Gulliver's Travels (1939 film)
Gulliver's Travels is a 1939 American cel-animated Technicolor feature film produced by Max Fleischer and directed by Dave Fleischer for Fleischer Studios. Released to cinemas in the United States on December 22, 1939 by Paramount Pictures, the story is a loose adaptation of Jonathan Swift's 18th century novel of the same name the first part which tells the story of Lilliput and Blefuscu, centers around an explorer who helps a small kingdom who declared war after an argument over a wedding song; the film was Fleischer Studios' first feature-length animated film, as well as the second animated feature film produced by an American studio after Walt Disney Productions' Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, as Paramount had commissioned the feature in response to the success of that film. The sequences for the film were directed by Seymour Kneitel, Willard Bowsky, Tom Palmer, Grim Natwick, William Henning, Roland Crandall, Thomas Johnson, Robert Leffingwell, Frank Kelling, Winfield Hoskins, Orestes Calpini.
On November 5, 1699, Lemuel Gulliver washes onto the beach of Lilliput after a storm at sea and ultimate shipwreck. Following the calm of the storm, the town crier Gabby stumbles across Gulliver in terror and rushes back to Lilliput to warn King Little of a "giant on the beach", but Little and King Bombo of Blefescu are signing a wedding contract between their children, Princess Glory and Prince David of Blefuscu, respectively.. All is fine; the argument starts a war. After several failures, Gabby tells King Little of the "giant", leads a mob to the beach to capture him. There, the Lilliputians tie Gulliver to a wagon. In the next morning, Gulliver breaks himself free. King Bombo, who has sent three spies, Sneak and Snitch, into Lilliput, orders them to kill Gulliver, whereupon the spies steal Gulliver's flintlock pistol, confiscated by the Lilliputians, prepare to use it against him. Meanwhile, Gulliver learns of the war's cause from Glory and David, proposes a new song that combines the two proposed by their fathers.
When the spies assure King Bombo that they can kill Gulliver, Bombo announces by carrier pigeon that he will attack at dawn. Gabby intercepts this message and warns the Lilliputians, but is himself captured by the spies and stuffed in a sack, who prepare the pistol; as the Blefuscuian fleet approaches Lilliput, Gulliver ties them together and draws them disarmed to shore. The spies fire at Gulliver from a cliff, but Prince David diverts the shot and falls to his apparent death. Using David's body to illustrate his point, Gulliver scolds both Blefuscu for fighting; the spies release Gabby from the sack. Both sides thereafter build a new ship for Gulliver. Sam Parker as Gulliver Pinto Colvig as Gabby Jack Mercer as King Little, Sneak, Snitch Tedd Pierce as King Bombo Jessica Dragonette as the singing voice of Princess Glory Livonia Warren as the speaking voice of Princess Glory Lanny Ross as the singing voice of Prince David Cal Howard as the speaking voice of Prince David "All's Well" "Faithful/Forever" "It's a Hap-Hap-Happy Day" "Bluebirds in the Moonlight" "I Hear a Dream" "We're All Together Now"All of the songs were written by Leo Robin and composed by Ralph Rainger with the exception of "It's a Hap-Hap-Happy Day", written by Sammy Timberg, Al Neiburg and Winston Sharples.
The Gulliver's Travels score by Victor Young was nominated for a Best Original Score Academy Award while the song "Faithful/Forever" was nominated for Best Original Song, but both of them lost out to The Wizard of Oz with the film winning the latter category for the song "Over the Rainbow". "It's a Hap-Hap-Happy Day" and "All's Well" became standard themes used for Fleischer and Famous Studios cartoon scores, while "I Hear a Dream" was quite popular as well. Max Fleischer had envisioned a feature as early as 1934, but Paramount vetoed the idea based on their interests in maintaining financial solvency following their series of bankruptcy reorganizations. However, after the success of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Paramount wanted to duplicate the Disney success and ordered a feature for a 1939 Christmas release; when the story was first written in New York, Popeye the Sailor had been cast as Gulliver. This was scrapped and the story was restructured once the West Coast team of Cal Howard, Tedd Pierce, Edmond Seward came aboard.
