stamens around the flower, each with 6 or 9 stamens although the stamens are only weakly joined in bundles. Flowering can occur at any time of the year but most happens in winter.
Flowering is followed by fruit which are woody capsules 5–6 mm long, scattered along the stem, each containing numerous fine seeds. Melaleuca viridiflora was first formally described in 1788 by Daniel Solander, the description published by Joseph Gaertner in De fructibus et seminibus plantarum including a drawn figure of the stamen bundle and fruiting capsules; the description was made during the forced stay of the Endeavour on the banks of the Endeavour River, at the site of the present-day Cooktown, during the first voyage of James Cook. The specific epithet is from the Latin viridis meaning "green" and flos meaning "flower" referring to the most common flower colour of this species; this melaleuca occurs in tropical areas of Australia, including as far south as Maryborough in Queensland, northern parts of Western Australia south to the Dampier Peninsula district, the northern half of the Northern Territory. It is found in the southern part of West Papua in Indonesia and southern Papua New Guinea It grows on the margins of gallery forest, in forest and swampy plains in a variety of soils.
Melaleuca viridiflora forests provide habitat for orchid species including the rare, threatened or endangered Calochilus psednus, Pachystoma pubescens, Eulophia bicallosa and Cardwell midge orchid. Individual trees host the epiphytic ant-house plant. Plants distributed in south-eastern Florida in 1900 under the name Melaleuca viridiflora have been subsequently identified as Melaleuca quinquenervia. Melaleuca viridiflora is used by Aboriginal Australians for multiple uses; the bark is peeled off in layers and is used for shelter, containers and cooking food, fire tinder, water craft, fish traps and wrapping corpses. In traditional medicine, an infusion from leaves was drunk, inhaled or used for bathing to treat coughs, congestion, headache and influenza. Different populations of this species yield different oils but there are two distinct groups. One is rich in terpenic oil but otherwise variable with three distinct chemotypes. Another population is rich in methyl cinnamate with two chemotypes.
Melaleuca viridiflora is a useful and adaptable small tree in cultivation, with the red-flowered form being preferred. It is suitable for tropical and subtropical areas where there is high summer rainfall in heavy clay soils, its open canopy makes it a useful host tree for epiphytes such as Dendrobium
Cajuput oil is a volatile oil obtained by distillation from the leaves of the myrtaceous trees Melaleuca leucadendra, Melaleuca cajuputi, other Melaleuca species. The trees yielding the oil are found throughout Maritime Southeast Asia and over the hotter parts of the Australian continent; the majority of the oil is produced on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. The name “cajeput” is derived from its Indonesian name, “kayu putih” or "white wood"; the oil is prepared from leaves collected on a hot dry day, macerated in water, distilled after fermenting for a night. This oil is pungent, has the odor of a mixture of turpentine and camphor, it consists of cineol, from which cajuputene, having a hyacinth-like odor, can be obtained by distillation with phosphorus pentoxide. It is a typical volatile oil, is used internally in doses of 2 to 3 minims, for the same purposes as, clove oil, it is employed externally as a counterirritant. It is an ingredient in some liniments for sore muscles such as Tiger Balm and Indonesian traditional medicine Minyak Telon.
It is used as an ingredient in inhalants/decongestants and topical pain/inflammation remedies such as Olbas Oil. In October 1832 while in the port of Manila, the Asiatic or spasmodic cholera made its appearance on board the USS Peacock; the first case was in a sailor named Peterson, sixty-three years old. The surgeon administered six grains of opium, in three doses; this treatment, however did not help the patient. Cajeput is used for the treatment of fungal infections in fish. Common brand names containing Cajeput are Bettafix. Melafix is a stronger concentration and Bettafix is a lower concentration that makes it harder to overdose smaller fish bettas, it is most used to promote fin and tissue regrowth, but is effective in treating other conditions, such as fin rot or velvet. The remedy is used on betta fish. Tea tree oil – derived from Melaleuca alternifolia Best Essential Oils This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cajuput Oil". Encyclopædia Britannica.
