Kurtis Kraft was an American designer and builder of race cars. The company built midget cars, sports cars, sprint cars, Bonneville cars, USAC Championship cars, it was founded by Frank Kurtis. Kurtis built some low fiberglass bodied two-seaters sports cars under his own name in Glendale, California between 1949 and 1955. Ford running gear was used. About 36 cars had been made when the licence was sold to Earl "Madman" Muntz who built the Muntz Jet. In 1954 and 1955, road versions of their Indianapolis racers were offered. Kurtis Kraft created over 550 ready-to-run midget cars, 600 kits; the Kurtis Kraft chassis midget car featured a smaller version of the Offenhauser motor. The National Midget Auto Racing Hall of Fame describes the combination as "virtually unbeatable for over twenty years." Kurtis Kraft created 120 Indianapolis 500 cars, including five winners. Kurtis sold the midget car portion of the business to Johnny Pawl in the late 1950s, the quarter midget business to Ralph Potter in 1962.
Frank Kurtis was the first non-driver inducted in the National Midget Auto Racing Hall of Fame. Zeke Justice and Ed Justice of the Justice Brothers both worked at Kurtis-Kraft after World War II. Zeke Justice was the first employee at Kurtis-Kraft; the FIA World Drivers' Championship included the Indianapolis 500 between 1950 and 1960, so many Kurtis Kraft cars are credited with competing in that championship. One Kurtis midget car was entered in the 1959 Formula One United States Grand Prix driven by Rodger Ward, it was not designed for European-style road racing and with an undersized engine it circulated at the back of the field for 20 laps before retiring with clutch problems. From 1950 to 1960, the Indianapolis 500 was part of the FIA World Championship
In medicine, a prosthesis or prosthetic implant is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or a condition present at birth. Prostheses are intended to restore the normal functions of the missing body part. Amputee rehabilitation is coordinated by a physiatrist as part of a inter-disciplinary team consisting of physiatrists, nurses, physical therapists, occupational therapists. Prostheses can be created by hand or with CAD, a software interface that helps creators visualize the creation in a 3D form. A person's prosthesis should be designed and assembled according to the person's appearance and functional needs. For instance, a person may need a transradial prosthesis, but need to choose between an aesthetic functional device, a myoelectric device, a body-powered device, or an activity specific device; the person's future goals and economical capabilities may help them choose between one or more devices. Craniofacial prostheses include extra-oral prostheses.
Extra-oral prostheses are further divided into hemifacial, nasal and ocular. Intra-oral prostheses include dental prostheses such as dentures and dental implants. Prostheses of the neck include larynx substitutes and upper esophageal replacements, Somato prostheses of the torso include breast prostheses which may be either single or bilateral, full breast devices or nipple prostheses. Penile prostheses are used to treat erectile dysfunction. Limb prostheses include both upper- and lower-extremity prostheses. Upper-extremity prostheses are used at varying levels of amputation: forequarter, shoulder disarticulation, transhumeral prosthesis, elbow disarticulation, transradial prosthesis, wrist disarticulation, full hand, partial hand, partial finger. A transradial prosthesis is an artificial limb. Upper limb prostheses can be categorized in three main categories: Passive devices, Body Powered devices, Externally Powered devices. Passive devices can either be passive hands used for cosmetic purpose, or passive tools used for specific activities.
An extensive overview and classification of passive devices can be found in a literature review by Maat et.al. A passive device can be static, meaning the device has no movable parts, or it can be adjustable, meaning its configuration can be adjusted. Despite the absence of active grasping, passive devices are useful in bimanual tasks that require fixation or support of an object, or for gesticulation in social interaction. According to scientific data a third of the upper limb amputees worldwide use a passive prosthetic hand. Body Powered or cable operated limbs work by attaching a harness and cable around the opposite shoulder of the damaged arm; the third category of prosthetic devices available are myoelectric arms. These work by sensing, via electrodes, when the muscles in the upper arm move, causing an artificial hand to open or close. In the prosthetics industry, a trans-radial prosthetic arm is referred to as a "BE" or below elbow prosthesis. Lower-extremity prostheses provide replacements at varying levels of amputation.