One of the major challenges for Fleischer Studios was the 18 month delivery envelope, coming at a time when Fleischer Studios was relocating to Miami, Florida. While Snow White was in production for 18 months, it had been in development for just as long, allowing for a total of three years to reach the screen. To meet this deadline, the Fleischer staff was expanded to some 800 employees. Animation training classes were set up with Miami art schools as a conduit for additional workers. Experienced lead animators were lured from Hollywood studios, including Nelson Demorest, Joe D'Igalo, former Fleischer Animators Grim Natwick, Al Eugster, Shamus Culhane, who returned after working for the Walt Disney Studios. Several West Coast techniques were introduced in order to provide better animation and greater personality in the characters; some animators adapted. Pencil tests were u
Ralph Livingstone Edwards was an American radio and television host, radio producer, television producer, best known for his radio-TV game shows Truth or Consequences and This Is Your Life. Born in Merino, Edwards worked for KROW Radio in Oakland, California while he was still in high school. After graduating from high school in 1931, he worked his way through college at the University of California, earning a B. A. in English in 1935. While there, he worked at every job from janitor to producer at Oakland's KTAB, now KSFO. Failing to get a job as a high school teacher, he worked at KFRC and hitchhiked across the country to New York City, where, he said, "I ate ten-cent and slept on park benches". After some part-time announcing jobs, he got his big break in 1938 with a full-time job for the Columbia Broadcasting System on the original WABC, where he worked with two other young announcers who would become broadcasting fixtures - Mel Allen and Andre Baruch; the young director had an assured, professional manner, in a few years he was well established as a nationally famous announcer.
It was Edwards who introduced Major Bowes every week on the Original Amateur Hour and Fred Allen on Town Hall Tonight. Edwards perfected a chuckling delivery, sounding as though he was in the midst of telling a funny story; this "laugh in the voice" technique served him well when 20th Century Fox hired him to narrate the coming-attractions trailers for Laurel and Hardy movies. Edwards was the second host of the NBC radio children's talent show The Horn and Hardart Children's Hour, he appeared in a few films, including Radio Stars On Parade with the comedy team of Wally Brown and Alan Carney, I'll Cry Tomorrow with Susan Hayward. Truth or Consequences started out as a radio game show that premiered on NBC Radio in March 1940, aired for 38 years on radio and television. After a ridiculously difficult trivia question was asked, Beulah the Buzzer went off when they failed to answer, contestants were asked to perform ridiculous stunts for prizes of cash or merchandise. From the start contestants preferred to miss the question, with Edwards commenting "Most of the American people are darned good sports."After years of experimental broadcasts, the Federal Communications Commission approved commercial television broadcasts starting on July 1, 1941, NBC's New York station WNBT was the first to make the changeover, with Edwards hosting a one-time episode of the show over WNBT to commemorate the first day of commercial telecasting.
The show was based in New York, with Allen as announcer, but moved to Los Angeles. After the U. S. entered World War II in late 1941, causing early television broadcasts to be cut back its radio run started on CBS, Edwards' and Allen's home network moved to NBC. The show played for sentiment, as contestants were surprised on stage by a sweetheart in the military, a family member, or a long-lost friend. Truth or Consequences, New Mexico was named after the show following Edwards' promise to broadcast the show from the first city that renamed itself; the city in southern New Mexico features several public facilities that bear his name. Beginning in 1950 and continuing for the next 50 years, Edwards traveled to that city during the first weekend of May every year. Edwards and the Truth or Consequences radio show were featured in a Superman story in Action Comics #127. In 1948 Edwards created and hosted This Is Your Life on NBC Radio, moving to NBC-TV in 1952-1961; each week Edwards would surprise some unsuspecting person and review the subject's personal and professional life in front of the TV audience introducing figures from their past as live guests.
The show drew great interest from viewers because the identity of the subject wasn't revealed until the show went live. Throughout the half-hour Edwards would guide the narrative of the show, ushering visitors on and off stage, prompting the honoree to recall a personal turning point. Edwards was showman enough to draw upon his Truth or Consequences experience, emphasizing the sentimental elements that appealed to viewers and listeners at home, his on-air tributes would recount some heroic sacrifice or tragic event, bringing the audience to the point of tears. Celebrity subjects included Marilyn Monroe, Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy, Bob Hope, Andy Griffith, Buster Keaton, Barbara Eden, Bette Davis, Shirley Jones, Jayne Mansfield, Carol Channing. Edwards famously surprised Superman's Girlfriend Lois Lane when she was the subject of "This Is Your Life" in a story published in the D. C. Comic "Superman's Girl Friend, Lois Lane" #9, May 1959. Edwards produced dozens of game shows, including About Faces, Place the Face, It Could Be You, Name That Tune and The Cross-Wits.