Cambridge University Press
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. In wider definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns and bamboos are trees. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years, it is estimated. A tree has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk; this trunk contains woody tissue for strength, vascular tissue to carry materials from one part of the tree to another. For most trees it is surrounded by a layer of bark. Below the ground, the roots spread out widely. Above ground, the branches divide into smaller shoots.
The shoots bear leaves, which capture light energy and convert it into sugars by photosynthesis, providing the food for the tree's growth and development. Trees reproduce using seeds. Flowers and fruit may be present, but some trees, such as conifers, instead have pollen cones and seed cones. Palms and bamboos produce seeds, but tree ferns produce spores instead. Trees play a significant role in moderating the climate, they remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store large quantities of carbon in their tissues. Trees and forests provide a habitat for many species of plants. Tropical rainforests are among the most biodiverse habitats in the world. Trees provide shade and shelter, timber for construction, fuel for cooking and heating, fruit for food as well as having many other uses. In parts of the world, forests are shrinking as trees are cleared to increase the amount of land available for agriculture; because of their longevity and usefulness, trees have always been revered, with sacred groves in various cultures, they play a role in many of the world's mythologies.
Although "tree" is a term of common parlance, there is no universally recognised precise definition of what a tree is, either botanically or in common language. In its broadest sense, a tree is any plant with the general form of an elongated stem, or trunk, which supports the photosynthetic leaves or branches at some distance above the ground. Trees are typically defined by height, with smaller plants from 0.5 to 10 m being called shrubs, so the minimum height of a tree is only loosely defined. Large herbaceous plants such as papaya and bananas are trees in this broad sense. A applied narrower definition is that a tree has a woody trunk formed by secondary growth, meaning that the trunk thickens each year by growing outwards, in addition to the primary upwards growth from the growing tip. Under such a definition, herbaceous plants such as palms and papayas are not considered trees regardless of their height, growth form or stem girth. Certain monocots may be considered trees under a looser definition.
Aside from structural definitions, trees are defined by use. The tree growth habit is an evolutionary adaptation found in different groups of plants: by growing taller, trees are able to compete better for sunlight. Trees tend some reaching several thousand years old. Several trees are among the oldest organisms now living. Trees have modified structures such as thicker stems composed of specialised cells that add structural strength and durability, allowing them to grow taller than many other plants and to spread out their foliage, they differ from shrubs, which have a similar growth form, by growing larger and having a single main stem. The tree form has evolved separately in unrelated classes of plants in response to similar environmental challenges, making it a classic example of parallel evolution. With an estimated 60,000-100,000 species, the number of trees worldwide might total twenty-five per cent of all living plant species; the greatest number of these grow in tropical regions and many of these areas have not yet been surveyed by botanists, making tree diversity and ranges poorly known.
The majority of tree species are angiosperms. There are about 1000 species of gymnosperm trees, including conifers, cycads and gnetales. Most angiosperm trees are eudicots, the "true dicotyledons", so named because the seeds contain two cotyledons or seed leaves. There are some trees among the old lineages of flowering plants called basal angiosperms or paleodicots. Wood gives structural strength to the trunk of most types of tree; the vascular system of trees allows water and other chemicals to be di
Melaleuca quinquenervia known as the broad-leaved paperbark, paper bark tea tree, punk tree or niaouli, is a small- to medium-sized tree of the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. It grows as a spreading tree up to 20 m tall, with its trunk covered by a white and grey thick papery bark; the grey-green leaves are egg-shaped, cream or white bottlebrush-like flowers appear from late spring to autumn. It was first formally described in 1797 by the Spanish naturalist Antonio José Cavanilles. Melaleuca quinquenervia is native to New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea and coastal eastern Australia, from Botany Bay in New South Wales northwards into Queensland, it grows in swamps, on floodplains and near rivers and estuaries on silty soil. It has become naturalised in the Everglades in Florida, where it is considered a serious weed by the USDA. Melaleuca quinquenervia is a small to medium sized, spreading tree which grows to a height of 8–15 m high and a spread of 5–10 m but is sometimes as tall 25 m. Young growth is hairy with short, soft hairs.