These include hip disarticulation, transfemoral prosthesis, knee disarticulation, transtibial prosthesis, Syme's amputation, partial foot, toe. The two main subcategories of lower extremity prosthetic devices are trans-femoral. A transfemoral prosthesis is an artificial limb. Transfemoral amputees can have a difficult time regaining normal movement. In general, a transfemoral amputee must use 80% more energy to walk than a person with two whole legs; this is due to the complexities in movement associated with the knee. In newer and more improved designs, carbon fiber, mechanical linkages, computer microprocessors, innovative combinations of these technologies are employed to give more control to the user. In the prosthetics industry a trans-femoral prosthetic leg is referred to as an "AK" or above the knee prosthesis. A transtibial prosthesis is an artificial limb. A transtibial amputee is able to regain normal movement more than someone with a transfemoral amputation, due in large part to retaining the knee, which allows for easier movement.
Lower extremity prosthetics describes artificially replaced limbs located at the hip level or lower. In the prosthetics industry a trans-tibial prosthetic leg is referred to as a "BK" or below the knee prosthesis. Physical therapists are trained to teach a person to walk with a leg prosthesis. To do so, the physical therapist may provide verbal instructions and may help guide the person using touch or tactile cues; this may be done in a home. There is some research suggesting that such training in the home may be more successful if the treatment includes the use of a treadmill. Using a treadmill, along with the physical therapy treatment, helps the person to experience many of the challenges of walking with a prosthesis. In the United Kingdom, 75% of lower limb amputations are performed due to inadequate circulation; this condition is associated with many other medical conditions including diabetes and heart disease that may make it a challenge to recover and use a pro
1953 Indianapolis 500
The 37th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Saturday, May 30, 1953. The event was part of the 1953 AAA National Championship Trail, was race 2 of 9 in the 1953 World Championship of Drivers. Bill Vukovich, after falling short a year before, earned the first of two consecutive Indy 500 victories. With the temperature in the high 90s, the track temperature exceeding 130 °F, this race is known as the "Hottest 500." Driver Carl Scarborough dropped out the race, died at the infield hospital due to heat prostration. Due to the extreme heat conditions, several drivers in the field required relief drivers, some relief drivers required additional relief. Vukovich, however, as well as second-place finisher Art Cross, both ran the full 500 miles solo. Sixteen year race veteran Chet Miller died in an accident in practice on May 15. Time trials were scheduled for four days. Saturday May 16 – Pole Day time trials Sunday May 17 – Second day time trials Saturday May 23 – Third day time trials Sunday May 24 – Fourth day time trialsVukovich qualified on pole, with a speed of 138.392 mph.
Polesitter Bill Vukovich dominated the race, leading 195 laps and recording fastest lap. The race is known as the "Hottest 500", with track temperatures exceeding 130 °F. Recent research, has suggested that the 1937 race had higher recorded temperatures. Half the drivers in the field used relief help, including: Duane Carter took over from Sam Hanks Paul Russo took over from Fred Agabashian Eddie Johnson took over from Jim Rathmann Gene Hartley and Chuck Stevenson took over from Tony Bettenhausen Bob Scott took over from Carl Scarborough Jim Rathmann took over from Bill Holland Duke Dinsmore and Andy Linden took over from Rodger Ward Johnny Mantz took over from Walt Faulkner Jackie Holmes and Johnny Thomson took over from Spider Webb Andy Linden and Chuck Stevenson took over from Jerry Hoyt Carl Scarborough retired from the race due to heat exhaustion, died at the infield hospital. Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lead lap First alternate: Eddie Johnson Pole position: Bill Vukovich – 4:20.13 Fastest lead lap: Bill Vukovich – 1:06.240 The purse for first place was $89,496.
One of the prizes awarded to the winner was a year's supply of dog food. The race was carried live flag-to-flag on the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Radio Network. Instead of being produced by 1070 WIBC-AM, the network pooled together talent and technical staff from all five of the major radio stations in Indianapolis; the broadcast was anchored by Sid Collins, featured on-air talent from WIBC, WFBM, WISH, WIRE, WXLW. The broadcast signed on at 10:45 a.m. local time, carried live through the conclusion, until 3:45 p.m. local time. The broadcast was carried on 135 stations in at least 35 states across the country, on Armed Forced Network to Europe and Asia. World Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship. Indianapolis 500 History: Race & All-Time Stats – Official Site Van Camp's Pork & Beans Presents: Great Moments From the Indy 500 – Fleetwood Sounds, 1975 1953 Indianapolis 500 Radio Broadcast, Indianapolis Motor Speedway Radio Network: Re-broadcast on "The History of the 500" – WFNI
Sydney Showground Speedway
Sydney Showground Speedway known as the Speedway Royal and the Speedway Royale but referred to as just The Royale or The Showground, was a dirt Dirt track racing venue at the old Sydney Showground used from 1926 until 1996. In 1937, The Showground was claimed to the fastest speedway in the world by the tracks promoters; the 509 metres egg shaped track was the site of some spectacular crashes, some unfortunate deaths and a lot of spectacular racing. Although solos were first to race at the showground on 21 July 1926, they were soon joined by sidecars and Speedcars. In the 1950s stock cars began to appear joined much by demolition derbies and jumping motorcycles over buses and the Royale would attract huge spectator attendance; the track had a dolomite surface, which the speedway drivers and riders continually asked the owners, the Royal Agricultural Society of NSW, to mix in shale and clay to improve traction but this never happened. A long stated reason for this was that the Showground was used year-round as a harness racing venue.