In 1981, with Stu Billett, he executive-produced the first program of its type. In 1996, along with Stu Billett, they did Bzzz!. He had a notable acting role, his character a jovial and decreasingly skeptical radio dj, in the episode of the CBS Radio series Suspense "Ghost Hunt" in 1949. Edwards burnished the career of his protégé Bob Barker; the 1940s-1950s TV version of Truth or Consequences had featured Edwards, Jack Bailey, Steve Dunne. When the show returned for another NBC run in late 1956, Edwards hired Barker, a popular West Coast radio and TV personality on December 21 after hearing his radio show on his car radio. During the 20
Ub Iwerks, A. S. C. was an American animator, character designer and special effects technician, who created Oswald the Lucky Rabbit and Mickey Mouse. The works Iwerks produced alongside Walt Disney went on to win numerous awards, including multiple Academy Awards, he was born in Missouri. His father, Eert Ubbe Iwwerks, immigrated to the U. S. in 1869 from the village of Uttum in East Frisia. Ub's full name, Ubbe Ert Iwwerks, can be seen on early "Alice" shorts. Several years he simplified his name to "Ub Iwerks", sometimes written as "U. B. Iwerks", he is the father of Disney Legend Don Iwerks and grandfather of documentary film producer Leslie Iwerks. Iwerks was considered by many to be Walt Disney's oldest friend, spent most of his career with Disney; the two met in 1919 while working for the Pesmen-Rubin Art Studio in Kansas City, would start their own commercial art business together. Disney and Iwerks found work as illustrators for the Kansas City Slide Newspaper Company. While working for the Kansas City Film Ad Company, Disney decided to take up work in animation, Iwerks soon joined him.
He was responsible for the distinctive style of the earliest Disney animated cartoons, was responsible for designing Mickey Mouse. In 1922, when Disney began his Laugh-O-Gram cartoon series, Iwerks joined him as chief animator; the studio went bankrupt, in 1923 Iwerks followed Disney's move to Los Angeles to work on a new series of cartoons known as “the Alice Comedies” which had live action mixed with animation. After the end of this series, Disney asked Iwerks to come up with a new character; the first Oswald the Lucky Rabbit was animated by Iwerks. Following the first cartoon, Oswald was redesigned on the insistence of Universal, who agreed to distribute the new series of cartoons in 1927. In spring 1928, Disney lost control of the Oswald character, much of his staff was hired away, he promised never to work with a character he did not own again. Disney asked Iwerks. Iwerks tried sketches of frogs and cats, but none of these appealed to Disney. A female cow and male horse were created at this time by Iwerks, but were rejected.
They would turn up as Clarabelle Cow and Horace Horsecollar. Ub Iwerks got inspiration from an old drawing. In 1925, Hugh Harman drew some sketches of mice around a photograph of Walt Disney. On a train ride back from a failed business meeting, Walt Disney came up with the original sketch for the character that would be called Mickey Mouse. Afterwards, Disney took the sketch to Iwerks. In turn, he drew a more clean cut and refined version of Mickey, but one that still followed the original sketch; the first few Mickey Mouse and Silly Symphonies cartoons were animated entirely by Iwerks, including Steamboat Willie and The Skeleton Dance. However, as Iwerks began to draw more and more cartoons on a daily basis, he soon found himself unable to cope under Disney's harsh command. Iwerks and Disney had a falling-out; the Iwerks Studio opened in 1930. Financial backers led by Pat Powers suspected that Iwerks was responsible for much of Disney's early success. However, while animation for a time suffered at Disney from Iwerks' departure, it soon rebounded as Disney brought in talented new young animators.
Despite a contract with MGM to distribute his cartoons, the introduction of a new character named “Flip the Frog”, “Willie Whopper”, the Iwerks Studio was never a major commercial success and failed to rival either Disney or Fleischer Studios. Newly-hired animator Fred Kopietz recommended that Iwerks employ a friend from Chouinard Art School, Chuck Jones, hired and put to work as a cel washer; the Flip and Willie cartoons were distributed on the home-movie market by Official Films in the 1940s. From 1933 to 1936, he produced a series of shorts in Cinecolor, named ComiColor Cartoons; the ComiColor series focused on fairy tales with no continuing character or star. In the 1940s, this series would receive home-movie distribution by Castle Films. Cinecolor produced the 16 mm prints for Castle Films with red emulsion on one side and blue emulsion on the other. In the 1970s Blackhawk Films released these for home use, but this time using conventional Eastmancolor film stock, they are now in the public domain and are available on VHS and DVD.