The leaves are arranged alternately and are flat, lance-shaped to egg-shaped, dull or grey-green, 55–120 mm long and 10–31 mm wide, three to eight times as long as wide. The flowers are arranged in spikes on the ends of branches which continue to grow after flowering, sometimes in the upper leaf axils; the spikes contain 5 to 18 groups of flowers in threes and are up to 40 mm in diameter and 20–50 mm long. The petals fall off as the flower ages; the stamens are white, cream-coloured or greenish and are arranged in 5 bundles around the flower, with 5 to 10 stamens per bundle. Flowering occurs from spring to September to March in Australia. Flowering is followed by fruit which are woody, broadly cylindrical capsules, 2.5–4 mm long and clustered, spike-like along the branches. Each capsule contains many tiny seeds; the broad-leaved paperbark was first formally described in 1797 by the Spanish naturalist Antonio José Cavanilles, who gave it the name Metrosideros quinquenervia. The description was of a specimen collected "near Port Jackson" and it was published in Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum.
In 1958, Stanley Thatcher Blake of the Queensland Herbarium transferred the species to Melaleuca. The specific epithet is derived from the Latin words quinque meaning "five" and nervia meaning "sinew" or "nerve" referring to the five veins in the leaves; the common names broad-leaved paperbark, broad-leaved tea tree or paperbark or tea tree are used in Australia, punk tree is used in the United States. It is known as niaouli and pichöö in New Caledonia. In Australia, Melaleuca quinquenervia occurs along the east coast, from Cape York in Queensland to Botany Bay in New South Wales, it grows in seasonally inundated plains and swamps, along estuary margins and is the dominant species. In the Sydney region it grows alongside trees such as swamp bangalay, it grows in silty or swampy soil and plants have grown in acid soil of pH as low as 2.5. Broad-leaved paperbark is native in the southern part of Indonesian West Papua and Papua New Guinea, it is widespread in New Caledonia, including Grand Terre, Isle of Pines and Maré.
It is a component of the savannah of western New Caledonia, scattered trees dotting the grassland habitat and its spread through this landscape might have been facilitated by human fire regimes. Major threats to M. quinquenervia are housing developments, sugar cane and pine plantations. Remnants in Australia are not protected in reserves, with majority of its woodland located in private property where clearing continues. Melaleuca quinquenervia has been introduced as an ornamental plant to many tropical areas of the world, including Southeast Asia and the Americas and has become a weed in many areas. Melaleuca quinquenervia resprouts vigorously from epicormic shoots after bushfire, has been recorded flowering within weeks of being burnt. Trees can live for over 100 years, with 40-year-old trees achieving a trunk circumference of 2.7 m in cultivation. The flowers serve as a rich source of nectar for other organisms, including fruit bats, a wide range of insect and bird species, such as the scaly-breasted lorikeet.
The grey-headed flying fox and little red flying-fox consume the flowers. Melaleuca quinquenervia was introduced into Florida as early as 1900 when specimens were first planted near Orlando. There were two major introductions, one by J. Gifford to the East Coast in 1907, one by A. C. Andrews to the west coast in 1912; the South Florida Water Management District has recorded Melaleuca around the areas where they were introduced: southwest of Broward and northern Dade County on the east coast and southern Lee County and north of Collier County on the west coast. The species is found in the more frost-free areas of south Florida and only in the warmer coastal areas of Pasco County. Melaleuca quinquenervia has been classified by the United States Department of Agriculture as a noxious weed in six US states, as well as federally, it is an abundant exotic invasive plant in the Everglades. Its unchecked expansion in South Florida is one of the most serious threats to the integrity of the native ecosystem.
This tree takes over sawgrass marshes in the Everglades turning the area into a swamp. Melaleuca causes severe ecological impacts, including displacing native species, modification of hydrology, alteration of soil resources