The only other major complaint about the track itself was that it was narrow compared to other speedways. Where most tracks allowed three wide racing in the corners, at the Showground there was enough room for two cars; the speedway's pits were located under the Martin & Angus Stand at the southern end of the track. This created a unique atmosphere with the place filling with cigarette smoke and the smell of oil and petrol. Former dual Rugby international and part-time announcer at the speedway Rex Mossop once described the pits at the Royale as being like "Dantino's Inferno"; the start / finish line at the Showground was on the eastern side of the track in front of the Suttor Stand. Running anti-clockwise as most speedway divisions do, the track moved into the Bull Pens for turn 1, so called as this was where the cattle would enter the arena during the Royal Easter Show; the track announcers box was located close to the track above the Bull Pens. They continued past the double decked Members Stand and the famous clock tower sitting on the roof, into what riders called "The Armpit", a tight turn leading onto the back straight where the Coronation Stand stood.
Turns 3 and 4 went past Martin & Angus Stand and the pits before passing the Sinclair Stand in turn 4 and coming onto the main straight to finish the lap. Although the Showground was universally known as a Speedcar track, from the late 1920s until the 1950s the speedway was more known for its motorcycle racing, hosting many Australian Solo Championship and Australian Sidecar Championship meetings as well as Solo test Matches between Australia and various visiting nations; the first test at the Showground was held on 15 December 1934 between Australia and Great Britain with Australia winning 35-19 in front of 50,000 paying fans. In March 1933, The Royale hosted the unofficial Speedway World Championship, won by England's Harry Whitfield from Australian's Billy Lamont and future World Champion Bluey Wilkinson. During the 1960s and 1970s the Showground was Australia's best known and best attended speedway drawing crowds on a Saturday night in excess of 10,000 and over 30,000 making speedway one of the best attended spectator sports during the Australian summer.
The speedway's promotor, John Sherwood, was always looking for ways other than the racing itself to keep the crowds coming in. One of the more popular was the addition of Kings Cross strippers as trophy girls. From 1947 until 1974 the Speedway hosted the annual Australian Speedcar Grand Prix, following which the race moved to the Liverpool Speedway in western Sydney before returning to the Showground in 1990. NSW drivers Ray Revell and Andy McGavin won a record 5 Speedcar Grand Prix's at the Showground while Bob "Two Gun" Tattersall of the United States won the race four times in 1960, 1962, 1966 and 1969. One of the more unusual things at the speedway happened on 28 December 1975 when the so-called "Speedway Streaker" made his only appearance. Unlike the usual streakers at sporting events who jump the fence and run around on the field until caught by either Police or Security, this streaker rode out of the pits on a Solo motorbike naked other than a full faced helmet and riding shoes, he did a quick lap of the track before laying the bike down on the infield.
He was last seen jumping over the fence being chased by laughing policemen. Years the streaker was revealed to be local solo rider Reg McCarthy; the Speedway ran continuous Saturday night meetings until the close of the 1980/81 season with Sydney fans spoiled for choice with the Parramatta City Raceway running on Friday nights and the Showground as well as Liverpool Speedway both running on Saturday nights. Like other suburban based speedways around Australia such as Rowley Park in Adelaide, the local residents around the showground began to complain not only about the noise but the cars parking on the streets as the showground had little in the way of designated car parks. With some residents having powerful friends on the City of Sydney council who made increasing restrictions on noise and parking and demanded that meetings be finished no than 10:30pm. This, combined with the advent of World Series Cricket in 1977 attracting a lot of the spectators, forced the speedway to close for regular meetings after 1981.
What was hard to take for the promoter of the Showground, Brisbane based speedcar driver Ro
Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh
1955 Indianapolis 500
The 39th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Monday, May 30, 1955. The event was part of the 1955 AAA National Championship Trail and was race 3 of 7 in the 1955 World Championship of Drivers; the race is notable to many as the race in which Bill Vukovich was killed in a crash while on his way to an unprecedented third consecutive Indy 500. Time trials was scheduled for four days. Gusty winds, as well as the threat of rain, was observed on pole day, therefore nearly all of the competitors stayed off the track. Around the garage area, the drivers and teams agreed amongst themselves to sit out time trials for the afternoon, instead qualify together in better conditions on Sunday. However, in the final 20 minutes, Jerry Hoyt, who had not been informed about the agreement put his car in line, pulled away for an unexpected qualifying attempt, his speed of 140.045 mph was not spectacular, but as the fastest car thus far of the day, he sat on the pole position.
Without hesitation, Tony Bettenhausen, Sr. took to the track moments later. After two fast laps, he was slowed by a gust of wind, qualified second. Sam Hanks and Pat O'Connor got their cars ready; the day closed with only two cars in the field, Hoyt the surprising pole winner – to the dismay of several in the garage area. Qualifying resumed in better conditions, most of the drivers who stayed off the track Saturday took to the track on Sunday. Jack McGrath was the fastest qualifier, lined up third. Hoyt's pole-winning speed from the day before ended up being only the 8th-fastest overall in the field – a record slowest ranked pole speed. Near the end of the day, Manny Ayulo crashed due to a possible steering fault and died the following day. Jack McGrath, starting from the outside despite the fastest qualifying time, grabbed the initial lead, but was challenged by Bill Vukovich, looking for his third consecutive win. Vukovich took the lead on lap four, surrendering it back to McGrath on lap 15 but regaining it on lap 16.
Fred Agabashian, who had finished in the top ten the previous two years spun on lap 39 and could not continue. McGrath chased Vukovich until lap 54. Despite getting out of the car and attempting to repair it himself, he was forced to drop out with a magneto issue. With Vukovich having a considerable lead on lap 56, Rodger Ward, several laps down, flipped over twice, either due to a problem with the wind, oil, or breaking an axle. Although he landed on his wheels, the car was facing the wrong way. Al Keller, attempting to avoid Ward, turned to the inside, going close to or on to the grass, before turning hard to the right and coming back up the track and contacting Johnny Boyd. Boyd's car careened into Vukovich, who appeared to be attempting to go to the left of Ward. Vukovich made a last second attempt to avoid Boyd to the right, but Boyd's car sent Vukovich hard into the outside barrier. Vukovich's front end lifted into the air, causing the front to clear the barrier and the car to contact it with the rear, sending the car into a cartwheel, during which it hit several vehicles parked outside the track, a pole.
The car burst into flames after it came to rest, Vukovich died either from the fire or from injuries from the crash. Boyd's car flipped but he and the other drivers escaped major injury. Driver Ed Elisian stopped his car on the infield and ran across the track in an attempt to help Vukovich. After 27 minutes of running under caution, Jimmy Bryan took over the lead of the race, but was forced to retire after ninety laps with a fuel pump issue, when the lead was taken over by Bob Sweikert; the only other driver to retire due to contact for the remainder of the race was Cal Niday on lap 170. Art Cross led the race from laps 133 to 156, but after surrendering the lead to Don Freeland was forced to retire due to mechanical trouble on lap 168. Freeland was passed by Sweikert on lap 160, retired on lap 178. Sweikert led the remainder of the race. Sweikert stated that the winds made racing difficult, led to a decision of racing cautiously and taking advantage of other's difficulty; the two deaths in the 500 were part of a deadly year for motorsports, which included four other Indy drivers dying in other races, Alberto Ascari being killed while testing a sports car, a horrific accident at the 24 Hours of Le Mans which saw nearly 100 spectators killed.
Following the year the American Automobile Association ceased sanctioning auto races and the United States Auto Club was formed to handle sanctioning duties. It would take until 1959 for fire suits to be made mandatory for all drivers and roll bars for all cars. Notes^1 – Points towards the 1955 World Drivers' Championship ^2 – 1 point for fastest lead lap First alternate: Len Duncan The race was carried live on the IMS Radio Network. Sid Collins served as chief announcer; the broadcast was carried by 237 affiliates in all 48 states, as well as Armed Forces Radio. The broadcast was dedicated to the memory of Wilbur Shaw, killed in a plane crash in October. Luke Walton reported from the north pits for the third year. Charlie Brockman, in his fourth appearance on the network, conducted the winner's interview in victory lane. All five of the major radio stations in the Indianapolis area carried the broadcast; the broadcast was notable. Pole position: Jerry Hoyt – 1:04.27 Fastest Lead Lap: Bill Vukovich – 1:03.67 Shared Drives: Car #10: Tony Bettenhausen an
Turlock is a city in Stanislaus County, United States. Its estimated 2015 population of 72,292 made it the second-largest city in Stanislaus County after Modesto. Founded on December 22, 1871, by prominent grain farmer John William Mitchell, the town consisted of a post office, a depot, a grain warehouse and a few other buildings. Mitchell declined the honor of having the town named for himself; the name "Turlock" was chosen instead. The name is believed to originate from the Irish village “Turlough”. In October 1870, Harper's Weekly published an excerpt from English novelist James Payn's story Bred in the Bone, which includes the mention of a town named "Turlough". Local historians believe that this issue of Harper's Weekly was read by early resident H. W. Lander who suggested the alternate name. Mitchell and his brother were successful businessmen, buying land and developing large herds of cattle and sheep that were sold to gold miners and others as they arrived, they were leaders in wheat farming and cultivated tracts of land under the tenant system.
The Mitchells owned most of the area, over 100,000 acres, from Keyes to Atwater. In the early 20th century, 20-acre lots from the Mitchell estate were sold for $20 an acre. While it grew to be a prosperous and busy hub of activity throughout the end of the 19th century, it was not incorporated as a city until February 15, 1908. By that time intensive agricultural development surrounded most of the city. Many of the initial migrants to the region were Swedish; as an early San Francisco Chronicle article stated of the region and this community's lacteal productivity, "you have to hand it to the Scandinavians for knowing how to run a dairy farm." Turlock went on to become known as the "Heart of the Valley" because of its agricultural production. With the boom came racial and labor strife. In July 1921, a mob of 150 white men evicted 60 Japanese cantaloupe pickers from rooming houses and ranches near Turlock, taking them and their belongings on trucks out of town; the white men claimed the Japanese were undercutting white workers by taking lower wages per crate of fruit picked.
In protest, fruit growers threatened not to hire the white workers behind the eviction, preferring to let melons rot on vines than hire such characters. As a result of this stance, the eviction had the opposite effect of. By August, Japanese workers had returned, moreover, they were nearly the only people employed to pick melons; the affair gained national attention, California's Governor William Stephens vowed that justice would be served. Six men were arrested, though they were untroubled by the charges, stating that leaders of Turlock's American Legion and Chamber of Commerce had told them no trouble would come of their actions. Although a former Turlock night watchman testified that one of the accused had disclosed a plan "to clean up Turlock of the Japs," all those arrested were acquitted of charges; the San Francisco Chronicle's editorial line was opposition to both the evictions and Japanese labor, with one column stating "we in California are determined that Oriental workers shall be kept out of the state.
But that does not mean that the decent citizens of California will tolerate for one moment such proceedings as the attack of a mob on the Japanese cantaloupe workers in the Turlock district."In 1930, Turlock's population was 20% Assyrian. They were such a significant part of the population that the southern part of town became referred to as Little Urmia, referring to the region of northwestern Iran from which they came. In the 1930s Turlock was cited by Ripley's Believe It or Not as having the most churches per capita in the U. S.. Various religious centers reflecting a diverse population, such as Sikh Gurdwaras, various Assyrian Christian churches, many mainline Protestant and Roman Catholic churches have been built. During World War II, after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the U. S. government placed Japanese Americans into concentration camps all over the country. The Stanislaus County Fairgrounds was the site of one of fifteen temporary "assembly centers" and held 3,669 Japanese Americans, a majority of them U.
S. citizens. In 1960, California State University, opened to students, helping to spur growth in the city as the university expanded in its early years. In the 1970s, State Route 99 was completed through the area bypassing the then-incorporated areas of Turlock in a route to the west of the city through undeveloped land. Since that time, the city has grown westward to meet the freeway's north–south path, although urban development west of the freeway has only begun to take hold. In an attempt to allow for orderly growth of the city, comprehensive growth master plans have established urban growth boundaries since the 1960s. Turlock experienced extensive growth of both residential and commercial areas in the 1980s, following a statewide boom in housing demand and construction; the housing boom of the 1980s diminished in the early 1990s but increased again in the second half of the decade as a result of San Francisco Bay Area growth, which placed a higher demand for more affordable housing in outlying areas.
Following the dot-com bust, housing demand intensified, producing higher house prices in an area known for affordable housing. A recent boom in the retail sector has produced considerable growth along the Highway 99 corridor; the city reached its northern urban growth boundary, Taylor Road