He experimented with stop-motion animation in combination with the multiplane camera, made a short called The Toy Parade, never released in public. In 1936, backers withdrew financial support from the Iwerks Studio, it folded soon after. In 1937, Leon Schlesinger Productions contracted Iwerks to produce four Looney Tunes shorts starring Porky Pig and Gabby Goat. Iwerks directed the first two shorts, while former Schlesinger animator Robert Clampett was promoted to director and helmed the other two shorts before he and his unit returned to the main Schlesinger lot. Iwerks did contract work for Screen
An animator is an artist who creates multiple images, known as frames, which give an illusion of movement called animation when displayed in rapid sequence. Animators can work in a variety of fields including film and video games. Animation is related to filmmaking and like filmmaking is labor-intensive, which means that most significant works require the collaboration of several animators; the methods of creating the images or frames for an animation piece depend on the animators' artistic styles and their field. Other artists who contribute to animated cartoons, but who are not animators, include layout artists, storyboard artists, background artists. Animated films share some film crew positions with regular live action films, such as director, sound engineer, editor, but differ radically in that for most of the history of animation, they did not need most of the crew positions seen on a physical set. In hand-drawn Japanese animation productions, such as in Hayao Miyazaki's films, the key animator handles both layout and key animation.
Some animators in Japan such as Mitsuo Iso take full responsibility for their scenes, making them become more than just the key animator. Animators specialize. One important distinction is between special effects animators. In large-scale productions by major studios, each animator has one or more assistants, "inbetweeners" and "clean-up artists", who make drawings between the "key poses" drawn by the animator, re-draw any sketches that are too made to be used as such. A young artist seeking to break into animation is hired for the first time in one of these categories, can advance to the rank of full animator; the creation of animation was a long and arduous process. Each frame of a given scene was hand-drawn transposed onto celluloid, where it would be traced and painted; these finished "cels" were placed together in sequence over painted backgrounds and filmed, one frame at a time. Animation methods have become far more varied in recent years. Today's cartoons could be created using any number of methods using computers to make the animation process cheaper and faster.
These more efficient animation procedures have made the animator's job less tedious and more creative. Audiences find animation to be much more interesting with sound. Voice actors and musicians, among other talent, may contribute vocal or music tracks; some early animated films asked the vocal and music talent to synchronize their recordings to already-extant animation. For the majority of animated films today, the soundtrack is recorded first in the language of the film's primary target market and the animators are required to synchronize their work to the soundtrack. Animation is the art of creating moving images; this line of work is all about creating a series of individual ‘frames’, which make images come to life when they are flicked through in rapid succession. Animation was done manually, with animators drawing multiple frames to depict a single action, i.e. the kind of animation that you witnessed during a typical scene from the Hanna-Barbera cartoon and Jerry. Today, computer-generated imagery has replaced manual animation, but a significant amount of artistic talent is still required.
Animators are employed in various segments of the entertainment industry,including film and video games. As a result of the ongoing transition from traditional 2D to 3D computer animation, the animator's traditional task of redrawing and repainting the same character 24 times a second has now been superseded by the modern task of developing dozens of movements of different parts of a character in a virtual scene; because of the transition to computer animation, many additional support positions have become essential, with the result that the animator has become but one component of a long and specialized production pipeline. Nowadays, visual development artists will design a character as a 2D drawing or painting hand it off to modelers who build the character as a collection of digital polygons. Texture artists "paint" the character with colorful or complex textures, technical directors set up rigging so that the character can be moved and posed. For each scene, layout artists set up rough blocking.
When a character's bugs have been worked out and its scenes have been blocked, it is handed off to an animator who can start developing the exact movements of the character's virtual limbs and facial expressions in each specific scene. At that point, the role of the modern computer animator overlaps in some respects with that of his or her predecessors in traditional animation: namely, trying to create scenes storyboarded in rough form by a team of story artists, synchronizing lip or mouth movements to dialogue prepared by a screenwriter and recorded by vocal talent. Despite those constraints, the animator is still capable of exercising significant artistic skill and discretion in developing the character's movements to accomplish the objective of each scene. There is an obvious analogy here between the art of animation and the art of acting
Walter Elias Disney was an American entrepreneur, voice actor and film producer. A pioneer of the American animation industry, he introduced several developments in the production of cartoons; as a film producer, Disney holds the record for most Academy Awards earned by an individual, having won 22 Oscars from 59 nominations. He was presented with two Golden Globe Special Achievement Awards and an Emmy Award, among other honors. Several of his films are included in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress. Born in Chicago in 1901, Disney developed an early interest in drawing, he took art classes as a boy and got a job as a commercial illustrator at the age of 18. He moved to California in the early 1920s and set up the Disney Brothers Studio with his brother Roy. With Ub Iwerks, Walt developed the character Mickey Mouse in 1928, his first popular success; as the studio grew, Disney became more adventurous, introducing synchronized sound, full-color three-strip Technicolor, feature-length cartoons and technical developments in cameras.
The results, seen in features such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Fantasia and Bambi, furthered the development of animated film. New animated and live-action films followed after World War II, including the critically successful Cinderella and Mary Poppins, the latter of which received five Academy Awards. In the 1950s, Disney expanded into the amusement park industry, in 1955 he opened Disneyland. To fund the project he diversified into television programs, such as Walt Disney's Disneyland and The Mickey Mouse Club. In 1965, he began development of another theme park, Disney World, the heart of, to be a new type of city, the "Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow". Disney was a heavy smoker throughout his life, died of lung cancer in December 1966 before either the park or the EPCOT project were completed. Disney was a shy, self-deprecating and insecure man in private but adopted a warm and outgoing public persona, he had high expectations of those with whom he worked. Although there have been accusations that he was racist or anti-Semitic, they have been contradicted by many who knew him.
His reputation changed in the years after his death, from a purveyor of homely patriotic values to a representative of American imperialism. He remains an important figure in the history of animation and in the cultural history of the United States, where he is considered a national cultural icon, his film work continues to be adapted. Walt Disney was born on December 5, 1901, in Chicago's Hermosa neighborhood, he was the fourth son of Elias Disney—born in the Province of Canada, to Irish parents—and Flora, an American of German and English descent. Aside from Disney and Flora's sons were Herbert and Roy. In 1906, when Disney was four, the family moved to a farm in Marceline, where his uncle Robert had just purchased land. In Marceline, Disney developed his interest in drawing when he was paid to draw the horse of a retired neighborhood doctor. Elias was a subscriber to the Appeal to Reason newspaper, Disney practiced drawing by copying the front-page cartoons of Ryan Walker. Disney began to develop an ability to work with watercolors and crayons.
He lived near the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway line and became enamored with trains. He and his younger sister Ruth started school at the same time at the Park School in Marceline in late 1909. In 1911, the Disneys moved to Missouri. There, Disney attended the Benton Grammar School, where he met fellow-student Walter Pfeiffer, who came from a family of theatre fans and introduced Disney to the world of vaudeville and motion pictures. Before long, he was spending more time at the Pfeiffers' house than at home. Elias had purchased a newspaper delivery route for Kansas City Times. Disney and his brother Roy woke up at 4:30 every morning to deliver the Times before school and repeated the round for the evening Star after school; the schedule was exhausting, Disney received poor grades after falling asleep in class, but he continued his paper route for more than six years. He attended Saturday courses at the Kansas City Art Institute and took a correspondence course in cartooning. In 1917, Elias bought stock in a Chicago jelly producer, the O-Zell Company, moved back to the city with his family.
Disney enrolled at McKinley High School and became the cartoonist of the school newspaper, drawing patriotic pictures about World War I. In mid-1918, Disney attempted to join the United States Army to fight against the Germans, but he was rejected for being too young. After forging the date of birth on his birth certificate, he joined the Red Cross in September 1918 as an ambulance driver, he was arrived in November, after the armistice. He drew cartoons on the side of his ambulance for decoration and had some of his work published in the army newspaper Stars and Stripes. Disney returned to Kansas City in October 1919, where he worked as an apprentice artist at the Pesmen-Rubin Commercial Art Studio. There, he drew commercial illustrations for advertising, theater programs and ca
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti